# Theory of Microwave Valves

## 1st Edition

### International Series of Monographs on Electronics and Instrumentation

**Author:**S. D. Gvozdover

**Editors:**D. W. Fry W. A. Higinbotham

**eBook ISBN:**9781483152585

**Imprint:**Pergamon

**Published Date:**1st January 1961

**Page Count:**500

## Description

Theory of Microwave Valves deals with the theory of microwave devices which have found constant use in practice and the operation of which can be understood based on one type of oscillation or wave. The book begins with a review of the fundamental properties of the differential equations and the boundary conditions of electrodynamics, which are then applied to the analysis of the phenomena occurring in a cavity resonator through which an electron beam passes. Subsequent chapters cover the static characteristics of the plane diode; alternating voltage applied to a plane diode; electronics of the plane diode when the influence of space charge is negligible; and application of the total-current method to analyze the plane diode. Also included are separate chapters on the influence of transit effects on noise in a plane diode; amplification of high-frequency signals by a triode; general theory of single-circuit klystron oscillators; and noise in the electron beam. This book was written for students familiar with general electrodynamics at university level.

## Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1 Elements of Electrodynamics of Cavity Resonators

§1.1 The Differential Equations of Maxwell and Lorentz. Boundary Conditions

§1.2 Law of Conservation of Energy. Energy Conversion in a Cavity Resonator Excited by an Electron Beam

§1.3 The Natural Modes of Oscillation of a Cavity Resonator with Perfectly Conducting Walls

§1.4 Methods of Field Calculation

§1.5 Structure of Plane Waves

§1.6 Damped Oscillations in a Real Resonator

§L.7 The Complex Umov-Pointing Theorem

§1.8 The Influence of Small Parameter Variations on the Properties of a Cavity Resonator

§1.9 Frequency Change of the Proper Modes of a Cavity Resonator for a Small Deformation of Its Boundary Surface

§1.10 The Influence of Losses in the Walls on the Frequency of Proper Oscillations of a Cavity Resonator

§1.11 forced Oscillations in a Cavity Resonator

§1.12 Excitation of a Cavity Resonator by an Electron Beam

Chapter 2 Static Characteristics of the Plane Diode

§2.1 Theory of the Hot-Cathode Diode

§2.2 Expressions for the Space-Charge Densities in the A- and Β-Diodes

§2.3 Integration of the Equations

§2.4 Analysis of the Solutions Obtained Asymptotic Formula

§2.5 Potential Distribution in a Plane Diode in Which All Electrons Start Their Motion with Equal Initial Velocity

§2.6 First Example. The Electrons Leave the Cathode with Zero Initial Velocity

§2.7 Second Example. The Electrons Have an Initial Velocity and The anode Potential is Higher than the Cathode Potential

§2.8 Third Example. The Potential of the Electrodes is Positive, But The Grid Potential is Higher Than The anode Potential

§2.9 Potential Distribution and Transit Time of Electrons for a Negative anode Potential

Chapter 3 Alternating Voltage Applied to a Plane Diode. Basic Formula of Microwave Electronics

§3.1 Induced Current

§3.2 Change of Properties of the Electron Beam in a Plane Diode. Euler and Lagrange Variables

§3.3 Analysis of the Properties of the Electron Current. Graphical Interpretation

§3.4 Theory of the Plane Diode When an Alternating Electromotive force is Applied (Without the Influence of Space Charge)

§3.5 Calculation of the Effect of Space Charge Total Current Method of Greenberg

Chapter 4 Electronics of the Plane Diode When the Influence of Space Charge is Negligible

§4.1 Integration of the Equations of Motion

§4.2 Transit Time and Transit Angle

§4.3 Convergence of the Expansion (4*.14) Auxiliary Formula

§4.4 The Velocity of the Electrons and the Electron Current Distribution When the Electron Beam Leaves the Diode

§4.5 The Current in the External Circuit of the Diode

§4.6 Average Power Dissipated in the Diode

§4.7 Dielectric Constant and Conductivity of the Electron Beam

§4.8 The Admittance of the Diode

Chapter 5 Application of the Total-Current Method to the Analysis of the Plane Diode

