Theory of Electromagnetic Well Logging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128040089, 9780128040591

Theory of Electromagnetic Well Logging

1st Edition

Authors: C. Richard Liu
eBook ISBN: 9780128040591
Paperback ISBN: 9780128040089
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 8th February 2017
Page Count: 732
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Description

Theory of Electromagnetic Well Logging provides a much-needed and complete analytical method for electromagnetic well logging technology. The book presents the physics and mathematics behind the effective measurement of rock properties using boreholes, allowing geophysicists, petrophysisists, geologists and engineers to interpret them in a more rigorous way.

Starting with the fundamental concepts, the book then moves on to the more classic subject of wireline induction logging, before exploring the subject of LWD logging, concluding with new thoughts on electromagnetic telemetry. Theory of Electromagnetic Well Logging is the only book offering an in-depth discussion of the analytical and numerical techniques needed for expert use of those new logging techniques.

Key Features

  • Features in-depth analysis of the analytical and numerical techniques needed for expert use of logging techniques
  • Includes software codes, providing a handy tool for understanding logging tool physics and design of new logging tools
  • Provides a detailed glossary of all key terms within the introductory chapter

Readership

Geophysicists, petrophysisists, geologists and engineers, including graduate, undergraduate students, in well logging and related areas

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction to Well Logging

  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Oil and Gas Exploration
  • 1.2 Well Logging Methods
  • 1.3 Nuclear Logging
  • 1.4 Sonic Logging
  • 1.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging
  • 1.6 Dielectric Logging
  • 1.7 Wireline Logging and Logging While Drilling
  • 1.8 Geosteering
  • 1.9 Summary of Electromagnetic Logging Tools
  • References

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Fields and Induction Logging Tools

  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Maxwell’s Equations
  • 2.2 Complex Permittivity
  • 2.3 Sources Js¯,Ps¯ and Ms¯
  • 2.4 Hertz Potential Π¯m
  • 2.5 Electromagnetic Fields Due to a Magnetic Dipole in a Homogeneous Medium
  • 2.6 Induced Electromotive Force (EMF) in the Receiving Coil and the Use of Bucking Coil
  • 2.7 Quasistatic Approximations and Skin Depth
  • 2.8 Apparent Conductivity
  • 2.9 Tool Constant and Skin-Effect Correction
  • 2.10 Direct Inversion of Induction Logging Data
  • 2.11 Spectrum Domain Solutions and Two-Coil Induction Tools in Layered Media
  • 2.12 Induction Arrays
  • References

Chapter 3. Electrical Properties of Sediment Rocks: Mixing Laws and Measurement Methods

  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Resistivity and Dielectric Constant of Rocks
  • 3.2 Archie’s Law
  • 3.3 Mixing Laws
  • 3.4 Frequency Dispersion of the Dielectric Constant
  • 3.5 Frequency Dispersion of the Conductivity
  • 3.6 Measurement Methods of Electrical Properties of Rocks
  • 3.7 TM010 Resonant Cavity Technique
  • References
  • Appendix A E Field Analysis of the Circuit Model of the Parallel-Disk Sample Holder
  • Appendix B Equipment Calibration Synopsis

Chapter 4. Triaxial Induction and Logging-While-Drilling Resistivity Tool Response in Homogeneous Anisotropic Formations

  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Magnetic Dipole in Homogeneous Lossy Media
  • 4.2 Finite Coil in Homogeneous Formation
  • 4.3 LWD Tool Response in Homogeneous Formation
  • 4.4 Triaxial Induction Logging Tool Response in Biaxial Anisotropic Homogeneous Formation
  • References
  • Appendix A Derivation of Parameters a and b in Eqs. (4.53)–(4.55)

Chapter 5. Triaxial Induction Tool and Logging-While-Drilling Tool Response in a Transverse Isotropic-Layered Formation

