Theory of Aerospace Propulsion - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128093269, 9780128096017

Theory of Aerospace Propulsion

2nd Edition

Authors: Pasquale Sforza
eBook ISBN: 9780128096017
Paperback ISBN: 9780128093269
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 26th August 2016
Page Count: 848
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Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Chapter 1: Propulsion Principles and Engine Classification
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction to Aerospace Propulsion Engines
    • 1.2 Conservation Equations
    • 1.3 Flow Machines With No Heat Addition: Propellers, Fans, Compressors, and Turbines
    • 1.4 Flow Machines With No Net Power Addition: Turbojets, Ramjets, Scramjets, and Pulsejets
    • 1.5 Flow Machines With P = 0, Q = Constant and A0 = 0: The Rocket
    • 1.6 The Special Case of Combined Heat and Power: The Turbofan
    • 1.7 Aerospace Propulsion Fuels
    • 1.8 Space Propulsion Engines
    • 1.9 The Force Field for Airbreathing Engines
    • 1.10 Summary
    • 1.11 Useful Constants and Conversion Factors
    • 1.12 Nomenclature
    • 1.13 Exercises
  • Chapter 2: Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow Equations
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Introduction to the Flow Equations
    • 2.2 Equation of State
    • 2.3 Speed of Sound
    • 2.4 Mach Number
    • 2.5 Conservation of Mass
    • 2.6 Conservation of Energy
    • 2.7 Conservation of Species
    • 2.8 Conservation of Momentum
    • 2.9 The Impulse Function
    • 2.10 The Stagnation Pressure
    • 2.11 The Equations of Motion in Standard Form
    • 2.12 Summary
    • 2.13 Nomenclature
    • 2.14 Exercises
  • Chapter 3: Idealized Cycle Analysis of Jet Propulsion Engines
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Introduction to Engine Cycle Analysis
    • 3.2 General Jet Engine Cycle
    • 3.3 Ideal Jet Engine Cycle Analysis
    • 3.4 Ideal Turbojet in Maximum Power Takeoff
    • 3.5 Ideal Turbojet in High Subsonic Cruise in the Stratosphere
    • 3.6 Ideal Turbojet in Supersonic Cruise in the Stratosphere
    • 3.7 Ideal Ramjet in High Supersonic Cruise in the Stratosphere
    • 3.8 Ideal Turbofan in Maximum Power Takeoff
    • 3.9 Ideal Turbofan in High Subsonic Cruise in the Stratosphere
    • 3.10 Ideal Internal Turbofan in Supersonic Cruise in the Stratosphere
    • 3.11 Ideal Scramjet in Hypersonic Cruise in the Stratosphere
    • 3.12 Real Engine Operations
    • 3.13 Summary
    • 3.14 Nomenclature
    • 3.15 Exercises
  • Chapter 4: Combustion Chambers for Airbreathing Engines
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction to Combustion Chambers
    • 4.2 Combustion Chamber Attributes
    • 4.3 Modeling the Chemical Energy Release
    • 4.4 Constant Area Combustors
    • 4.5 Constant Pressure Combustors
    • 4.6 Fuels for Airbreathing Engines
    • 4.7 Combustor Efficiency
    • 4.8 Combustor Configuration
    • 4.9 Supersonic Combustion
    • 4.10 Criteria for Equilibrium in Chemical Reactions
    • 4.11 Calculation of Equilibrium Compositions
    • 4.12 Adiabatic Flame Temperature
    • 4.13 Summary
    • 4.14 Nomenclature
    • 4.15 Exercises
  • Chapter 5: Nozzles for Airbreathing Engines
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Introduction to Nozzles
    • 5.2 Nozzle Characteristics and Simplifying Assumptions
    • 5.3 Nozzle Flows With Simple Area Change
    • 5.4 Mass Flow in an Isentropic Nozzle
    • 5.5 Nozzle Operation
    • 5.6 Normal Shock Inside the Nozzle
