Theory of Aerospace Propulsion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856179126, 9780123848895

Theory of Aerospace Propulsion

1st Edition

Authors: Pasquale Sforza
eBook ISBN: 9780123848895
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856179126
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 21st October 2011
Page Count: 704
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Idealized Flow Machines

1.1. Conservation Equations

1.2. Flow Machines with No Heat Addition: The Propeller

1.3. Flow Machines with P = 0 and Q = Constant: The Turbojet, Ramjet, and Scramjet

1.4. Flow Machines with P = 0, Q = Constant, and A0 = 0: The Rocket

1.5. The Special Case of Combined Heat and Power: The Turbofan

1.6. Force Field for Air-Breathing Engines

1.7. Conditions for Maximum Thrust

1.8. Example: Jet and Rocket Engine Performance

1.9. Nomenclature

Chapter 2. Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow Equations

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Equation of State

2.3. Speed of Sound

2.4. Mach Number

2.5. Conservation of Mass

2.6. Conservation of Energy

2.7. Example: Heating Values for Different Fuel–Oxidizer Combinations

2.8. Conservation of Species

2.9. Conservation of Momentum

2.10. Impulse Function

2.11. Stagnation Pressure

2.12. Equations of Motion in Standard Form

2.13. Example: Flow in a Duct with Friction

2.14. Nomenclature

Chapter 3. Idealized Cycle Analysis of Jet Propulsion Engines

3.1. Introduction

3.2. General Jet Engine Cycle

3.3. Ideal Jet Engine Cycle Analysis

3.4. Ideal Turbojet in Maximum Power Take-Off

3.5. Ideal Turbojet in High Subsonic Cruise in The Stratosphere

3.6. Ideal Turbojet in Supersonic Cruise in The Stratosphere

3.7. Ideal Ramjet in High Supersonic Cruise in The Stratosphere

3.8. Ideal Turbofan in Maximum Power Take-Off

3.9. Ideal Turbofan in High Subsonic Cruise in The Stratosphere

3.10. Ideal Internal Turbofan in Supersonic Cruise in The Stratosphere

3.11. Real Engine Operations

3.12. Nomenclature

Chapter 4. Combustion Chambers for Air-Breathing Engines

4.1. Combustion Chamber Attributes

4.2. Modeling the Chemical Energy Release

4.3. Constant Area Combustors

4.4. Example: Constant Area Combustor

4.5. Constant Pressure Combustors

4.6. Fuels for Air-Breathing Engines

4.7. Combustor Efficiency

4.8. Combustor Configuration

4.9. Example: Secondary Air for Cooling

4.10. Criteria for Equilibrium in Chemical Reactions

4.11. Calculation of Equilibrium Compositions

4.12. Example: Homogeneous Reactions with a Direct Solution

4.13. Example: Homogeneous Reactions with Trial-And-Error Solution

4.14. Example: Estimation of Importance of Neglected Product Species

4.15. Adiabatic Flame Temperature

4.16. Example: Adiabatic Flame Temperature for Stoichiometric H2–O2 Mixture

4.17. Nomenclature

Chapter 5. Nozzles

5.1. Nozzle Characteristics and Simplifying Assumptions

5.2. Flow in a Nozzle with Simple Area Change

5.3. Mass Flow in an Isentropic Nozzle

5.4. Nozzle Operation

5.5. Normal Shock inside the Nozzle

5.6. Example: Shock in Nozzle

5.7. Two-Dimensional Considerations in Nozzle Flows

5.8. Example: Overexpanded Nozzles

5.9. Example: Underexpanded Nozzles

5.10. Afterburning for Increased Thrust

5.11. Nozzle Configurations

5.12. Nozzle Performance

5.13. Nomenclature

Chapter 6. Inlets

6.1. Inlet Operation

6.2. Inlet Mass Flow Performance

6.3. Inlet Pressure Performance

6.4. Subsonic Inlets

6.5. Normal Shock Inlets in Supersonic Flight

6.6. Internal Compression Inlets

6.7. Internal Compression Inlet Operation

6.8. Example: Internal Compression Inlet

6.9. Additive Drag

6.10. External Compression Inlets

6.11. Example: External Compression Inlet

6.12. Mixed Compression Inlets

6.13. Hypersonic Flight Considerations

6.14. Nomenclature

Chapter 7. Turbomachinery

7.1. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Compressor and a Turbine