  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of a Magnetic Dipole Source in a Transverse Isotropic Homogeneous Formation
  • 5.3 Magnetic Dipole in a Layered Formation
  • 5.4 Convergence Algorithm
  • 5.5 Simulation Results and Analysis
  • 5.6 Analysis of Anisotropy Impact to the Resistivity LWD Tool
  • References
  • Appendix A Derivation of Hertz Vector Potential in Multiple Layer Formation

Chapter 6. Triaxial Induction and Logging-While-Drilling Logging Tool Response in a Biaxial Anisotropic-Layered Formation

  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Spectral-Domain Solution to Maxwell’s Equations in a Homogeneous Biaxial Anisotropic Medium
  • 6.2 Propagation in Unbounded Medium
  • 6.3 Propagation in Layered Medium
  • 6.4 Computation of the Double Integrals
  • 6.5 Numerical Examples
  • References
  • Appendix A Derivation of Matrix A

Chapter 7. Induction and LWD Tool Response in a Cylindrically Layered Isotropic Formation

  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Induction and LWD Tool Response in a Four-Layer Cylindrical Medium
  • 7.3 Response of Induction and LWD Tools in Arbitrary Cylindrically Layered Media
  • 7.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix A Derivation for the Magnetic Fields in Spectral Domain
  • Appendix B Derivation for the Expression of Electrical Field for the Homogeneous Formation in Spectral Domain
  • Appendix C Derivation for the Expression of Electrical Field for Arbitrary Cylindrical Layered Formations in Spectral Domain

Chapter 8. Induction and Logging-While-Drilling Resistivity Tool Response in a Two-Dimensional Isotropic Formation

  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Formulations
  • 8.3 Numerical Consideration
  • 8.4 Verifications
  • 8.5 Array Induction Logs
  • 8.6 Measurement-While-Drilling Logs
  • 8.7 Simulation of Effects of Mandrel Grooves on MWD Conductivity Logs
  • 8.8 Summary
  • References

Chapter 9. Theory of Inversion for Triaxial Induction and Logging-While-Drilling Logging Data in One- and Two-Dimensional Formations

  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Gauss–Newton Algorithm
  • 9.3 Cholesky Factorization
  • 9.4 Line Search
  • 9.5 Jacobian Matrix
  • 9.6 Constraints
  • 9.7 Initial Values
  • 9.8 Inversion Results and Analysis
  • 9.9 Inversion of Induction Logs in a Two-Dimensional Formation
  • 9.10 Summary
  • References

Chapter 10. The Application of Image Theory in Geosteering

  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Theory of Forward Modeling Using Image Theory
  • 10.3 Simulation Results and Discussions
  • 10.4 Boundary Distance Inversion
  • 10.5 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 11. Ahead-of-the-Bit Tools and Far Detection Electromagnetic Tools

  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Ahead-of-the-Bit Field Distribution of LWD Tools
  • 11.3 Toroidal Transmitter
  • 11.4 Boundary Detection Using Orthogonal Antennas
  • 11.5 Deep-Looking Directional Resistivity Tool
  • 11.6 Distance Inversion Based on the Gauss–Newton Algorithm
  • 11.7 Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 12. Principle of Dielectric Logging Tools

  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 History of Dielectric Tool Study
  • 12.3 Frequency Selection of a Dielectric Tool
  • 12.4 Antenna Spacing
  • 12.5 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 12.6 Sensitivity Analysis in Anisotropic Formation
  • 12.7 Dielectric Logging Tool Design and Modeling Using Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling Software Package
  • 12.8 Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna
  • 12.9 Effects of the Pad
  • 12.10 Borehole Mud Influence
  • 12.11 Vertical Resolution
  • 12.12 Mud Cake and Invasion
  • 12.13 Depth of Investigation
  • 12.14 Applications of Dielectric Tools
  • 12.15 Summary
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter 13. Finite Element Method for Solving Electrical Logging Problems in Axially Symmetrical Formations

