Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization

Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization

Fundamentals, Technology, and Applications

1st Edition - September 29, 2015

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  • Editor: Tommaso Baldacchini
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323353212
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323354059

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Description

Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) is the first comprehensive guide to TPP microfabrication—essential reading for researchers and engineers in areas where miniaturization of complex structures is key, such as in the optics, microelectronics, and medical device industries. TPP stands out among microfabrication techniques because of its versatility, low costs, and straightforward chemistry. TPP microfabrication attracts increasing attention among researchers and is increasingly employed in a range of industries where miniaturization of complex structures is crucial: metamaterials, plasmonics, tissue engineering, and microfluidics, for example. Despite its increasing importance and potential for many more applications, no single book to date is dedicated to the subject. This comprehensive guide, edited by Professor Baldacchini and written by internationally renowned experts, fills this gap and includes a unified description of TPP microfabrication across disciplines. The guide covers all aspects of TPP, including the pros and cons of TPP microfabrication compared to other techniques, as well as practical information on material selection, equipment, processes, and characterization. Current and future applications are covered and case studies provided as well as challenges for adoption of TPP microfabrication techniques in other areas are outlined. The freeform capability of TPP is illustrated with numerous scanning electron microscopy images.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive account of TPP microfabrication, including both photophysical and photochemical aspects of the fabrication process
  • Comparison of TPP microfabrication with conventional and unconventional micromanufacturing techniques
  • Covering applications of TPP microfabrication in industries such as microelectronics, optics and medical devices industries, and includes case studies and potential future directions
  • Illustrates the freeform capability of TPP using numerous scanning electron microscopy images

Readership

Scientists involved in microfabrication/ generation of micro- and nano-patterns, in courses such as micromachining, advanced manufacturing and nanotechnology, and in departments of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Materials Science, Applied Physics, Biomedical Engineering and Physical and Polymer Chemistry

Table of Contents

  • 1: Laser Direct Writing for Additive Micro-Manufacturing

    • Chapter 1.1: Laser-Based Micro–Additive Manufacturing Technologies
      • Abstract
      • 1. Beyond Photolithography: Direct-Write Microfabrication
      • 2. Introduction to Nonlithographic Microfabrication Techniques
      • 3. Laser-Based Microfabrication
      • 4. Laser-Based Additive Microfabrication
      • 5. 2D Microfabrication by LIFT
      • 6. 3D Microfabrication by LIFT
      • 7. Parallelizing the LIFT Process
      • 8. Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1.2: Microstereolithography
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Rapid Prototyping and Stereolithography
      • 3. Improving Stereolithography Resolution
      • 4. Microstereolithography Techniques Based on a Scanning Principle
      • 5. Microstereolithography Techniques Based on a Projection Principle
      • 6. Microstereolithography Processes Having a Submicrometer Resolution
      • 7. Microfabrication with Microstereolithography
      • 8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 1.3: Fundamentals of Two-Photon Fabrication
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Nonlinear Absorption
      • 3. Photoresists
      • 4. Direct Fabrication in Other Materials
      • 5. Other Strategies

    Chapter 2: Free Radical Photopolymerization of Multifunctional Monomers

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Polymerization Stages and Rate Equations
    • 3. Effect of Diffusional Processes on Propagation and Termination Steps
    • 4. Effect of Polymerization Conditions on the Polymerization Kinetics
    • 5. Effect of Monomer Functionality and Structure
    • 6. Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgment

    Chapter 3: Reaction Mechanisms and In Situ Process Diagnostics

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Initiation
    • 3. Polymerization
    • 4. Conclusions

    Chapter 4: Mask-Directed Micro-3D Printing

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Conventional Micro-3D Printing Systems
    • 3. Mask-Directed Micro-3D Printing
    • 4. Conclusions and Considerations Toward the Future

    Chapter 5: Geometric Analysis and Computation Using Layered Depth-Normal Images for Three-Dimensional Microfabrication

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Background and Related Work
    • 3. Layered Depth-Normal Images and Related Computational Framework
    • 4. Conversion Between LDNIs and Polygonal Meshes
    • 5. LDNI-Based Geometric Operations
    • 6. Applications in 3D Microfabrication and Others
    • 7. Summary and Outlook
    • Acknowledgment

