Description

Exothermic reactions used for the production of chemicals present a hazard if they proceed without control. Runaway reactions can result in bursting of the reactor and an emission of reactants and products, possibly followed by a gas explosion. Undesired exothermic reactions can be initiated during production, purification or storage due to high temperatures or other causes and can have similar destructive effects, even if their origin is different. Incidents that have occurred in the chemical industry have been investigated by experts and form the basis of the assessment methodology to determine the hazards of reactions.

The book provides a basis for understanding the hazards arising from exothermic reactions. The test methods for primary and secondary reactions are described. A large part of the book deals with estimating and measuring thermodynamic and kinetic data of reactions from which conditions for the safe handling of the reactions can be derived. It is necessary to understand the different types of explosions – thermal explosions, deflagrations, or detonations – that can proceed from chemical reactions. The description of incidents that have happened in large plants is important for this understanding. The data for exothermic decomposition reactions that commonly occur as secondary reactions can frequently be predicted or taken from literature. A table of relevant safety data is given at the end of the book.

Readership

Researchers and practitioners in the chemical industry and consultants to the industry

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Phenomenology of explosions in reacting systems
- Primary and secondary reactions
- Exothermic decomposition
- Autocatalytic reactions
- Thermal explosion
- Deflagration, detonation
Chapter 3. Test methods for exothermic decomposition and secondary reactions
-  Temperature-programmed and isothermal tests
-  Self-heating tests, Gas evolution and pressure rise
-  Deflagration and Detonation tests
Chapter 4. Discussion of characteristic data of exothermic decomposition
Chapter 5. Exothermic secondary reactions
Chapter 6. Primary reactions
Chapter 7. Incidents in chemical processes
22 typical case histories  
Chapter 8. Thermal explosion and runaway under practical conditions
Chapter 9. Thermal hazard evaluation of chemical reactions
Chapter 10. Safety relevant data of chemicals
- Comment to Tables 10.1 and 10.2
- Table 10.1. Safety relevant data of chemicals
- Table 10.2. Substances of no exothermic decomposition 

Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
Print ISBN:
9780444522269
Electronic ISBN:
9780080931326