§5.1 Current through a Diode Totally Limited by Space Charge

§5•2 Successive Approximations in the General Case

§5.3 Sinusoidal Voltage Applied to the Diode, When the Current is Totally Limited by Space Charge

§5.4 Power Dissipated at the anode of the Diode

§5.5 Application of the Laplace Transformation to the Integral Relations for the First Approximations

§5.6 Reduction of the Expressions for the Constant Components to Their Simplest Form

§5.7 Transformation of the Expressions for the First Approximations

Chapter 6 The Influence of Transit Effects on Noise in a Plane Diode

§6.1 Calculation Procedure. Phenomena in the Potential Minimum

§6.2 Fluctuations in the Β-Diode

§6.3 Noise in Linear Radio-Receiving Devices Transition from Laplace Transformations to Spectra

§6.F Calculation of the Correlation Coefficients and Their Properties

Chapter 7 Amplification of High-Frequency Signals by a Triode

§7.1 Substitution of a Triode by Equivalent Diodes

§7.2 Properties of the First Equivalent Diode Formed by the Cathode and the Ideal Grid

§7.3 Properties of the Second Equivalent Diode Formed by the Ideal Grid and the anode

§7.4 Grounded-Cathode Amplifier

§7.5 Grounded-Grid Amplifier

§7.6 Influence of Transit Effects in the Gridanode Space on a Grounded-Grid Amplifier

Chapter 8 General Theory of Single-Circuit Klystron Oscillators

§8.1 Elementary Theory of the Stable Operating Regime

§8.2 Theory of the Single-Circuit Klystron

§8.3 Characteristics of Stationary Oscillation Condition of Self-Excitation

§8.4 Graphical Interpretation of the Results Obtained

Chapter 9 Theory of the Reflex Klystron

§9.1 Mechanism of Self-Excitation of the Reflex Klystron

§9.2 Motion of Electrons in the Resonator and in the Reflector Field

§9.3 Expressions for the Reverse Convection Current IA Entering the Resonator. Induced Current

§9.4 Stationary Regime of Operation of a Reflex Klystron

§9.5 analysis of the Stationary Regime of Operation of the Reflex Klystron

§9.6 Build-up of Oscillations in a Reflex Klystron

§9.7 The Energy Delivered by the Reflex Klystron to the External Load

Chapter 10 Introduction to the Theory of the Multicavity Magnetron

§10.1 Motion of a Single Electron in Mutually Perpendicular Constant Electric and Magnetic Fields

§10.2 Qualitative Picture of the Phenomena in a Multicavity Magnetron

§10.3 Static Regime of a Cylindrical Magnetron with Continuous anode. Critical Parabola

§10.4 Properties of the Resonator System of the Magnetron

§10.5 Dynamic Regime of Operation of the Multicavity Magnetron. Threshold Line

Chapter 11 The Theory of Traveling-Wave Tubes

§11.1 Construction of a Traveling-Wave Tube Parameters of the Helical Line

§11.2 Electromagnetic Field inside the Electron Beam

§11.3 Electromagnetic Field outside the Beam. Consistent Solutions for the Different Regions

§11.4 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves along a Helically Conducting Sheet in the Absence of an Electron Beam

§11.5 Determination of the Propagation Constant Γ in the Case When an Electron Beam Traverses the Helically Conducting Sheet

§11.6 Analysis of the Roots of the Cubic Equation

§11.7 Influence of the Initial Conditions on the Performance of the Tube. Amplification of a Traveling-Wave Tube

Chapter 12. Noise in the Electron Beam. The Sensitivity of Traveling-Wave Tubes

§12.1 Noise in the Electron Gun

§12.2 Noise in the Electron Beam at the End of the Drift Space

§12.3 Noise Level at the Output of a Traveling Wave Tube

Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

References

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 500

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Pergamon 1961

- Published:
- 1st January 1961

- Imprint:
- Pergamon

- eBook ISBN:
- 9781483152585