An Introduction to the Governing Equations of Thermodynamics and of the Mechanics of Fluids

1st Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Author: J. C. Gibbings
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483184166

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Thermomechanics gives an introduction to the governing equations of thermodynamics and of the mechanics of fluids. The book first gives a summary of the Newtonian mechanics of rigid bodies, which is followed by a discussion of mechanical properties of infinitesimal elements, including continuum, density, surface tension, stresses, and pressure. Temperature and the zero'th law; units; and the system of finite size are then examined. The book also explains the laws of thermodynamics including its applications. Heat processes, motionless fluids, and mixtures of phases are also tackled. The text then explains the conservation of mass in a fluid flow; the equations relating process phenomena; and the momentum equation for fluids in motion. The last part encompasses the adiabatic flow. The text will best serve those interested in thermomechanics and related concepts.

Table of Contents

  • Editorial Introduction



    1. Summary of the Newtonian Mechanics of Rigid Bodies

    1.1 Distance

    1.2 Time

    1.3 Velocity

    1.4 Acceleration

    1.5 Force, Mass, and Momentum

    1.6 Weight

    1.7 Work and Power

    1.8 Work Reaction

    1.9 Conservative and Stationary Fields of Force

    1.10 Energy

    1.11 Additive Nature of Work


    2. Mechanical Properties of Infinitesimal Elements

    2.1 The Continuum

    2.2 Density

    2.3 Surface Tension

    2.4 Stresses

    2.5 Pressure


    3. Temperature and the Zero'th Law

    3.1 Thermal Equilibrium

    3.2 Zero'th Law of Thermodynamics

    3.3 The Thermometer

    3.4 Temperature

    3.5 Mercury-in-Glass Thermometer

    3.6 Continuum Limitations of Temperature


    4. Units

    4.1 Choice of Units

    4.2 Time

    4.3 Length

    4.4 Force and Mass

    4.5 Further Derived Mechanical Units

    4.6 Temperature

    4.7 Current

    4.8 Light


    5. The System of Finite Size

    5.1 The System

    5.2 The Stress in a Solid

    5.3 Tangential Stress in Liquids

    5.4 Tangential Stress in Gases

    5.5 Variation of Pressure in a Stationary Fluid

    5.6 Continuity of Stress

    5.7 Temperature

    5.8 State and Property Changes

    5.9 Classification and Derivation of Properties

    5.10 Work

    5.11 Evaluation of Work

    5.12 Heat

    5.13 Algebraic Characteristics of Heat

    5.14 Evaluation of Heat

    5.15 The Equilibrium State


    6. The First Law of Thermodynamics

    6.1 Cyclic Processes

    6.2 First Law of Thermodynamics

    6.3 The Measure of J

    6.4 Internal Energy

    6.5 Work Done by Body Forces

    6.6 Application of Electricity


    7. The Manner of Heat Processes

    7.1 The Conduction of Heat

    7.2 Temperature Distribution along a Bar

    7.3 The Radiation of Heat through a Vacuum

    7.4 The Radiation of Heat through an Opaque Medium

    7.5 The Rate of a Process

    7.6 The Directional Nature of Heat by Conduction


    8. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to Solids

    8.1 The Sliding Friction Process

    8.2 The Constant Temperature Stressing Process

    8.3 The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure

    8.4 Work Done by Gravity

    8.5 The Heat Process

    8.6 Equations of State

    8.7 The Two Property Substance

    8.8 The Internal Energy

    8.9 Internal Energy of an Elastic Metal

    8.10 Internal Energy of Rubber

    8.11 Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Stretching of Steel

    8.12 Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Stretching of Rubber

    8.13 The Rate Equation


    9. The State of Motionless Fluids

    9.1 The Equation of State of Liquids

    9.2 The Equation of State of Gases

    9.3 The Gas Thermometer

    9.4 Partial Pressures

    9.5 Pressure Distribution in a Liquid under Gravity

    9.6 Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Liquids

    9.7 Pressure Distribution in a Gas under Gravity

    9.8 The Internal Energy of a Liquid

    9.9 The Internal Energy of a Gas

    9.10 Components of a Pressure Force

    9.11 Pressure Forces on Fluid Volumes


    10. Mixtures of Phases

    10.1 Phase Distinction

    10.2 The Liquid-Gas Boundary

    10.3 Phase Changes

    10.4 Phase Boundaries

    10.5 Triple Point

    10.6 Critical Point


    11. The Characteristics of Fluid Motion

    11.1 Streamlines

    11.2 Pathlines

    11.3 Steady and Unsteady Flow

    11.4 Fixed and Moving Axes

    11.5 Two-Dimensional Flow

    11.6 Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

    11.7 Comparison of Normal and Tangential Stresses

    11.8 Acceleration Effects

    11.9 Pressure in a Moving Fluid

    11.10 Rotation in a Moving Fluid

    11.11 The Vortex

    11.12 Turbulence

    11.13 Boundary Layer and Wake Flow

    11.14 Compressible and Incompressible Flow


    12. Conservation of Mass in a Fluid Flow

    12.1 Flow through a Streamtube

    12.2 Flow through a Control Volume

    12.3 Zero Time Derivative

    12.4 Mean Velocity

    12.5 Application of the Continuity Equation

    12.6 Diffusion

    12.7 Conservation of Numbers of Particles

    12.8 Conservation of Mass

    12.9 Coefficients of Diffusion

    12.10 The Semipermeable Membrane

    12.11 Self-Diffusion


    13. The Equations Relating Process Phenomena

    13.1 Summary of the Basic Equations

    13.2 Interaction between Phenomena


    14. The Momentum Equation for Fluids in Motion

    14.1 Flow of an Element of Fluid

    14.2 Relative Values of the Terms in the Bernoulli Equation

    14.3 Variation of Properties Normal to Streamlines

    14.4 Viscous Flow between Plates

    14.5 Flow through a Control Volume

    14.6 Physical Significance of the Wake

    14.7 Unsteadiness in the Flow Past an Aero-Foil

    14.8 Angular Momentum for a Control Volume

    14.9 Pumping by a Ducted Fan

    14.10 Momentum Equation for the Flow with Diffusion


    15. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to Fluids in Motion

    15.1 Characteristics of the Infinitesimal Element

    15.2 Work Done by Pressures on a Moving Element of Fluid

    15.3 Work Done on a Moving Fluid Element by Gravity Forces

    15.4 Work Done by Shear Stresses

    15.5 Heat Applied to the Element

    15.6 The Energy Change of an Element

    15.7 The Energy Equation for Steady Flow along a Streamline

    15.8 Enthalpy

    15.9 The Energy Equation for the Flow through a Control Volume

    15.10 The Rate Equation for a Control Volume

    15.11 The Energy Relation for Flow with Diffusion


    16. The Adiabatic Flow

    16.1 The Non-Viscous Flow along a Streamline

    16.2 Stagnation Properties

    16.3 The Compressible Flow Bernoulli Equation

    16.4 Flow with Stationary Boundaries

    16.5 Volume Change of a Gas

    16.6 The Energy Equation for Fluid Machines

    16.7 The Use of Mean Quantities

    16.8 Inadequacy of the Governing Equations



Product details

  • No. of pages: 322
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483184166

About the Author

J. C. Gibbings

About the Editors

J. H. Horlock

W. A. Woods

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