    Chapter 6: Motion Systems: An Overview of Linear, Air Bearing, and Piezo Stages

    • Abstract
    • 1. Terminology
    • 2. Mechanical Components
    • 3. Controller

    Chapter 7: Focusing Through High–Numerical Aperture Objective

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction of Diffraction and Optical Imaging
    • 2. Focusing Through High-NA Objective: Scalar Optical Fields
    • 3. Focusing Through High-NA Objective: Spatially Homogeneously Polarized Optical Fields
    • 4. Focusing Through High-NA Objective: Vectorial Optical Fields
    • 5. Focus Engineering with Vectorial Optical Fields
    • 6. Aberrations and Mitigations
    • 7. Discussion and Summary

    Chapter 8: Linewidth and Writing Resolution

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Linewidth
    • 3. Writing Resolution
    • 4. Two-Beam Strategy
    • 5. Diffusion-Assisted Approach
    • 6. Conclusions

    Chapter 9: Making Two-Photon Polymerization Faster

    • Abstract
    • 1. Motivation for Faster Fabrication
    • 2. Typical Speeds of Current Fabrication Methods
    • 3. Chemical Methods to Increase Speed
    • 4. Physical Methods to Increase Speed
    • 5. Engineering Methods to Increase Speed
    • 6. The Future of Fast Writing

    Chapter 10: Microstructures, Post-TPP Processing

    • Abstract
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Chemical Modification of Fabricated Polymer Surfaces
    • 3. Double Inversion
    • 4. Atomic Layer Deposition
    • 5. Electroplating Template
    • 6. Pyrolysis
    • 7. Multiphoton-induced Spatially Resolved Functionalization
    • 8. Conclusions

    Chapter 11: A Collection of Microsculptures

    • Abstract

    12: Applications

    • Chapter 12.1: 3D Micro-Optics Via Ultrafast Laser Writing: Miniaturization, Integration, and Multifunctionalities
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Optical Materials
      • 3. Micro-Optical Elements and Components
      • 4. Toward GRIN Micro-Optics
      • 5. Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 12.2: Remotely Driven Micromachines Produced by Two-Photon Microfabrication
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Fabrication Processes of Metallized Micromachines
      • 3. Fabrication of Copper-Coated Micromachines
      • 4. Release of Metallized Micromachines by Laser Ablation
      • 5. Optically Driven Metallized Micromachines
      • 6. Magnetically Driven Micromachines
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 12.3: Microfluidics
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Basics of Microfluidics
      • 3. Fabrication of Microfluidic Networks by 2PP
      • 4. Fabrication of Microfluidic Components by 2PP
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 12.4: Cell Motility and Nanolithography
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Experiments and Analysis
      • 3. Summary

    13: Challenges and Opportunities

    • Chapter 13.1: Fabrication of 3D Micro-Architected/Nano-Architected Materials
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Benefits of Architected Materials
      • 3. Benefits of Micro-Architectures/Nano-Architectures
      • 4. Modeling and Design Tools
      • 5. Established Fabrication Approaches
      • 6. Fabrication of Micro-Architected/Nano-Architected Materials with Two-Photon Polymerization Techniques: Challenges and Opportunities
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 13.2: Two-Photon Polymerization as a Component of Desktop Integrated Manufacturing Platforms
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. State of the Art of Maskless Material Patterning
      • 3. Applications with Special Manufacturing Requirements
      • 4. Integrated Photonic DIMPs
    • Chapter 13.3: Engineered Microenvironments for Cancer Study
      • Abstract
      • 1. Introduction to the Tumor Microenvironment
      • 2. Tumor Microengineering
      • 3. Cancer Biology Insights
      • 4. Therapeutic Insights
      • 5. Future Perspectives for “Mesoscale” Cancer Studies

    Appendix A: Basic Photoshop for Electron Microscopy

    Appendix B: Numerical Examples

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2015
  • Published: September 29, 2015
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323353212
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323354059

About the Editor

Tommaso Baldacchini

Tommaso Baldacchini works are the Schmid College of Science and Technology in Chapman University, Orange, USA

Affiliations and Expertise

Schmid College of Science and Technology, Chapman University, Orange, USA

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