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Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123957399, 9780323147378

Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs

1st Edition

Editor: Irvin Liener
eBook ISBN: 9780323147378
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 516
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Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs focuses on toxic substances in foods of plant origin, including protease inhibitors, hemagglutinins, goitrogens, cyanogens, saponins, gossypol, lathyrogens, and allergens. The book also considers adventitious toxic factors in processed foods and miscellaneous toxic factors such as stimulants and depressants, hypoglycemic agents, toxic amino acids, metal-binding constituents, and hepatotoxins.
This volume is organized into 13 chapters and begins with an overview of protease inhibitors, including their distribution in the plant kingdom, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of interaction with proteases. The next chapters focus on the adventitious introduction of toxic factors into processed plant foods; the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin found in legumes by cooking; and the extraction of a nontoxic, edible starch from cycads. The reader is also introduced to lathyrism, the toxicity of agglutinins, occurrence of goitrogens in thioglucoside-containing plants, and dietary sources of cyanogen.
This book will be of interest and value to food scientists who are concerned with the safety of food supply and public health officials tasked with enforcing regulations necessary to ensure the safety of a particular food.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Introduction



2. Protease Inhibitors

I. Introduction

II. Distribution in the Plant Kingdom

III. Physical and Chemical Properties of Inhibitors from Various Plants

IV. Specificity, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Reaction of Inhibitors with Proteases

V. Structural Features Essential for Activity

VI. Mechanism of Interaction with Proteases

VII. Nutritional and Physiological Significance of the Protease Inhibitors

VIII. Effect of Processing


3. Hemagglutinins

I. Introduction

II. Specific and Nonspecific Hemagglutinins

III. Comparative Toxicity of Agglutinins

IV. Preparation and Properties

V. Composition

VI. Mode of Action

VII. Detection

VIII. Detoxification and Significance

IX. Future Outlook


4. Goitrogens

I. Introduction

II. Crucifers of Economic Value

III. Thioglucoside Chemistry

IV. Chemically Identified Goitrogens in Thioglucoside-Containing Plants

V. Possible Relation of Simple Goiter to Crucifers in Food

VI. Goitrogens in Cow's Milk

VII. Feeding Studies with Seed Meals from Crucifers

VIII. Problems of Analysis

IX. Goitrogens from Plants with No Thioglucosides

X. Areas of Future Research


5. Cyanogens

I. Dietary Sources of Cyanogen

II. Chemistry of Cyanogenetic Glucosides

III. Human Metabolism of Inorganic Cyanide

IV. Toxicology of Cyanogenetic Plants


6. Cycads

I. Plant Characteristics

II. Medicinal Uses

III. Cycads as Foods

IV. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

V. Current Research

VI. Cycasin, the Toxic Principle

VII. Concluding Remarks


7. Saponins

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Composition and Structure

III. General Characteristics, Occurrence, Properties, and Uses

IV. Alfalfa Saponins

V. Soybean Saponins

VI. Saponins in other Foods and Feeds

VII. Methods for Identification and Quantitative Determination of Saponins

VIII. General Remarks and Conclusions


8. Gossypol

I. Introduction

II. Gossypol Pigments

III. Occurrence in Cottonseed

IV. Isolation, Reactions, and Analysis of Gossypol

V. Gossypol in Meals, Oils, and Soapstock

VI. Role of Gossypol in Utilization of Cottonseed Meal

VII. Physiological Effects

VIII. Utilization

IX. Summary


9. Lathyrogens

I. Introduction

II. History

III. Compounds with Osteolathyrogenic Activity

IV. Compounds with Neurolathyrogenic Activity

V. Biosynthesis of Lathyrogens

VI. Analytical Procedures for Detection and Estimation

VII. L. savitus as Food

VIII. Concluding Remarks


10. Favism

I. Favism as an Inborn Error of Metabolism: Epidemiological, Genetic, and Enzymological Aspects of the Disease

II. The Selective Toxicity of Fava Beans: Search for the Causative Agent of Favism

III. The Mechanism of the Biochemical Lesion Underlying Red Cell Destruction in Drug-Induced Hemolysis and Favism

IV. Concluding Remarks


11. Allergens

I. Introduction

II. Clinical Disorders

III. Detection of Food Allergens

IV. Immunological Aspects

V. Specific Food Allergens

VI. Summary


12. Adventitious Toxic Factors in Processed Foods

I. Introduction

II. Problems of Raw Materials

III. Food Additives

IV. Factors Arising from Processing

V. Accidental Chemical Contaminants

VI. Conclusions


13. Miscellaneous Toxic Factors

I. Introduction

II. Estrogenic Factors

III. Stimulants and Depressants

IV. Hypoglycemic Agents

V. Hepatotoxins

VI. Toxic Amino Acids

VII. Antivitamin Factors

VIII. Antienzymes

IX. Metal-Binding Constituents

X. Flatus-Producing Factors

XI. Other Plants with Toxic Constituents


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1969
1st January 1969
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Irvin Liener

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