# Thermodynamics, Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions

## 1st Edition

**Authors:**Arthur Pelton

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780128014943

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**1st September 2018

**Page Count:**512

## Description

*Thermodynamics, Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions* provides readers with the understanding of thermodynamics and phase equilibria required to make full and efficient use of these tools. As well, experts involved in developing thermodynamic databases will be provided with a comprehensive reference text of the solution models currently in use.

## Key Features

- Rigorous and complete development of thermodynamics aimed at readers who already have had a basic course in chemical thermodynamics. Several problem sets on the fundamentals.Provides readers with a thorough review of the fundamentals of thermodynamics.Phase Rule (and thermodynamics in general) presented from a novel viewpoint with an emphasis on understanding general phase diagrams.Provides an in-depth understanding of phase equilibria
- The description of phase diagrams will start with classical temperature-composition diagrams and the classical thermodynamic description. General phase diagrams and the full general thermodynamic development will be presented in later chapters.Readers with only a rudimentary knowledge of phase diagrams will receive a complete grounding. Experts can proceed directly to the advanced chapters
- Part I on thermodynamics and phase diagrams can stand alone for those not interested in Part II (solution modeling).Can be seen as "two books in one", although most readers will be interested in both parts. Can be used as a text for a graduate course on thermodynamics and phase diagrams, or on solution modeling, or on both.Several types of phase diagrams (paraequilibrium, solidus projections, first-melting projections, Scheil diagrams, enthalpy diagrams, ....) presented for the first time in a text
- Will be the most complete treatise on current solution modeling
- Nearly all phase diagrams in the book will be thermodynamically calculated and will be diagrams for actual systems.The practical applications of the subject will be underscored

## Readership

Academic and industrial laboratories doing research and development in materials science, metallurgy, combustion and energy, corrosion engineering, environmental engineering, geology, glass technology, nuclear engineering and other fields of inorganic chemical and materials science and engineering. Researchers, libraries, graduate students. Professors in chemistry, chemical engineering and materials science giving graduate courses on thermodynamics and phase equilibria and/or solution modeling. Graduate students

## Table of Contents

**Part I – Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams**

Part I will follow quite closely the chapter entitled "Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams" by A. Pelton in "Physical Metallurgy 5th ed." to be published by Elsevier in 2013, but will be significantly expanded to approximately twice the length with a more detailed and less succinct presentation, more examples and some new topics.

**1. Introduction:**

As in Sec. 1 of Phys Met 5th ed., examples of many different types of phase diagrams involving T, X(composition), P, V, H, µ(chemical potential), etc. will be presented by way of introduction.

**2. Thermodynamic fundamentals:**

(As in Sec. 2 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- 1st, 2nd and 3rd Laws, Fundamental equation of thermodynamics, H, G, chemical equilibria, predominance phase diagrams, measuring G, H and S, chemical potential, auxiliary functions, Gibbs-Duhem equation.

- Fully rigorous and complete, but directed at those who have already had a basic course in chemical thermodymamics

- Particular emphasis on concepts required to understand complex phase equilibria and to calculate and interpret all types of phase diagrams

- Several problem sets to help readers review the fundamentals.

3. Gibbs Phase Rule:

(As in Sec. 3 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- The Phase Rule will be developed in a very general, rigorous and novel form suitable for understanding phase diagrams involving a wide range of variables (T,X, P, V, H, µ, etc.)

4. Fundamentals of the thermodynamics of solutions:

(As in Sec. 4.1 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- H, S and G of solutions

- Relative partial properties.

- Tangent construction

- Chemical activity

- __Ideal Raoultian solutions__:

- Derivation of ideal entropy equation from Boltzmann equation

- Excess properties, activity coefficients

- Several problem sets for review purposes.

5. Binary T-composition phase diagrams:

(As in Secs. 4.2, 4.3 and 5 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- The thermodynamic origin of isobaric binary T-X phase diagrams will be presented in the classical manner involving common tangents to curves of G or equality of activities.

- Several exercises for review purposes.

- A thorough discussion of all features of binary T-X diagrams with emphasis on the relationship between the phase diagram and the thermodynamic properties of the phases.

- Systems with minima and maxima in 2-phase regions, miscibility gaps, eutectics and other invariants, intermediate phases, etc.

__- Regular Solution Theory (RST):__

- The equations of RST will be developed from a model of the additivity of pair bonds.