7.2. Energy Transfer between a Fluid and a Rotor

7.3. The Centrifugal Compressor

7.4. Centrifugal Compressors, Radial Turbines, and Jet Engines

7.5. Axial Flow Compressor

7.6. Axial Flow Turbine

7.7. Axial Flow Compressor and Turbine Performance Maps

7.8. Three-dimensional Considerations in Axial Flow Turbomachines

7.9. Nomenclature

Chapter 8. Blade Element Theory for Axial Flow Turbomachines

8.1. Cascades

8.2. Straight Cascades

8.3. Elemental Blade Forces

8.4. Elemental Blade Power

8.5. Degree of Reaction and Pressure Coefficient

8.6. Nondimensional Combined Velocity Diagram

8.7. Adiabatic Efficiency

8.8. Secondary Flow Losses in Blade Passages

8.9. Blade Loading and Separation

8.10. Characteristics of Blade Pressure Field

8.11. Critical Mach Number

8.12. Linearized Subsonic Compressible Flow

8.13. Plane Compressible Flow

8.14. Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

8.15. Nomenclature

Chapter 9. Turbine Engine Performance and Component Integration

9.1. Turbojet and Turbofan Engine Configurations

9.2. Operational Requirements

9.3. Compressor–Turbine Matching—Case 1: Nozzle Minimum Area and Combustor Exit Stagnation Temperature Specified

9.4. Compressor–Turbine Matching—Case 2: Mass Flow Rate and Engine Speed Specified

9.5. Inlet–Engine Matching

9.6. Example: Basic Compressor–Turbine Matching

9.7. Thrust Monitoring and Control in Flight

9.8. Fuel Delivery Systems

9.9. Thrust Reversers

9.10. Estimating Thrust and Specific Fuel Consumption in Cruise

9.11. Engine Cost

9.12. Loads on Turbomachinery Components

9.13. Nomenclature

Chapter 10. Propellers

10.1. Classical Momentum Theory

10.2. Blade Element Theory

10.3. Propeller Charts and Empirical Methods

10.4. The Variable Speed Propeller

10.5. Propeller Performance

10.6. Example: Propeller Selection

10.7. Ducted Propellers

10.8. Turboprops

10.9. Nomenclature

Chapter 11. Liquid Rockets

11.1. Liquid Rocket Motors

11.2. Specific Impulse

11.3. Example: Rocket Performance

11.4. Combustion Chambers

11.5. Liquid Rocket Motor Operational Considerations

11.6. Rocket Propellants

11.7. Rocket Characteristics

11.8. Propellant Tank and Feed System Design

11.9. Nomenclature

Chapter 12. Solid Propellant Rockets

12.1. Solid Rocket Description

12.2. Solid Propellant Grain Configurations

12.3. Burning Rate

12.4. Grain Design for Thrust-Time Tailoring

12.5. Combustion Chamber Pressure

12.6. Erosive Burning

12.7. Solid Rocket Performance

12.8. Transient Operations

12.9. Example: Tubular Grain Rocket Motor

12.10. Nozzle Heat Transfer

12.11. Hybrid Rockets

12.12. Nomenclature

Chapter 13. Nuclear Rockets

13.1. Nuclear Rockets for Space Exploration

13.2. Nuclear Rocket Engine Configuration

13.3. Exhaust Velocity

13.4. Nuclear Reactors

13.5. Nuclear Reactions

13.6. Reactor Operation

13.7. Fuels for Nuclear Propulsion and Power

13.8. Nuclear Rocket Performance

13.9. Gas Core Nuclear Rockets

13.10. Nuclear Ramjets

13.11. Nomenclature

Chapter 14. Space Propulsion

14.1. Space Propulsion Systems

14.2. Electric Propulsion Systems

14.3. Electrothermal Propulsion Devices

14.4. Electrostatic Propulsion Devices

14.5. Electromagnetic Propulsion Devices

14.6. Nomenclature

Chapter 15. Propulsion Aspects of High-Speed Flight

15.1. Flight Time

15.2. Flight Productivity

15.3. Fuel Burn

15.4. Flight Range

Appendix A. Shock Waves, Expansions, Tables and Charts

Appendix B. Properties of Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion

Appendix C. Earth's Atmosphere

Appendix D. Boost Phase and Staging of Rockets

Appendix E. Safety, Reliability, and Risk Assessment

Appendix F. Aircraft Performance

Appendix G. Thermodynamic Properties of Selected Species



Theory of Aerospace Propulsion provides excellent coverage of aerospace propulsion systems, including propellers, nuclear rockets, and space propulsion. The book's in-depth, quantitative treatment of the components of jet propulsion engines provides the tools for evaluation and component matching for optimal system performance. Worked examples and end of chapter exercises provide practice for analysis, preliminary design, and systems integration.

Readers of this book will be able to utilize the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics to analyze aircraft engines; understand the common gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems and be able to determine the applicability of each; perform system studies of aircraft engine systems for specified flight conditions; perform preliminary aerothermal design of turbomachinery components; conceive, analyze, and optimize competing preliminary designs for conventional and unconventional missions. The book is organized into 15 chapters covering a wide array of topics such as idealized flow machines; quasi-one-dimensional flow equations; idealized cycle analysis of jet engines; combustion chambers for airbreathing engines; nozzles and inlets; turbomachinery; blade element analysis of axial flow turbomachines; turbine engine performance and component integration; propellers; liquid rockets; solid propellant rockets; nuclear rockets; space propulsion; and propulsion aspects of high-speed flight.

This book will appeal to aerospace or mechanical engineers working in gas turbines, turbomachinery, aircraft propulsion and rocket propulsion, and to undergraduate and graduate level students in aerospace or mechanical engineering studying aerospace propulsion or turbomachinery.

Key Features

  • Early coverage of cycle analysis provides a systems perspective, and offers context for the chapters on turbomachinery and components
  • Broader coverage than found in most other books - including coverage of  propellers, nuclear rockets, and space propulsion - allows analysis and design of more types of propulsion systems
  • In depth, quantitative treatments of the components of jet propulsion engines provides the tools for evaluation and component matching for optimal system performance
  • Worked examples and end of chapter exercises provide practice for analysis, preliminary design, and systems integration




Aerospace or mechanical engineers working in gas turbines, turbomachinery, aircraft propulsion and rocket propulsion.  Undergraduate and graduate level students in aerospace or mechanical engineering studying aerospace propulsion or turbomachinery.


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About the Authors

Pasquale Sforza Author

Pasquale Sforza received his PhD from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in 1965. He has taught courses related to commercial airplane design at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and the University of Florida. His research interests include propulsion, gas dynamics, and air and space vehicle design. Dr. Sforza has also acted as Co-Editor of the Journal of Directed Energy and Book Review Editor for the AIAA Journal. His previous books include Theory of Aerospace Propulsion (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2011) and Commercial Airplane Design Principles, (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2014)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA