Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates explains the fundamentals of lamination and plastics thermoforming technologies along with current and new developments. It focuses on properties and thermoforming mechanics of plastic films and in particular single and multilayered laminates, including barrier films.

For environmental and economic reasons, laminates are becoming increasingly important as a replacement for solid sheets and paint finishes in many industries, including transportation, packaging, and construction. Yet the processes of film formability during the extensive deformation and elevated temperatures experienced in conventional processing technologies, such as thermoforming, are poorly understood by most engineers.

This book covers production processes, such as extrusion, calendaring, and casting, as well as mechanical and impact testing methods. It also describes how testing protocols developed for metals can be leveraged for plastic films and laminates, and includes a thorough discussion on methods for performing optical strain analysis.

Applications in transportation vehicles and packaging, including packaging for food, medical and electronics applications, sports equipment, and household appliances, are discussed. Safety, recycling and environmental aspects of thermoforming and its products complete the book.

Key Features

  • First comprehensive source of information and hands-on guide for the thermoforming of multilayered laminates
  • Covers applications across such sectors as automotive, packaging, home goods, and construction
  • Introduces new testing methods leveraging protocols used for metals


Engineers working with plastics films or products using plastic films (OEM level to the actual part manufacturer of thermoforming) in industries such as Automotive/ transportation manufacturing, Packaging, Plastics Industry, Paint Industry; Personnel involved in testing and QA of products using plastics films, and managers; Academic Institutions

Table of Contents




1. Introduction to Thermoforming

1.1 History

1.2 Market and Applications


2. The Thermoforming Process

2.1 Background

2.2 Basic Principles of Thermoforming

2.3 Difference between Plastic Sheets and Laminates

2.4 Theory of Forming Process

2.5 Forming Characteristics

2.6 Machinery


3. Review of Characteristics of Common Plastics for Thermoforming

3.1 Impact of Main Variables


4. Lamination

4.1 Why Laminates?

4.2 Elements of Laminates

4.3 Typical Commercial Laminates

4.4 Hot-Roll Lamination

4.5 Extrusion Lamination

4.6 Flame Lamination

4.7 Adhesive Lamination


5. New Developments

5.1 Heating Technology

5.2 Trimming Technology

5.3 Thickness Reduction

5.4 Pressure Forming

5.5 Vacuum Forming

5.6 Twin-Sheet Forming

5.7 Reinforced-Sheet Forming

5.8 Multilayer Sheet Forming

5.9 Biaxial Bulge

5.10 Biaxial Strain

5.11 Bulge Test Models


6. Mechanics of Materials

6.1 Stress

6.2 Strain

6.3 Stress Relaxation and Creep

6.4 Creep and Stress Relaxation Models

6.5 Peeling

6.6 Delamination


7. Characterization

7.1 Mechanical Testing

7.2 Impact Testing

7.3 Biaxial Bulge Testing

7.4 Rheological Testing

7.5 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

7.6 Color Test

7.7 Specular Gloss Test


8. Matching Material Characteristics to Commercial Thermoforming

8.1 Packaging

8.2 Appliances

8.3 Bathroom

8.4 Transportation

8.5 Sports


9. Safety, Recycling and Environmental Issues of


No. of pages:
© 2014
William Andrew
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN:

About the editor

Syed Ali Ashter

Dr. Syed Ali Ashter received his B.Sc. Eng. from Aligarh Muslim University, India (1998) in Chemical engineering, M.S. (2002) and Ph.D. (2008) from University of Massachusetts Lowell in Plastics engineering. Dr. Ashter worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada on next generation formable films. Dr. Ashter joined EMD Millipore as a Development Engineer III in 2010 where he worked on developing range of products for biopharmaceutical industry such as membranes, medical devices for tangential flow filtration and fiber and bead-based chromatography. Dr. Ashter joined Getinge Group in 2015 and has been working as a Principal Process Development Engineer in R&D endovascular. Dr. Ashter is a member of Society of Plastics Engineers since 2000 and has been on the Board of Directors for the Medical Plastics Division (MPD) since 2012.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Process Development Engineer in R&D endovascular, Getinge Group.