- Thermodynamic origin of simple phase diagrams illustrated by RST (showing the effects of

various degrees of deviation from ideal solution behaviour on the phase diagram.)

- Ideal Henrian solutions:

- Derivation and origin of Henry’s Law in terms of "lattice stabilities."

- Limited mutual solubility in terminal solid solutions described by ideal Henrian behaviour

6. Ternary T-composition phase diagrams:

(As in Sec. 6 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- Ternary composition triangle and space model

- Ternary isothermal sections – general topological rules

- Ternary isoplethal sections

- Polythermal projections

7. General phase diagram sections:

(As in Sec. 7 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- The geometry of general phase diagram sections for multicomponent systems involving the variables T,X, P, V, H, µ, etc. will be developed thermodynamically in a completely rigorous way

- Many examples will be presented. It will be shown that all these diagrams, although seemingly quite different geometrically, actually obey one simple set of geometrical rules.

- "Corresponding" potential and extensive variables and "corresponding" phase diagrams

- Law of Adjoining Phase Regions and the general rules governing the geometry of all phase diagram sections

- Zero Phase Fraction lines

- Outline of a general algorithm to calculate any phase diagram section by minimization of G

- Choice of variables to ensure that phase diagram sections are single-valued

- Interpretation of phase diagrams involving different oxidation states, such as many phase diagrams of oxide systems.

- Phase diagrams of reciprocal systems

- Geometrical rules for polythermal projections

- Solidus projections and "first-melting projections."

8. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling:

(As in Sec. 9 of Phys Met 5th ed. but in more detail)

- Equilibrium cooling.

- General nomenclature for invariant and other reactions

- Scheil-Gulliver solidification and "Scheil-Gulliver phase diagrams."

- Paraequilibrium and paraequilibrium phase diagrams

9. Aqueous and concentrated aqueous systems:

- EpH diagrams

- Precipitation (evaporation) diagrams (equilibrium and non-equilibrium)

**10. Phase diagrams involving second-order and higher-order transitions**

Part II – Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions

11. Introduction:

- In chapter 7 of Part I, a general algorithm was presented to calculate any general phase diagram section from the thermodynamic properties of the phases.

- Several large integrated thermodynamic databases have been developed in recent years. These databases have been prepared by the following procedure. For every compound and solution phase of a system, an appropriate model is first developed giving the thermodynamic properties as functions of T, P and composition. Next, all available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data from the literature for the entire system are simultaneously optimized to obtain one set of critically-evaluated, self-consistent parameters of the models for all phases in 2-component, 3-component and, if data are available, higher-order subsystems. Finally, the models are used to estimate the properties of multicomponent solutions from the databases of parameters of the lower-order subsystems. The Gibbs-energy minimization software then accesses the databases and, for given sets of conditions (T, P, X, H,V, µ, ...), calculates the compositions and amounts of all phases at equilibrium. By calculating the equilibrium state as the variables are varied systematically, the software generates the phase diagram.

- In Part II, the models used for the solution phases will be discussed along with procedures of optimization.

12. Single-sublattice random-mixing (Bragg- Williams (BW)) models:

- Binary systems:

- Ideal, Regular and Henrian solutions were discussed in Part I, chapters 4 and 5.

- Extension of RST to polynomial expansions of excess Gibbs energy gE. – Redlich-Kister

expansions

- Systems with two sublattices but with one sublattice occupied by only one species (such

as common-ion salt solutions)

- Darken’s Quadratic Formalism – Introduction of concept of lattice stabilities and

end-member Gibbs energies.

- Introduction of coupled thermodynamic/phase diagram optimization:

- General principles. (However, the numerical techniques employed will not be discussed

in detail.)

- Examples of optimizations of some simple binary systems using single-sublattice BW

models

- Use of "virtual data" from first principles and molecular dynamics calculations.

- Multicomponent systems:

- "Geometrical models" (Kohler, Toop, Muggianu,...) and their physical interpretation

- Examples of predictions of properties and phase diagrams of ternary and higher-order

systems based only on optimized binary parameters

- Ternary parameters and ternary optimizations

- Wagner’s formalism and the Unified Interaction Parameter Formalism for dilute solutions

13. Single-sublattice models with short-range-ordering (SRO):

- The single-sublattice Modified Quasichemical Model (MQM) in the pair approximation for binary systems

- Examples of optimizations of binary systems with the MQM (metals, salts,....)

