# Thermodynamics of Clouds

## 1st Edition

**Authors:**Louis Dufour Raymond Defay

**Editors:**J. Van Mieghem

**eBook ISBN:**9781483282107

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**1st January 1963

**Page Count:**270

## Description

Thermodynamics of Clouds is a coherent and rational account of the thermodynamics of clouds that requires only a little knowledge of general thermodynamics; which takes up each idea from the beginning and allows the reader to appreciate the degree of rigor or of approximation at each stage; and which discusses each hypothesis and develops each theory with a clear statement of the basic physical concepts. It places at the disposal of meteorologists a working tool which will allow them to master the problems encountered in this branch of meteorology. The book contains 13 chapters that can be organized into three general parts. The first part establishes the general formulas of the thermodynamics of surfaces. In the second part the general formulas that were established in the preceding chapters are applied to some meteorological problems. The third and final part of the book deals with the theory of condensation and crystallization germs.

## Table of Contents

Introduction

I. Ideas of Capillarity

1. Introduction

2. Surface Tension

3. Mechanical Equilibrium Conditions for a Surface

4. Equilibrium of an Edge

5. Contact Angle of a Fluid/Fluid Interface with the Surface of a Solid

6. Mechanical Work Done by a Capillary System

7. Surface Tension of a Crystal Face

II. Surface Model and Definitions of Adsorption, Surface Enthalpy, and Entropy

1. The Real System and the Simplified Model

2. Difficulties Inherent in the Use of the Surface Model

III. Laws of Thermodynamics

1. Choice of Variables

2. First Law of Thermodynamics

3. Second Law of Thermodynamics

IV. Fundamental Formulas in Terms of Intensive Variables

1. Aims of the Chapter

2. Variables on Which the Surface Functions of State Depend

3. Intensive Properties of the Surface

4. Transformation from Intensive to Extensive Variables

5. Specific Surface Functions of State

6. Fundamental Formulas Relating to the Surface Phase

7. Fundamental Formulas in Terms of Intensive Variables

V. Equilibrium States

1. Affinities of Adsorption

2. Conditions for Adsorption Equilibrium

3. Equilibrium Displacement

4. Phase Rule

5. Extension of Duhem's Theorem to Systems Containing Surfaces

VI. Adiabatic Transformations

VII. Examination of Some Approximations or Hypotheses

1. Aims of the Chapter

2. Humid Air Can Be Treated as a Mixture of Two Perfect Gases: Dry Air and Water Vapor

3. The Surface Tension of a Droplet Can Be Considered Independent of the Radius of Curvature

4. Adsorptions Are Negligible in Comparison with the Masses Involved, and Adsorption of Atmospheric Components Has Negligible Effect on the Surface Tension

5. The Lateral Functions αy',βy',λy' and αy", βy",λy" Can Be Neglected

6. The Heat Capacities at Constant Pressure of Dry Air and Water Vapor, of Which the Atmosphere Is Composed, Are Constants

7. The Heat Capacities of Pure Liquid and Solid Water Vary Only Slightly with Temperature

VIII. Study of a Droplet Suspended in the Atmosphere

1. Statement of the Problem

2. Influence of Curvature on the Saturation Pressure of a Droplet

3. Influence of Other Components on the Heat of Vaporization of Water from a Plane Surface

4. Influence of Curvature on the Heat of Vaporization of a Droplet

5. Influence of Curvature on the Equilibrium Temperature of a Droplet

6. Stability of Equilibrium of a Droplet

7. Reversible Adiabatic Transformations

IX. Study of an Ice Crystal Suspended in the Atmosphere

1. Statement of the Problem

2. Influence of Radius on the Saturation Pressure Relative to an Ice Crystal

3. Influence of Radius on the Heat of Sublimation of an Ice Crystal

4. Influence of Radius on the Equilibrium Temperature of an Ice Crystal

5. Stability of Equilibrium of an Ice Crystal

6. Reversible Adiabatic Transformations

X. Temperature of Coexistence of a Droplet of Solution and a Crystal of Ice in the Atmosphere

1. Statement of the Problem

2. Droplet of Solution and Crystal of Ice Suspended in the Atmosphere

3. Ice Crystal Contained within a Droplet of Solution Suspended in the Atmosphere

XI. Germs of Condensation and Crystallization

1. Definition of the Germ

2. Calculation of Radius of Germ

3. Formation of Germs, or Nucleation

4. Free Energy of Formation of a Drop Phase

5. Free Energy of Formation of a Crystal Phase

6. Free Energy of Formation in the Case When There Is Only a Single Component in the Drop or Crystal

7. Choice of Shape Factor for Ice Crystals

XII. Equilibrium Populations of Embryos. Calculation of Number of Germs as Limiting Case of Problem of Equilibrium

1. Introduction

2. Properties of Embryos Considered as Particles

3. Comparison between the System Containing Embryos Treated as Phases and the System of Particle Embryos

4. Equilibrium Populations of Embryos in a Liquid Mother Phase

5. Embryos and Germs of Ice in Pure Water

6. Embryos and Germs of Ice in Salt Water

7. Equilibrium Populations of Embryos in a Gaseous Mother Phase

XIII. Nucleation Rate

1. Definition of Nucleation Rate

2. Ratio of the Forward Rate w to the Reverse Rate w per Unit Surface Area

3. Kinetics of Nucleation

4. Nucleation of Water or Ice in Humid Air

5. Review of the Basic Elements of the Theory of Viscosity

6. Nucleation in a Pure Liquid

7. Nucleation in a Liquid Mixture

8. Experimental Tests in a Liquid Mother Phase

9. Calculation of Mean Freezing Temperature of Water Droplets

10. Values Used in Calculating Nucleation Rate and Freezing Temperature

11. Determination of Ice/Water Surface Tension0

12. Comparison of Values of Ice/Water Surface Tension Given by Various Authors

List of Symbols

Bibliography

Author Index

Subject Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 270

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 1963

- Published:
- 1st January 1963

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- eBook ISBN:
- 9781483282107

## About the Author

### Louis Dufour

### Raymond Defay

## About the Editor

### J. Van Mieghem

### Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Belgian Meteorological Institute, Uccle, Belgium