Torques and Attitude Sensing in Earth Satellites - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123957764, 9780323162388

Torques and Attitude Sensing in Earth Satellites

1st Edition

Editors: S. Fred Singer
eBook ISBN: 9780323162388
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 276
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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Volume 7: Torques and Attitude Sensing in Earth Satellites focuses on the possible torques that can affect the angular momentum of an Earth satellite. This book provides an understanding of the environment in which a satellite operates.
Organized into 16 chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the application of force-free motion to space programs. This text then discusses the torque effects of a gravitational field, particularly with its gradient. Other chapters consider a particular method of gravity-gradient stabilization that utilizes a passive device to damp librations and thereby attain a vertical orientation. This book discusses as well the effects of the geomagnetic field on the angular motion of a satellite. The reader is also introduced to the method of magnetic attitude control employed in the Tiros satellite. The final chapter deals with the problem of horizon sensing, which is important for satellites requiring Earth stabilization. Astrophysicists will find this book useful.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Rotational Motion of Passive Space Vehicles

I. Introduction

II. Stability Conditions for Almost-Rigid Satellites; the Energy-Sink Approximation

III. Damping of an Initial Wobble in a Stable Satellite

IV. Control of Wobble Buildup in Unstable Satellites


2. Passive Gravity-Gradient Stabilization Earth Satellites

I. Introduction

II. Theory of Gravity-Gradient Attitude Stabilization

III. Procedure for Achieving Stabilization

IV. Design of the Damping Spring

V. Effect of Perturbing Torques

VI. Conclusions


3. The Application of Gyrostabilizers to Orbiting Vehicles

I. Introduction

II. The Satellite Damping and Stabilization Problem

III. Coordinate Reference Frames

IV. The Satellite as a Gyro Element

V. Attitude Control Systems Using Gyrostabilizers

VI. Limitations on Attainable Settling Time

VII. Optimization Criteria and Techniques for the Vertical-Vee Configuration

VIII. Further Satellite Applications for Gyrostabilizers

IX. Summary and Conclusions


4. Generalized Gravity-Gradient Torques

I. Introduction

II. Basic Relationships

III. Some General Properties

IV. Equilibrium States

V. Stability of Equilibrium

VI. Torques


5. Aerodynamic and Radiation Disturbance Torques on Satellites Having Complex Geometry

I. Introduction

II. Aerodynamic Analysis

III. Radiation Analysis

IV. Shielding

V. Conclusion

Appendix. Symbols


6. Forces and Torques Due to Coulomb Interaction with the Magnetosphere

I. Introduction

II. The Electric Charge of Space Vehicles

III. Calculation of Coulomb Force

IV. Some Vehicle Applications

V. Control Applications

VI. Some Scientific Applications

Appendix. Calculation of the Charged Drag in a Plasma


7. Dynamical Considerations Relating to the West Ford Experiment

I. Introduction

II. Outline of Effects Involved

III. Change of Rotation Axis of the Package as a Whole

IV. Analysis of Needle Dispensing

V. Elastic Dissipation

VI. Analysis of Needle Dispersion


8. Exploitation of Magnetic Torques on Satellites

I. Introduction; Scientific Terminology

II. Magnetic Torque Studies without Satellites

III. Magnetic Torque Studies on Satellites

IV. Actual and Possible Exploitation on Satellites


9. Magnetic Attitude Control of the Tiros Satellites

I. Introduction

II. Perturbing Torques

III. Magnetic Attitude Control Electronics

IV. MAC System Experimental Results


10. Satellite Angular Momentum Removal Utilizing the Earth's Magnetic Field

I. Introduction

II. Coordinate Systems and Notation

III. Basic Magnetic Control Concepts

IV. General Control System, Description and Implementation

V. Magnetic Momentum Removal for an Earth-Tracking Satellite

Appendix. Mathematical Model for the Earth's Magnetic Field


11. Torques and Attitude Sensing in Spin-Stabilized Synchronous Satellites

I. Introduction

II. Attitude Sensing

III. Nutation

IV. Effects of Jet Pulsing

V. Disturbing Torques

VI. Conclusions


12. On the Motion of Explorer XI around Its Center of Mass

I. Observed Motion and Its Possible Explanation

II. Evaluation of Torques and Analysis of Motion


13. An Investigation of the Observed Torques Acting on Explorer XI

I. Introduction

II. Method of Orientation Determination

III. Results of the Orientation Determination

IV. Conclusions


14. Horizon Sensing in the Infrared: Theoretical Considerations of Spectral Radiance

I. Introduction

II. Path Length in the Curved, Refractive Atmosphere

III. Transmittance

IV. Calculation of Spectral Radiance

V. Results


15. Horizon Sensing for Attitude Determination

I. Introduction

II. Physical Phenomena Which May Be Used to Define the Horizon

III. Scanning Schemes

IV. Programs Which Use Horizon Scanning

V. Horizon Scanning Accuracy

VI. Conclusion


16. Earth Scan Analog Signal Relationships in the Tiros Radiation Experiment and their Application to the Problem of Horizon Sensing

I. Introduction

II. Instrumentation and Calibration

III. Selected Examples

IV. Summary and Conclusions


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1964
Academic Press
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About the Editor

S. Fred Singer

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