Thyroid Cancer and Nuclear Accidents - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128127681, 9780128127698

Thyroid Cancer and Nuclear Accidents

1st Edition

Long-Term Aftereffects of Chernobyl and Fukushima

Editors: Shunichi Yamashita Geraldine Thomas
eBook ISBN: 9780128127698
Paperback ISBN: 9780128127681
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 31st March 2017
Page Count: 246
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Description

Thyroid Cancer and Nuclear Accidents: Long-Term Aftereffects of Chernobyl and Fukushima discusses the radiobiological effects of the release of radioiodine from two nuclear power plant accidents and appropriate interpretation of the results of thyroid ultrasound examination. The book pulls together expert opinion on radiation related thyroid cancer in an understandable manner, even for non thyroidologists.

The book explains what has been learned from both accidents in relation to prevention of thyroid cancer following nuclear power plant accidents. The book encompasses topics such as risk estimations of thyroid cancer following nuclear accidents and clinical aspects after those specific situations. Additionally, it discusses in detail the reports from Fukushima related to thyroid cancer in the population. This book is a valuable resource for oncologists and biomedical researchers with interest in nuclear accidents and cancer cases.

Key Features

  • Offers an overview of the major cancer reports from the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters
  • Encompasses authoritative data and interpretation of the thyroid screening program in Japan
  • Presents the content in a didactic way to help readers interpret and explain the topic to non-experts
  • Discusses risk estimations of thyroid cancer following nuclear accidents

Readership

Oncologists; cancer researchers; endocrinologists; thyroid physicians

Table of Contents

Thirty Years After Chernobyl and 5 After Fukushima—What Have We Learnt and What Do We Still Need to Know?

  • Introduction
  • The Relationship Between Dose and Response
  • Dose and Health Risks Associated With Radiation Exposure
  • What Have We Learnt From Chernobyl?
  • What Should We Learn From Fukushima?
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Part I: Overview: Keynote Lectures

Chapter 1. Thirty Years After Chernobyl—Overview of the Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Based Upon the UNSCEAR Scientific Reports (2008–2012)

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Dose and Risk Assessment Methodologies
  • Evidence on Thyroid Exposure and Cancer Risk After the Chernobyl Accident
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading

Chapter 2. Thirty Years After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Contribution From Japan—“Confirming the Increase of Childhood Thyroid Cancer”

  • Abstract
  • The Initial Circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP Accident
  • The Era of Analyzing Authenticity and Cause of Increased Childhood Thyroid Cancer Around Chernobyl
  • The Fukushima Health Management Survey With Regard to Thyroid Ultrasound Examinations
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 3. From Chernobyl to Fukushima and Beyond—A Focus on Thyroid Cancer

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Fukushima is Not Chernobyl
  • Much is Known about Radiation-Induced Thyroid Cancer
  • Radiation Dose to the Public From the Fukushima Reactor Accident is Tiny
  • Surveys Are Not Scientific Studies
  • Mental Health Problems Are an Immediate Effect From the Fukushima Accident
  • Excess Thyroid Cancers From Screening Are an Artifact and Not Radiation-Related
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 4. Reassessing the Capability to Attribute Pediatric Thyroid Cancer to Radiation Exposure: The FHMS Experience

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Fukushima Thyroid Question
  • UNSCEAR Judgment on Attributability
  • Specific Difficulties for Attributing Pediatric Cancers to Radiation
  • Questioning the Predictions on Attribution
  • The Consequences of Erroneous Attribution
  • Conclusion: New Lights on Attribution From the FHMS Findings
  • References
  • Further Reading

Part II: Chernobyl + 30

Chapter 5. Post-Chernobyl Pediatric Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Belarus: Histopathological Features, Treatment Strategy, and Long-Term Outcome

  • Abstract
  • Post-Chernobyl Pediatric Thyroid Cancer
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 6. Clinical Aspects of Pediatric Thyroid Cancer and Follow-Up of Patients in Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accident

  • Abstract
  • Method
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References

Chapter 7. Long-Term Analysis of the Incidence and Histopathology of Thyroid Cancer in Ukraine in Adult Patients Who Were Children and Adolescents at the Time of the Chernobyl Accident

  • Abstract
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Chapter 8. Thyroid Cancer Risk in Ukraine Following the Chernobyl Accident (The Ukrainian–American Cohort Thyroid Study)

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Cohort
  • Screening Procedures
  • Dosimetry
  • Findings and Discussion
  • References

Chapter 9. Results of the Thyroid Cancer Epidemiological Survey in Russia Following the Chernobyl Accident

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Assessment of the Risk of Thyroid Cancer and the Effects of Screening in the Cohort Drawn From the Russian Population Exposed to Radiation Following the Chernobyl Accident
  • Registration of Thyroid Cancer in Children Exposed to Radiation Due to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 10. Influence of Radiation Exposure and Ultrasound Screening on the Clinical Behavior of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Young Patients