  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Overview of the Numerical Simulation Methods for Well Logging Problems
  • 13.2 Finite Element Method Based on Magnetic Field
  • 13.3 Analysis of Transverse Electric Mode and Transverse Magnetic Mode
  • 13.4 Vector Matrix Equation of Magnetic Field and Impedance Matrix
  • 13.5 The Basis Functions
  • 13.6 Evaluation of Impedance Element Matrix for Rectangular Element Based on Hϕ
  • 13.7 Evaluation of Impedance Element Matrix for Rectangular Element Based on ρHϕ
  • 13.8 Evaluation of Impedance Element Matrix for Triangular Element Based on Hϕ
  • 13.9 FEM Based on Electric Field
  • 13.10 Evaluation of Triangular Element Matrix Based on Eϕ (TE Mode)
  • 13.11 FEM Model of Sources
  • References
  • Appendix A Vector Analysis in Cylindrical Coordinates
  • Appendix B Computation Method for Matrix Assembling Rule
  • Appendix C Computation Method of Element Matrix for Rectangular Element Based on Hϕ (Section 13.6)
  • Appendix D Computation Method of Element Matrix for Rectangular Element Based on ρHϕ (Section 13.7)
  • Appendix E Term 4 (Section 13.8.3.9)
  • Appendix F Computation Method of Element Matrix for Triangular Element Based on Hϕ (Section 2.7.4)
  • Appendix G Computation Method of Element Matrix for Triangular Element Based on Eϕ (Section 3.3)

Chapter 14. Resistivity Imaging Tools

  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Water-Based Mud Resistivity Imaging Tool
  • 14.3 The Oil-Based Mud Resistivity Imager
  • 14.4 Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 15. Laterolog Tools and Array Laterolog Tools

  • Abstract
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Basics of Electrode Type of Logging Tools
  • 15.3 The Laterolog Focusing Principle and the Model of Dual Laterolog Tool
  • 15.4 Application of Finite Element Method on Alternating Current Dual Laterolog Tool
  • 15.5 Validation of the Computational Method
  • 15.6 Simulation Result
  • 15.7 Array Laterolog Tool
  • References
  • Appendix A Computation Method of Source Model for Alternating Current Dual Laterolog Tool

Chapter 16. Theory of the Through-Casing Resistivity Logging Tool

  • Abstract
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Through-Casing Resistivity Measurement Procedure
  • 16.3 Circuit Model of the Through-Casing Resistivity Tool
  • 16.4 Finite Element Method Simulation of the Through-Casing Resistivity Logging Tool
  • 16.5 Through casing logs from a Toroidal Antenna
  • References

Chapter 17. Electromagnetic Telemetry System and Electromagnetic Short Hop Telemetry in a Logging-While-Drilling/Measuring-While-Drilling Tool

  • Abstract
  • 17.1 Introduction to Logging-While-Drilling/Measuring-While-Drilling Uplink and Downlink Technologies
  • 17.2 The Numerical Model of Electromagnetic Telemetry System
  • 17.3 Application of Finite Element Method on Electromagnetic Telemetry Systems
  • 17.4 Validation of the Computation Algorithm in a Cased Borehole
  • 17.5 Simulation Result Without Casing
  • 17.6 Short Hop Electromagnetic Telemetry Used in a Near Bit Logging-While-Drilling Sensor
  • 17.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix A Computation Method of Source Model for EM Telemetry System (Section 17.3.2)

Appendix A. LogSimulator User Manual: Theory of Electromagnetic Well Logging

  • A.1 Introduction
  • A.2 Use of the Program
  • A.3 Run Simulation

Details

No. of pages:
732
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128040591
Paperback ISBN:
9780128040089

About the Author

C. Richard Liu

Dr. Liu has been the director of well logging lab at the University of Houston for more than 26 years. He has worked on research projects related to microwave passive and active networks, RF circuit design, radio systems and networking, numerical computation of electromagnetic scattering and propagation, hardware and software design of ground-penetrating radar systems, electromagnetic tomography, microwave telecommunication systems, electrical properties of rocks, and well logging. He has graduated more than 50 Ph.D and MS students in the area of well logging and subsurface sensing. He has published more than 150 papers in this area.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Faculty, University of Houston, USA