Thermosets and Composites - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856174114, 9780080519203

Thermosets and Composites

1st Edition

Editors: M. Biron
Authors: Michel Biron
eBook ISBN: 9780080519203
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856174114
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 18th December 2003
Page Count: 536
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• A succinct source of information for designers and manufacturers.

• A decision-making tool for those who need a quick and pragmatic account of thermosets and composites.

• A synoptic account of the techno-economics and properties of all the commonly-used thermosets and composites.

Designers and manufacturers using thermosets and composites, or those intending to do so, often need a succinct source of information on the economics and properties of these materials. This book provides a synoptic approach.

It covers the economic importance of thermosets and composites, a comparison of the properties of the various thermoset categories, monographs on the nine principal families of thermosets, polymer composites and emergent materials and processes.

Will enable readers to make informed decisions leading to well designed and made products.


Designers and users of plastics, manufacturers of composites and thermosets, equipment manufacturers, R&D scientists and some academic departments.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Outline of the actual situation of plastics versus conventional materials

1.1 Polymers: the industrial and economic reality compared to traditional materials

1.1.1 Plastic and metal consumption

1.1.2 Mechanical properties Intrinsic mechanical properties Specific mechanical properties

1.1.3 Thermal and electrical properties

1.1.4 Durability

1.1.5 Material costs Cost per weight of various materials Cost per volume of various materials [Performances/cost per litre] ratios of various materials

1.2 What are thermosets, composites and hybrids?

1.2.1 Thermosets

1.2.2 Polymer composites

1.2.3 Hybrid materials

1.3 Plastics: an answer to the main designer's problems

1.3.1 Economical requirements

1.3.2 Technical requirements

1.3.3 Marketing requirements

1.3.4 Environmental requirements

1.3.5 Some weaknesses of the polymer materials

1.4 Outline of the technical and economic possibilities of processing

1.4.1 Thermoset processing Moulding the solid thermosets Moulding the liquid thermosets Secondary processing

1.4.2 Composite processing Primary processes Secondary processing Repaire possibilities: a significant composite advantage

1.4.3 Hybrid processing

1.5 Environmental constraints

1.5.1 Toxicity and pollution

1.5.2 The recycling of polymers

1.6 The final material/process/cost compromise

Chapter 2 - The plastic industry: economic overview

2.1 Overview of the global plastic industry

2.2 Market shares of the various thermoset families in the main industrialized countries

2.3 Market shares of composites

2.4 Market shares of the main application sectors

2.5 Importance of the various processing modes

2.6 The european market

2.7 The north american market

2.8 Consumption growth trends

2.8.1 Thermosets

2.8.2 Composites

2.9 Structure of the plastic processing industry

2.10 Plastic costs

2.10.1 Raw material costs

2.10.2 Examples of additive costs

2.10.3 Reinforcement costs

2.10.4 Processing costs

2.10.5 Examples of part costs

2.10.6 Assembly, operating and maintenance costs: three factors to favour composites Assembly cost savings Operating cost savings Maintenance cost savings

2.11 Survey of main markets

2.11.1 Automotive and transportation Thermosets and composite in the automobile industry Composites in railway applications

2.11.2 Furniture and bedding Interior and communal furniture Outdoor furniture, street furniture

2.11.3 Aeronautics, space, armaments Advantages of composite for aerospace applications Disadvantages of composites Examples of opertional or development parts

2.11.4 Shipbuilding, offshore, nautical sports Composites in the shipbuilding sector Composites in offshore oil rig construction Barriers to composite use

2.11.5 Anti-corrosion equipment, mechanics, industry, tools

2.11.6 Electricity, electronics

2.11.7 Electric household appliances, refrigeration, office automation

2.11.8 Medical

2.11.9 Sports and leisure

2.11.10 Packaging

2.11.11 Art, decoration

2.11.12 Miscellaneous applications

2.12 Applications of the main thermoset and composite families

2.12.1 Polyurethanes and polyurea Foam application examples RIM application examples Elastomer application examples Coating and sealing application examples Polyurea