- Effect of SRO on binary miscibility gaps

- MQM with composition-variable coordination numbers. – Use of "equivalent fractions" rather than mole fractions

- MQM for ternary and higher-order systems. – Predictions from optimized binary parameters

- "Associate" (or "molecular") models of SRO

14. Two-sublattice models – Molten salts

Although molten salt solutions exhibit no long-range-order and therefore cannot strictly-speaking be said to consist of two sublattices, it is nevertheless very fruitful to treat them as such, with cations occupying one sublattice and anions the other. Multiple-sublattice models will be introduced via molten salt solutions partially for historical reasons, but mainly because there exists a wealth of experimental data for molten salt systems over wide composition regions, thereby permitting the models to be easily tested. The Compound Energy Formalism discussed in chapter 15 will be based upon the model equations developed in this chapter.

- Two-sublattice random-mixing (BW) model for molten salts; calculation of phase diagrams of reciprocal ternary systems and comparison to data.

- Introduction of first-nearest-neighbour (FNN) short-range-ordering (SRO) to the model; calculation of phase diagrams of reciprocal ternary systems and comparison to data.

- Charge-asymmetric systems with composition-variable first coordination numbers (variable ratio of the number of sites on the two sublattices.) – Use of equivalent fractions

- Coupled FNN SRO and second-nearest-neighbour (SNN) SRO. – Simplified treatment. Detailed treatment will be developed in chapter 16.

15. Multiple sublattice models – The Compound Energy Formalism (CEF):

- Long-range-ordering (LRO) versus SRO

- The CEF will be developed based on the random-mixing (BW) molten salt model of chapter 14 with fixed ratios of the numbers of sites on the sublattices since it applies to solid solutions.

- Concept of hypothetical end-members.

- Examples of application of CEF to models of:

- intermetallic solutions

- interstitial solutions

- ceramic solutions (such as spinels, perovskites, etc.)

- solutions with point defects

stressing the importance of separating the formalism parameters (such as the Gibbs energies of hypothetical end-members) from the model parameters which are functions of the formalism parameters which have physical meaning.

- The Ionic Liquid Model.

16. The Modified Quasichemical Model in the quadruplet approximation:

- Coupling of FNN SRO and SNN FRO in a two-sublattice model

- Examples of applications and optimizations

17. Order-disorder transitions

- Treatment using the Compound Energy Formalism

- The Cluster Variation Method and the Cluster Site Approximation – coupling of SRO and LRO

- The thermodynamics of magnetism

18. Applications of models to various classes of solutions:

- The equation for the limiting slope of phase boundaries in infinitely dilute solutions and its importance in choosing correct models

- Molten salts:** **

- Temkin model

- "complex ions" – are they real

- concentrated aqueous solutions – hydrated species

- Slags, magmas, glasses:

- silicates, borates, .....

- dissolution of non-oxide species (sulfide capacity,.....)

- the charge compensation effect

- Ceramic solutions:

- spinels, olivines, perovskites, etc.

- non-oxide ceramics

- Steel

- Solutions with more than one composition of maximum SRO

- Other classes of solutions

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 512

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 2019

- Published:
- 1st September 2018

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- Hardcover ISBN:
- 9780128014943

## About the Author

### Arthur Pelton

Arthur D. Pelton is Professor Emeritus in the Dep’t.of Chemical Engineering and co-director of the Center for Computational Thermochemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Dr. Pelton received his undergraduate and graduate degrees from the Dep’t. of Metallurgy and Materials Science at the University of Toronto (PhD in 1970). Following post-doctoral studies at the Technical University in Clausthal, Germany and at MIT, he joined the faculty of the Ecole Polytechnique in the Dep’t. of Materials Engineering in 1973. Dr. Pelton has co-authored over 250 technical papers and 16 book chapters, including the chapter on Phase Diagrams in “Physical Metallurgy 3rd and 4th editions” (Elsevier), and on Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams in the 5th edition. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the Canadian Academy of Engineering and the American Society for Materials. He is a recipient of the AIME Extraction & Processing Distinguished Lecturer Award, the Gibbs Triangle Award of the international Calphad (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) group, the J. Willard Gibbs Phase Equilibria Award of ASM and the Hume-Rothery Prize (for contributions to the study of phase equilibria) of the Institute of Materials (UK) as well as other national and international awards. His primary field of interest is chemical thermodynamics. He is co-founder of the FactSage thermodynamic database computing system which has approximately 900 users in 45 countries.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Computational Thermochemistry, Ecole Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec, Canada