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Titanium Powder Metallurgy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000540, 9780128009109

Titanium Powder Metallurgy

1st Edition

Science, Technology and Applications

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Editors: Ma Qian Francis Froes
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128000540
eBook ISBN: 9780128009109
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 6th February 2015
Page Count: 648
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Description

Titanium Powder Metallurgy contains the most comprehensive and authoritative information for, and understanding of, all key issues of titanium powder metallurgy (Ti PM). It summarizes the past, reviews the present and discusses the future of the science and technology of Ti PM while providing the world titanium community with a unique and comprehensive book covering all important aspects of titanium powder metallurgy, including powder production, powder processing, green shape formation, consolidation, property evaluation, current industrial applications and future developments. It documents the fundamental understanding and technological developments achieved since 1937 and demonstrates why powder metallurgy now offers a cost-effective approach to the near net or net shape fabrication of titanium, titanium alloys and titanium metal matrix composites for a wide variety of industrial applications.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive and in-depth treatment of the science, technology and industrial practice of titanium powder metallurgy
  • Each chapter is delivered by the most knowledgeable expert on the topic, half from industry and half from academia, including several pioneers in the field, representing our current knowledge base of Ti PM.
  • Includes a critical review of the current key fundamental and technical issues of Ti PM.
  • Fills a critical knowledge gap in powder metal science and engineering and in the manufacture of titanium metal and alloys

Readership

Titanium and powder metallurgy engineers and researchers, titanium powder and parts producers, graduate students in metallurgy and light alloys

Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • 1: A historical perspective of titanium powder metallurgy
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. The early years (late 1940s to early 1950s)
    • 1.3. The 1980 TMS Conference
    • 1.4. Developments 1980–present
    • 1.5. Developments in the PA/HIP technology
    • 1.6. The BE method
    • 1.7. Metal injection molding
    • 1.8. Additive manufacturing
    • 1.9. Other developments
    • 1.10. Research-based processes
    • 1.11. The 2011 conference on titanium PM
    • 1.12. Thoughts for the future
    • Acknowledgments
  • 2: Conventional titanium powder production
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Prealloyed spherical powder (conventional titanium powder production)
    • 2.3. Gas atomization
    • 2.4. Plasma rotating electrode process
    • 2.5. Electrode induction–melting gas atomization
    • 2.6. Plasma atomization
    • 2.7. Induction plasma spheroidization
    • 2.8. Conclusions
  • 3: Production of titanium powder by an electrolytic method and compaction of the powder
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. New and advanced processing
    • 3.3. Electrolytic production of titanium powder
    • 3.4. Titanium alloy powder
    • 3.5. Compaction of electrolytically produced titanium powder
  • 4: Titanium powder production via the Metalysis process
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. FFC® process overview
    • 4.3. Preforms: evolution to elimination
    • 4.4. Titanium alloys via the FFC® process
    • 4.5. Metalysis titanium powder characterization
    • 4.6. Additive manufacturing (AM)
    • 4.7. Hot isostatic pressing
    • 4.8. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot rolling
    • 4.9. Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • 5: Direct titanium powder production by metallothermic processes
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Precursors
    • 5.3. Reducing agents
    • 5.4. Reactor type
    • 5.5. Separation principle
    • 5.6. Recent developments
    • 5.7. Concluding remarks
  • 6: Research-based titanium powder metallurgy processes
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Rapid solidification, mechanical alloying, and vapor deposition
    • 6.3. Thermohydrogen processing (THP)
    • 6.4. Porous structures
    • Acknowledgments
  • 7: Titanium powders from the hydride–dehydride process
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. HDH titanium feedstock
    • 7.3. The HDH process
    • 7.4. The hydriding process
    • 7.5. The dehydriding process
    • 7.6. Dehydride recovery
    • 7.7. Magnetic separation and acid washing
    • 7.8. Interstitial contents
    • 7.9. Screening and screen specifications
    • 7.10. Laser specifications
    • 7.11. Powder morphologies
    • 7.12. Spherical powders
    • 7.13. Summary
  • 8: Low-cost titanium hydride powder metallurgy
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Titanium hydride: physical and mechanical properties and phase transformations upon heating
    • 8.3. Surface contamination of titanium hydride powder
    • 8.4. PM processing of CP Ti
    • 8.5. BEPM processing of titanium alloys
    • 8.6. Production of hydrogenated titanium powder
    • 8.7. Scaling up titanium hydride powder metallurgy
  • 9: Production of titanium by the Armstrong Process®
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Process overview
    • 9.2. Powder characteristics
    • 9.3. Compaction
    • 9.4. Densification
    • 9.5. Spheroidization
  • 10: Hydrogen sintering of titanium and its alloys
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Background and history
    • 10.3. HSPT process description
    • 10.4. Typical results
    • 10.5. Cost and energy savings
    • 10.6. Conclusions
  • 11: Warm compaction of titanium and titanium alloy powders
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Warm compaction process
    • 11.3. Compaction pressure
    • 11.4. Compaction temperature
    • 11.5. Particle shape effects on Ti powder warm compaction
    • 11.6. Mechanical properties of sintered titanium and titanium alloy powder compacts produced by warm compaction
    • 11.7. Applications
  • 12: Pressureless sintering of titanium and titanium alloys: sintering densification and solute homogenization
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Stability of the surface titanium oxide film
    • 12.3. Sintering of CP-Ti
    • 12.4. Sintering of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al
    • 12.5. Sintering of Ti-6Al-4V
    • 12.6. Enhanced densification with sintering aids
    • 12.7. Conclusion remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • 13: Spark plasma sintering and hot pressing of titanium and titanium alloys
    • Abstract
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. HP of CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V
    • 13.3. SPS of CP-Ti
    • 13.4. SPS of Ti-6Al-4V from EMA powder mixtures and PA powder
    • 13.5. Comparison of SPS and HP
    • 13.6. Conclusion remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • 14: Microwave sintering of titanium and titanium alloys
    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Heating of metal powders by microwaves
    • 14.3. Heating of Ti powder by microwaves
    • 14.4. Sintering densification
    • 14.5. Mechanical properties
    • 14.6. Microwave heating and sintering of titanium hydride powder
    • 14.7. Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • 15: Scavenging of oxygen and chlorine from powder metallurgy (PM) titanium and titanium alloys
    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. The effect of oxygen on ductility of Ti materials
    • 15.3. Scavenging of oxygen from PM Ti and Ti alloys
    • 15.4. Impact of chlorine on PM Ti materials
    • 15.5. Scavenging of chlorine from PM Ti and Ti alloys
    • 15.6. Scavenging of oxygen in additively manufactured Ti alloys and reaction kinetics
    • 15.7. Concluding remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • 16: Titanium metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy (PM) routes
    • Abstract
    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Materials design and processing of TMCs
    • 16.3. Carbon fiber–reinforced TMCs
    • 16.4. Atomic-scale reinforced TMCs with solute light elements
  • 17: Titanium alloy components manufacture from blended elemental powder and the qualification process
    • Abstract
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. The CHIP PM process
    • 17.3. Titanium metal matrix composites
    • 17.4. Commercial products
    • 17.5. The Boeing qualification process
    • 17.6. Industry specification for PM titanium alloys
    • 17.7. The shape-making capability
    • 17.8. Conclusions
  • 18: Fabrication of near-net-shape cost-effective titanium components by use of prealloyed powders and hot isostatic pressing
    • Abstract
    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. The ceramic mold process
    • 18.3. The metal can process
    • 18.4. Problems and solutions
    • 18.5. Analysis and conclusions
  • 19: Metal injection molding of titanium
    • Abstract
    • 19.1. The MIM process and market
    • 19.2. Titanium MIM
    • 19.3. Powders and powder handling
    • 19.4. Binder systems
    • 19.5. Debinding and sintering
    • 19.6. Properties of specific alloys processed by MIM
    • 19.7. Perspectives
  • 20: Powder-processing linkages to properties for complex titanium shapes by injection molding
    • Abstract
    • 20.1. Introduction
    • 20.2. Powders for Ti-MIM
    • 20.3. Key Ti-MIM success factors
    • 20.4. Optimized Ti-MIM processing
    • 20.5. Components design factors
    • 20.6. Summary
  • 21: Titanium sheet fabrication from powder
    • Abstract
    • 21.1. Introduction
    • 21.2. Direct powder rolling and consolidation
    • 21.3. Summary
  • 22: Cold-spray processing of titanium and titanium alloys
    • Abstract
    • 22.1. Introduction
    • 22.2. Process description
    • 22.3. Cold-spray principles
    • 22.4. Properties of deposited material
    • 22.5. Process–microstructure–property relationships
    • 22.6. Applications
    • 22.7. Status and future
  • 23: Thermal spray forming of titanium and its alloys
    • Abstract
    • 23.1. Introduction to thermal spray
    • 23.2. Titanium and titanium alloy feedstock characteristics
    • 23.3. Deposition of titanium and titanium alloy coatings
    • 23.4. Microstructure of titanium coatings
    • 23.5. Potential applications
    • 23.6. Summary
    • Acknowledgements
  • 24: The additive manufacturing (AM) of titanium alloys
    • Abstract
    • 24.1. Introduction
    • 24.2. Technology overview
    • 24.3. Titanium AM applications
    • 24.4. Microstructure and mechanical properties
    • 24.5. Economics of AM
    • 24.6. Research and development
    • 24.7. Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • 25: Powder-based titanium alloys: properties and selection
    • Abstract
    • 25.1. Mechanical properties of PM titanium alloys
    • 25.2. Selection of powder processes and materials
  • 26: A realistic approach for qualification of PM applications in the aerospace industry
    • Abstract
    • 26.1. Introduction
    • 26.2. A brief history of Ti powder metallurgy in the United States
    • 26.3. Assessment of the current status of Ti PM and its potential
    • 26.4. Qualification requirements
    • 26.5. Other development areas
    • 26.6. Additive manufacturing (AM)
    • 26.7. Summary
  • 27: Powder metallurgy titanium aluminide alloys
    • Abstract
    • 27.1. Introduction
    • 27.2. Preparation of PA TiAl powder
    • 27.3. Consolidation of TiAl powder
    • 27.4. Hot deformation of PM TiAl-based alloys
    • 27.5. Properties of PM TiAl-based alloys
    • 27.6. Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • 28: Porous titanium structures and applications
    • Abstract
    • 28.1. Introduction
    • 28.2. Porous titanium structures
    • 28.3. Properties of porous titanium
    • 28.4. Commercial applications
    • 28.5. Concluding remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • 29: Microstructural characterization of as-sintered titanium and titanium alloys
    • Abstract
    • 29.1. Introduction
    • 29.2. Microstructural features of PM Ti and Ti alloys
    • 29.3. Common phases in PM Ti and Ti alloys
    • 29.4. Analytical techniques for microstructural characterization of PM Ti and Ti alloys
    • 29.5. Concluding remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • 30: Future prospects for titanium powder metallurgy markets
    • Abstract
    • 30.1. Introduction
    • 30.2. Current markets for titanium
    • 30.3. New product opportunities in established market sectors
    • 30.4. Health care
    • 30.5. Jewelry
    • 30.6. Other sectors
    • 30.7. Prospects for developing applications in new market sectors – automotive and general engineering
    • 30.8. Concluding discussion
  • 31: A perspective on the future of titanium powder metallurgy
    • Abstract
    • 31.1. Introduction
    • 31.2. Prealloyed plus HIP
    • 31.3. Blended elemental
    • 31.4. Additive manufacturing
    • 31.5. Metal injection molding
    • 31.6. Cold spray forming
    • 31.7. Concluding remarks
    • Acknowledgments
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
648
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2015
Published:
6th February 2015
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128000540
eBook ISBN:
9780128009109

