Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs

Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs

1st Edition - January 1, 1969

Write a review

  • Editor: Irvin Liener
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147378

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs focuses on toxic substances in foods of plant origin, including protease inhibitors, hemagglutinins, goitrogens, cyanogens, saponins, gossypol, lathyrogens, and allergens. The book also considers adventitious toxic factors in processed foods and miscellaneous toxic factors such as stimulants and depressants, hypoglycemic agents, toxic amino acids, metal-binding constituents, and hepatotoxins. This volume is organized into 13 chapters and begins with an overview of protease inhibitors, including their distribution in the plant kingdom, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of interaction with proteases. The next chapters focus on the adventitious introduction of toxic factors into processed plant foods; the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin found in legumes by cooking; and the extraction of a nontoxic, edible starch from cycads. The reader is also introduced to lathyrism, the toxicity of agglutinins, occurrence of goitrogens in thioglucoside-containing plants, and dietary sources of cyanogen. This book will be of interest and value to food scientists who are concerned with the safety of food supply and public health officials tasked with enforcing regulations necessary to ensure the safety of a particular food.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1. Introduction



    2. Protease Inhibitors

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution in the Plant Kingdom

    III. Physical and Chemical Properties of Inhibitors from Various Plants

    IV. Specificity, Stoichiometry, and Kinetics of Reaction of Inhibitors with Proteases

    V. Structural Features Essential for Activity

    VI. Mechanism of Interaction with Proteases

    VII. Nutritional and Physiological Significance of the Protease Inhibitors

    VIII. Effect of Processing


    3. Hemagglutinins

    I. Introduction

    II. Specific and Nonspecific Hemagglutinins

    III. Comparative Toxicity of Agglutinins

    IV. Preparation and Properties

    V. Composition

    VI. Mode of Action

    VII. Detection

    VIII. Detoxification and Significance

    IX. Future Outlook


    4. Goitrogens

    I. Introduction

    II. Crucifers of Economic Value

    III. Thioglucoside Chemistry

    IV. Chemically Identified Goitrogens in Thioglucoside-Containing Plants

    V. Possible Relation of Simple Goiter to Crucifers in Food

    VI. Goitrogens in Cow's Milk

    VII. Feeding Studies with Seed Meals from Crucifers

    VIII. Problems of Analysis

    IX. Goitrogens from Plants with No Thioglucosides

    X. Areas of Future Research


    5. Cyanogens

    I. Dietary Sources of Cyanogen

    II. Chemistry of Cyanogenetic Glucosides

    III. Human Metabolism of Inorganic Cyanide

    IV. Toxicology of Cyanogenetic Plants


    6. Cycads

    I. Plant Characteristics

    II. Medicinal Uses

    III. Cycads as Foods

    IV. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    V. Current Research

    VI. Cycasin, the Toxic Principle

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    7. Saponins

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Composition and Structure

    III. General Characteristics, Occurrence, Properties, and Uses

    IV. Alfalfa Saponins

    V. Soybean Saponins

    VI. Saponins in other Foods and Feeds

    VII. Methods for Identification and Quantitative Determination of Saponins

    VIII. General Remarks and Conclusions


    8. Gossypol

    I. Introduction

    II. Gossypol Pigments

    III. Occurrence in Cottonseed

    IV. Isolation, Reactions, and Analysis of Gossypol

    V. Gossypol in Meals, Oils, and Soapstock

    VI. Role of Gossypol in Utilization of Cottonseed Meal

    VII. Physiological Effects

    VIII. Utilization

    IX. Summary


    9. Lathyrogens

    I. Introduction

    II. History

    III. Compounds with Osteolathyrogenic Activity

    IV. Compounds with Neurolathyrogenic Activity

    V. Biosynthesis of Lathyrogens

    VI. Analytical Procedures for Detection and Estimation

    VII. L. savitus as Food

    VIII. Concluding Remarks


    10. Favism

    I. Favism as an Inborn Error of Metabolism: Epidemiological, Genetic, and Enzymological Aspects of the Disease

    II. The Selective Toxicity of Fava Beans: Search for the Causative Agent of Favism

    III. The Mechanism of the Biochemical Lesion Underlying Red Cell Destruction in Drug-Induced Hemolysis and Favism

    IV. Concluding Remarks


    11. Allergens

    I. Introduction

    II. Clinical Disorders

    III. Detection of Food Allergens

    IV. Immunological Aspects

    V. Specific Food Allergens

    VI. Summary


    12. Adventitious Toxic Factors in Processed Foods

    I. Introduction

    II. Problems of Raw Materials

    III. Food Additives

    IV. Factors Arising from Processing

    V. Accidental Chemical Contaminants

    VI. Conclusions


    13. Miscellaneous Toxic Factors

    I. Introduction

    II. Estrogenic Factors

    III. Stimulants and Depressants

    IV. Hypoglycemic Agents

    V. Hepatotoxins

    VI. Toxic Amino Acids

    VII. Antivitamin Factors

    VIII. Antienzymes

    IX. Metal-Binding Constituents

    X. Flatus-Producing Factors

    XI. Other Plants with Toxic Constituents


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 516
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1969
  • Published: January 1, 1969
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147378

About the Editor

Irvin Liener

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs"