# Thermomechanics

## 1st Edition

### An Introduction to the Governing Equations of Thermodynamics and of the Mechanics of Fluids

**Authors:**J. C. Gibbings

**Editors:**J. H. Horlock W. A. Woods

**eBook ISBN:**9781483184166

**Imprint:**Pergamon

**Published Date:**1st January 1970

**Page Count:**322

## Description

Thermomechanics gives an introduction to the governing equations of thermodynamics and of the mechanics of fluids. The book first gives a summary of the Newtonian mechanics of rigid bodies, which is followed by a discussion of mechanical properties of infinitesimal elements, including continuum, density, surface tension, stresses, and pressure. Temperature and the zero'th law; units; and the system of finite size are then examined. The book also explains the laws of thermodynamics including its applications. Heat processes, motionless fluids, and mixtures of phases are also tackled. The text then explains the conservation of mass in a fluid flow; the equations relating process phenomena; and the momentum equation for fluids in motion. The last part encompasses the adiabatic flow. The text will best serve those interested in thermomechanics and related concepts.

## Table of Contents

Editorial Introduction

Preface

Notation

1. Summary of the Newtonian Mechanics of Rigid Bodies

1.1 Distance

1.2 Time

1.3 Velocity

1.4 Acceleration

1.5 Force, Mass, and Momentum

1.6 Weight

1.7 Work and Power

1.8 Work Reaction

1.9 Conservative and Stationary Fields of Force

1.10 Energy

1.11 Additive Nature of Work

References

2. Mechanical Properties of Infinitesimal Elements

2.1 The Continuum

2.2 Density

2.3 Surface Tension

2.4 Stresses

2.5 Pressure

References

3. Temperature and the Zero'th Law

3.1 Thermal Equilibrium

3.2 Zero'th Law of Thermodynamics

3.3 The Thermometer

3.4 Temperature

3.5 Mercury-in-Glass Thermometer

3.6 Continuum Limitations of Temperature

References

4. Units

4.1 Choice of Units

4.2 Time

4.3 Length

4.4 Force and Mass

4.5 Further Derived Mechanical Units

4.6 Temperature

4.7 Current

4.8 Light

References

5. The System of Finite Size

5.1 The System

5.2 The Stress in a Solid

5.3 Tangential Stress in Liquids

5.4 Tangential Stress in Gases

5.5 Variation of Pressure in a Stationary Fluid

5.6 Continuity of Stress

5.7 Temperature

5.8 State and Property Changes

5.9 Classification and Derivation of Properties

5.10 Work

5.11 Evaluation of Work

5.12 Heat

5.13 Algebraic Characteristics of Heat

5.14 Evaluation of Heat

5.15 The Equilibrium State

References

6. The First Law of Thermodynamics

6.1 Cyclic Processes

6.2 First Law of Thermodynamics

6.3 The Measure of J

6.4 Internal Energy

6.5 Work Done by Body Forces

6.6 Application of Electricity

References

7. The Manner of Heat Processes

7.1 The Conduction of Heat

7.2 Temperature Distribution along a Bar

7.3 The Radiation of Heat through a Vacuum

7.4 The Radiation of Heat through an Opaque Medium

7.5 The Rate of a Process

7.6 The Directional Nature of Heat by Conduction

References

8. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to Solids

8.1 The Sliding Friction Process

8.2 The Constant Temperature Stressing Process

8.3 The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure

8.4 Work Done by Gravity

8.5 The Heat Process

8.6 Equations of State

8.7 The Two Property Substance

8.8 The Internal Energy

8.9 Internal Energy of an Elastic Metal

8.10 Internal Energy of Rubber

8.11 Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Stretching of Steel

8.12 Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to the Stretching of Rubber

8.13 The Rate Equation

References

9. The State of Motionless Fluids

9.1 The Equation of State of Liquids

9.2 The Equation of State of Gases

9.3 The Gas Thermometer

9.4 Partial Pressures

9.5 Pressure Distribution in a Liquid under Gravity

9.6 Forces on Surfaces Immersed in Liquids

9.7 Pressure Distribution in a Gas under Gravity

9.8 The Internal Energy of a Liquid

9.9 The Internal Energy of a Gas

9.10 Components of a Pressure Force

9.11 Pressure Forces on Fluid Volumes

References

10. Mixtures of Phases

10.1 Phase Distinction

10.2 The Liquid-Gas Boundary

10.3 Phase Changes

10.4 Phase Boundaries

10.5 Triple Point

10.6 Critical Point

References

11. The Characteristics of Fluid Motion

11.1 Streamlines

11.2 Pathlines

11.3 Steady and Unsteady Flow

11.4 Fixed and Moving Axes

11.5 Two-Dimensional Flow

11.6 Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

11.7 Comparison of Normal and Tangential Stresses

11.8 Acceleration Effects

11.9 Pressure in a Moving Fluid

11.10 Rotation in a Moving Fluid

11.11 The Vortex

11.12 Turbulence

11.13 Boundary Layer and Wake Flow

11.14 Compressible and Incompressible Flow

References

12. Conservation of Mass in a Fluid Flow

12.1 Flow through a Streamtube

12.2 Flow through a Control Volume

12.3 Zero Time Derivative

12.4 Mean Velocity

12.5 Application of the Continuity Equation

12.6 Diffusion

12.7 Conservation of Numbers of Particles

12.8 Conservation of Mass

12.9 Coefficients of Diffusion

12.10 The Semipermeable Membrane

12.11 Self-Diffusion

References

13. The Equations Relating Process Phenomena

13.1 Summary of the Basic Equations

13.2 Interaction between Phenomena

References

14. The Momentum Equation for Fluids in Motion

14.1 Flow of an Element of Fluid

14.2 Relative Values of the Terms in the Bernoulli Equation

14.3 Variation of Properties Normal to Streamlines

14.4 Viscous Flow between Plates

14.5 Flow through a Control Volume

14.6 Physical Significance of the Wake

14.7 Unsteadiness in the Flow Past an Aero-Foil

14.8 Angular Momentum for a Control Volume

14.9 Pumping by a Ducted Fan

14.10 Momentum Equation for the Flow with Diffusion

References

15. Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics to Fluids in Motion

15.1 Characteristics of the Infinitesimal Element

15.2 Work Done by Pressures on a Moving Element of Fluid

15.3 Work Done on a Moving Fluid Element by Gravity Forces

15.4 Work Done by Shear Stresses

15.5 Heat Applied to the Element

15.6 The Energy Change of an Element

15.7 The Energy Equation for Steady Flow along a Streamline

15.8 Enthalpy

15.9 The Energy Equation for the Flow through a Control Volume

15.10 The Rate Equation for a Control Volume

15.11 The Energy Relation for Flow with Diffusion

References

16. The Adiabatic Flow

16.1 The Non-Viscous Flow along a Streamline

16.2 Stagnation Properties

16.3 The Compressible Flow Bernoulli Equation

16.4 Flow with Stationary Boundaries

16.5 Volume Change of a Gas

16.6 The Energy Equation for Fluid Machines

16.7 The Use of Mean Quantities

16.8 Inadequacy of the Governing Equations

References

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 322

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Pergamon 1970

- Published:
- 1st January 1970

- Imprint:
- Pergamon

- eBook ISBN:
- 9781483184166