About the Editors

Ma Qian

Dr Ma Qian is a Distinguished Professor of the School of Engineering at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), Melbourne, Australia. His current research interests include metal additive manufacturing, powder metallurgy of light metals and alloys, solidification processing, metallic biomaterials, high entropy and medium entropy alloys, biomimetic design and lattice materials. He has published 225 peer-reviewed journal papers (nearly 100 papers on titanium), which have attracted more than 8200 Scopus citations as of November 2019 (>7300 excluding self-citations). He initiated the biennial international conference on Titanium Powder Metallurgy in 2011 (co-sponsored by Materials Australia, TiDA, TMS, JSPM and CSM) and served as the Organising Committee Chair and Conference Co-Chair for the Asia-Pacific International Conference on Additive Manufacturing (2017 and 2019). Currently, He serves as an editorial member for a number of journals, including as an Associate Editor for both Acta Materialia and Scripta Materialia.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

Francis Froes

Dr. Froes has been involved in the Titanium field with an emphasis on Powder Metallurgy (P/M) for more than 40 years. He was employed by a primary Titanium producer—Crucible Steel Company—where he was leader of the Titanium group. He was the program manager on a multi-million dollar US Air Force (USAF) contract on Titanium P/M. He then spent time at the USAF Materials Lab where he was supervisor of the Light Metals group (which included Titanium). This was followed by 17 years at the University of Idaho where he was a Director and Department Head of the Materials Science and Engineering Department. He has over 800 publications, in excess of 60 patents, and has edited almost 30 books—the majority on various aspects of Titanium again with an emphasis on P/M. He gave the key-note presentation at the first TDA (ITA) Conference. In recent years he has co-sponsored four TMS Symposia on Cost Effective Titanium featuring numerous papers on P/M. He is a Fellow of ASM, is a member of the Russian Academy of Science, and was awarded the Service to Powder Metallurgy by the Metal Powder Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Materials Science and Engineering Department and Institute for Materials and Advanced Processes, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA

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