2.12.2 Unsaturated polyesters Consumption Applications

2.12.3 Phenolic resins Consumption Applications

2.12.4 Melamine and urea-formaldehyde resins (amino resins) Consumption Applications

2.12.5 Epoxide resins Consumption Applications

2.12.6 Polyimides Consumption Applications

2.12.7 Silicones Consumption Applications

2.12.8 Polycyanates or cyanate esters Consumption Applications

2.12.9 DCPD Consumption Applications

2.12.10 Furane resins Consumption Applications

2.13 Application examples of the main reinforcements

2.13.1 Glass fibres Consumption Applications

2.13.2 Aramid fibres Consumption Applications

2.13.3 Carbon fibres Consumption Applications

2.13.4 Sustainable natural fibres Consumption Applications

2.13.5 Other fibres and reinforcements

2.13.6 Self-reinforcing polymers

2.13.7 Sandwich composites

2.13.8 Hybrids

2.14 Applications of the main processing methods

2.14.1 Thermoplastic composites

2.14.2 SMC, BMC, ZMC

2.14.3 RTM

2.14.4 Hand lay-up and spray lay-up

2.14.5 Pultrusion

2.14.6 Filament winding

2.14.7 Prepreg applications

2.14.8 Centrifugal moulding

2.14.9 Continuous sheet moulding

Chapter 3 - Basic criteria for the selection of thermosets

3.1 Evaluation of plastic properties

3.1.1 Thermal behaviour

3.1.2 Low temperture behaviour

3.1.3 Mechanical properties

3.1.4 Long-term mechanical properties

3.1.5 Long-term light and UV resistance

3.1.6 Chemical resistance by immersion or contact

3.1.7 Electrical properties

3.1.8 Gas permeability

3.1.9 Flammability

3.1.10 Optical properties

3.2 ISO standards concerning polymer testing

3.2.1 Moulding of test specimens

3.2.2 Mechanical properties

3.2.3 Thermomechanical properties

3.2.4 Long-term properties

3.2.5 Fluid contact behaviour

3.2.6 Electrical properties

3.2.7 Oxygen indes, flammability, smoke generation

3.2.8 Optical properties

3.3 Material selection

3.4 Precision of the moulded parts

3.5 Schematic comparison of thermoset and composite properties

Chaper 4 - Detailed accounts of thermoset resins for moulding and composit matrices

4.1 Polyurethanes, polyureas (PUR)

4.1.1 General properties

4.1.2 Thermal behaviour

4.1.3 Optical properties

4.1.4 Mechanical properties

4.1.5 Ageing

4.1.6 Electrical properties

4.1.7 Joining

4.1.8 Foams

4.1.9 Specific ISO standards concerning polyurethanes

4.1.10 Trade name examples

4.1.11 Property tables

4.2 Unsaturated polyesters (UP)

4.2.1 General properties

4.2.2 Thermal behaviour

4.2.3 Optical properties

4.2.4 Mechanical properties

4.2.5 Ageing

4.2.6 Electrical properties

4.2.7 Joining

4.2.8 Specific ISO standards concerning polyesters

4.2.9 Trade name examples

4.2.10 Property tables

4.3 Phenolic resins (PF)

4.3.1 General properties

4.3.2 Thermal behaviour

4.3.3 Optical properties

4.3.4 Mechanical properties

4.3.5 Ageing

4.3.6 Electrical properties

4.3.7 Joining

4.3.8 Foams

4.3.9 Specific ISO standards concerning phenolic resins

4.3.10 Trade name examples

4.3.11 Property tables

4.4 The amino resins: melamine (MF) and urea-formaldehyde (UF)

4.4.1 General properties

4.4.2 Thermal behaviour

4.4.3 Optical properties

4.4.4 Mechanical properties

4.4.5 Ageing

4.4.6 Electrical properties

4.4.7 Joining

4.4.8 Foams

4.4.9 Specific ISO standards concerning amino resins

4.4.10 Trade name examples

4.4.11 Property tables

4.5 Exposides or epoxy resins (EP)

4.5.1 General properties

4.5.2 Thermal behaviour

4.5.3 Optical properties

4.5.4 Mechanical properties

4.5.5 Ageing

4.5.6 Electrical properties

4.5.7 Joining

4.5.8 Foamed epoxies and syntactic foams

4.5.9 Specific ISO standards concerning expoxides

4.5.10 Trade name examples

4.5.11 Property tables

4.6 Polyimides (PI)

4.6.1 General properties

4.6.2 Thermal behaviour

4.6.3 Optical properties

4.6.4 Mechanical properties

4.6.5 Ageing

4.6.6 Electrical properties

4.6.7 Joining

4.6.8 Foamed polyimides and syntactic foams

4.6.9 Trade name examples

4.6.10 Property tables

4.7 Silicones or polysiloxanes (MQ, PMQ, PVMQ, VMQ or SI) and fluorosilicones (FMQ, FVMQ or FSI)

4.7.1 General properties

4.7.2 Thermal behaviour

4.7.3 Optical properties

4.7.4 Mechanical properties

4.7.5 Ageing

4.7.6 Electrical properties

4.7.7 Joining

4.7.8 Foamed silicones and syntactic foams

4.7.9 Specific ISO standards concerning silicones

4.7.10 Trade name examples

4.7.11 Property tables

4.8 Polycyanates or cyanates esters (Cy)

4.8.1 General properties

4.8.2 Thermal behaviour

4.8.3 Mechanical properties

4.8.4 Ageing

4.8.5 Electrical properties

4.8.6 Syntactic foams

4.8.7 Trade name examples

4.8.8 Property tables

4.9 Other thermosets

4.9.1 Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) General properties Thermal behaviour and ageing Mechanical properties Electrical properties Joining Trade name examples Property tables

4.9.2 Furans General properties Properties and ageing Trade name examples

Chaper 5 - Thermoset processing

5.1 Solid thermoset processing

5.1.1 Compression moulding

5.1.2 Compression transfer moulding

5.1.3 Injection moulding

5.1.4 Extrusion

5.2 Liquid thermoset processing

5.2.1 Casting

5.2.2 Liquid injection moulding (LIM)

5.2.3 Reaction injection moulding (RIM)

5.2.4 Rotational moulding

5.2.5 Foaming

5.2.6 Composite processes

5.3 Thermoset machining

5.4 Thermoset assembly

5.4.1 Adhesive bonding

5.4.2 Mechanical assembly

Chapter 6 - Composites

6.1 Definitions

6.2 Reminder of some basic principles

6.3 Composite mechanical performances according to the reinforcement type

6.3.1 Reinforcement by randomly distributed short fibres

6.3.2 Reinforcement by arranged continuous fibres Unidirectional reinforcement Reinforcement with two orthogonal layers

6.3.3 General approximate method for strength estimation

6.4 Composite Matrices Thermosets

6.4.1 Thermosets

6.4.2 Thermoplastics

6.4.3 Influence of the matrix on the composite properties

6.5 Reinforcements

6.5.1 Fibres Glass fibres for polymer reinforcement Aramid fibres (AF) for polymer reinforcement Comparison of the three main types of fibres Sustainable natural vegetal fibres Other mineral fibres Other textile fibres Industrial fibres

6.5.2 The different fibre forms used for reinforcement

6.5.3 Foams for sandwich technology

6.5.4 Honeycombs

6.5.5 Plywood and wood

6.5.6 Influence of the core on the sandwich properties

6.5.7 Nanofillers

6.6. Intermediate semi-Manufactured materials

6.6.1. SMC, bulk compounds, prepregs

6.6.2. Glass mat thermoplastics (GMTs) and prepregs

6.6.3. Examples of intermediate semi-manufactured composites

6.6.4. Advanced all-polymer prepregs or self-reinforced polymers

6.7 Composite Processing

6.7.1 Thermoset composites

6.7.2 Thermoplastic composites

6.7.3 Sandwich composites

6.7.4 Finishing operations

6.7.5 Repairing composites

6.8 Examples of composite characteristics

6.8.1 Basic principles

6.8.2 Nanocomposites

6.8.3 Short fibre composites Significant parameters Short glass fibres Short carbon fibres Short aramid fibres

6.8.4 Long fibre reinforced plastics: LFRT and BMC

6.8.5 "Continuous" fibre composites

6.8.6 Sandwich composites

6.8.7 Foamed composites Property examples of RRIM, SRRIM Foamed matrix composites Syntactic foams

6.8.8 Hybrid composites

6.8.9 Conductive composites

Chapter 7 - Future prospects for thermosets and composites

7.1 The Laws and requirements of the market

7.2 Thermoset and composite answers and assets

7.3 Markets: What drives what? The forces driving development

7.3.1 Consumption trends

7.3.2 Requirements of the main markets

7.4 Cost Savings

7.4.1 Material costs

7.4.2 Hybrids

7.4.3 Processing costs Example of compounding integrated on the process line New or modified processes Integrating finishing in the process

7.4.4 Low-cost tool examples

7.5 Material upgrading and Competition

7.5.1 Carbon nanotubes (CNT)

7.5.2 Molecular reinforcement

7.5.3 Polymer nanotubes

7.5.4 Nanofillers

7.5.5 Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics to compete with LFRT

7.5.6 Thermoplastic and thermoset competition

7.5.7 3D reinforcements compete with 2D

7.5.8 Carbon fibres compete with glass fibres

7.5.9 New high performance polymers

7.6 The immediate future seen through recent patents

7.6.1 Analysis of patents by polymer type

7.6.2 Analysis of patents by reinforcement type

7.6.3 Analysis of patents by structure and process type

7.7 The immediate future seen through recent awards

7.8 Environmental concerns

7.8.1 Recycling of thermosets and composites Collection and pre-treatment of wastes The main recycling routes Thermoset and composite specifics Thermoset and composite recyclates: mechanical and calorific properties Recycling costs

7.8.2 Sustainable standard and high-performance reinforcements

7.8.3 Sustainable and biodegradable components for matrices

7.8.4 Examples of sustainable composites



No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2003
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editor

M. Biron

About the Author

Michel Biron

Michel Biron is a plastics consultant based in Les Ulis, France, and is a Graduate Chemist Engineer from the Institut National Supérieur de Chimie Industrielle

de Rouen and Polymer Specialist from the Institut Français du Caoutchouc. He has authored numerous technical papers and books on plastics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Plastics Consultant, Les Ulis, France


This book is of value to someone already involved deeply in thermosetsand composites looking for 'nuggets of gold'. Eli M. Pearce H. F. Mark Polymer Research Institute Polytechnic University Brooklyn NY USA