  • Abstract
  • Patients
  • Study Design
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 11. Results of Treatment in Children and Adolescents With Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Not Exposed and Exposed to Radiation From the Chernobyl Accident

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Further Reading

Chapter 12. Somatic Genomics of Childhood Thyroid Cancer

  • Abstract
  • Somatic Genomics of Young-Onset Papillary Thyroid Cancer
  • Studies on MAP Kinase Pathway Activation
  • DNA Copy Number Alterations
  • Gene Expression
  • Summary
  • References
  • Further Reading

Part III: Fukushima + 5

Chapter 13. A Review of Studies on Thyroid Dose Estimation After the Fukushima Accident

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Estimation by International Organizations
  • Estimation Reported by Japanese Research Groups
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 14. Five-Year Interim Report of Thyroid Ultrasound Examinations in the Fukushima Health Management Survey

  • Abstract
  • Background
  • Interim Report of First- and Second-Round Thyroid Ultrasound Examinations
  • Dose Estimation and Thyroid Cancer Detection in the Early Phase After the Accident
  • Cancer Driver Gene Mutation Profile
  • Thyroid Cancer Screening and Potential Overdiagnosis
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 15. The Features of Childhood and Adolescent Thyroid Cancer After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Chapter 16. Psychosocial Impact of the Thyroid Examination of the Fukushima Health Management Survey

  • Abstract
  • Thyroid Cancer Screening Following the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident
  • Potential Benefits and Harms of Thyroid Cancer Screening
  • Issues of Thyroid Ultrasound Examinations in the Fukushima Health Management Survey
  • Addressing Psychosocial Issues Arising From Thyroid Examinations in Fukushima
  • Challenges for Making Thyroid Examinations Acceptable to Residents, and Future Perspectives
  • References

Chapter 17. Thyroid Cancer Screening and Overdiagnosis in Korea

  • Abstract
  • Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer
  • Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer
  • Evidence for the Increased Incidence of Thyroid Cancer Being a Result of Increased Detection
  • Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Overdiagnosis in Korea
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 18. Management of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Japan

  • Abstract
  • Traditional Management of Patients with PTC in Japan
  • Risk-Adapted Management of PTC Based on Risk-Group Classification System
  • Management of Papillary Microcarcinoma
  • Management Policy of Low-Risk PTC in Japan
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Part IV: International Report

Chapter 19. UNSCEAR Activities Related to the 2011 Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident

  • Abstract
  • Background to UNSCEAR
  • UNSCEAR 2013 Report on the Levels and Effects of Exposure After the Accident
  • Follow-Up to the 2013 Report
  • Relevance of Outreach Activities
  • Fukushima Compared With Chernobyl
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading

Chapter 20. The Radiological Consequences of the Fukushima Dai’ichi NPP Accident: Estimates From the Group of Experts Convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The IAEA Report
  • Estimates of the Radiological Consequences
  • Conclusion
  • References

Details

No. of pages:
246
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128127698
Paperback ISBN:
9780128127681

About the Editor

Shunichi Yamashita

Shunichi Yamashita graduated from Nagasaki University School of Medicine in March 1978 and spent almost three years from July 1984 to March 1987 as an endocrine research fellow at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. In 1990, Dr. Yamashita became a full Professor of Molecular Medicine and International Radiation Health at the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. He has been deeply involved in Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk medical aid projects for more than 25 years. Professor Yamashita is the Adviser to the Governor of Fukushima Prefecture on Health Risk Management. He was dispatched from Nagasaki University to Fukushima since the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and assumed the position of Director of Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. In April 2013 Professor Yamashita returned officially to Nagasaki University as the Trustee and Vice-President. Currently he serves as Senior Director of the FMU Radiation Medical Science Center. He was the former President of the Japan Thyroid Association and also a council member of the Asia & Oceania Thyroid Association, and Director of the WHO collaborating center for research on Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. He is also the member of Science Council of Japan

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Director, FMU Radiation Medical Science Center and Vice-president, Nagasaki University, Japan

Geraldine Thomas

Gerry Thomas is Professor of Molecular Pathology at Imperial College and is committed to developing infrastructures for research into molecular mechanisms of cancer. She strongly believes that public involvement and information is a key part of academic research, and is actively involved in the public communication of research, particularly with respect to radiation protection and biobanking. She has carried out research into the health effects of the Chernobyl accident since 1992, and established the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) in 1998. The CTB has provided infrastructural support (both physical and ethical) in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia for thyroid cancer diagnosis and research into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the increase in thyroid cancer seen after the Chernobyl accident. The project provides a platform for a systems biology approach to exploring these mechanisms and supports tissue collection for international epidemiology studies. Gerry has published extensively on the molecular pathology of thyroid cancer, and is an author of a number of reviews of the health effects of radiation exposure following nuclear accidents. Following the Fukushima accident, she was asked to explain the health risks of radiation on both broadcast and written media in the UK and internationally.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chair in Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College, London, UK