    • 5.7 Two-Dimensional Considerations in Nozzle Flows
    • 5.8 Conditions for Maximum Thrust
    • 5.9 Afterburning for Increased Thrust
    • 5.10 Nozzle Configurations
    • 5.11 Nozzle Performance
    • 5.12 Summary
    • 5.13 Nomenclature
    • 5.14 Exercises
  • Chapter 6: Inlets for Airbreathing Engines
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction to Inlets
    • 6.2 Inlet Operation
    • 6.3 Inlet Mass Flow Performance
    • 6.4 Inlet Pressure Performance
    • 6.5 Inlets in Subsonic Flight
    • 6.6 Normal Shock Inlets in Supersonic Flight
    • 6.7 Internal Compression Inlets
    • 6.8 Internal Compression Inlet Operation
    • 6.9 Additive Drag
    • 6.10 External Compression Inlets
    • 6.11 Mixed Compression Inlets
    • 6.12 Total Pressure Recovery With Friction and Shock Wave Losses
    • 6.13 Hypersonic Flight Considerations
    • 6.14 Summary
    • 6.15 Nomenclature
    • 6.16 Exercises
  • Chapter 7: Turbomachinery
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction to Turbomachines for Propulsion
    • 7.2 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Compressor and a Turbine
    • 7.3 Energy Transfer Between a Fluid and a Rotor
    • 7.4 The Centrifugal Compressor
    • 7.5 Centrifugal Compressors, Radial Turbines, and Jet Engines
    • 7.6 The Axial Flow Compressor
    • 7.7 The Axial Flow Turbine
    • 7.8 Axial Flow Compressor and Turbine Performance Maps
    • 7.9 Three-Dimensional Considerations in Axial Flow Turbomachines
    • 7.10 Summary
    • 7.11 Nomenclature
    • 7.12 Exercises
  • Chapter 8: Blade Element Theory for Axial Flow Turbomachines
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction to Flows Through Blade Passages
    • 8.2 Cascades
    • 8.3 Straight Cascades
    • 8.4 Elemental Blade Forces
    • 8.5 Elemental Blade Power
    • 8.6 Degree of Reaction and the Pressure Coefficient
    • 8.7 Nondimensional Combined Velocity Diagram
    • 8.8 Adiabatic Efficiency
    • 8.9 Secondary Flow Losses in the Blade Passages
    • 8.10 Compressor Blade Loading and Boundary Layer Separation
    • 8.11 Characteristics of the Compressor Blade Pressure Field
    • 8.12 Critical Mach Number and Compressibility Effects
    • 8.13 Turbine Blade Heat Transfer
    • 8.14 Summary
    • 8.15 Nomenclature
    • 8.16 Exercises
  • Chapter 9: Airbreathing Engine Performance and Component Integration
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction to Airbreathing Engine Performance
    • 9.2 Turbojet and Turbofan Engine Configurations
    • 9.3 Operational Requirements
    • 9.4 Compressor-Turbine Matching—Case 1: Nozzle Minimum Area and Combustor Exit Stagnation Temperature Specified
    • 9.5 Compressor-Turbine Matching—Case 2: Mass Flow Rate and Engine Speed Specified
    • 9.6 Inlet-Engine Matching
    • 9.7 Thrust Monitoring and Control in Flight
    • 9.8 Fuel Delivery Systems
    • 9.9 Thrust Reversers
    • 9.10 Estimating Thrust and Specific Fuel Consumption in Cruise
    • 9.11 Engine Cost
    • 9.12 Loads on Turbomachinery Components
    • 9.13 Summary
    • 9.14 Nomenclature
    • 9.15 Exercises
  • Chapter 10: Propellers
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction to Propellers
    • 10.2 Classical Control Volume Analysis
    • 10.3 Blade Element Analysis
    • 10.4 Propeller Charts and Empirical Methods
    • 10.5 The Variable Speed Propeller
    • 10.6 Propeller Performance
    • 10.7 Ducted Propellers
    • 10.8 Turboprops
    • 10.9 Geared Turbofans and Open Rotors
    • 10.10 Summary
    • 10.11 Nomenclature
    • 10.12 Exercises
  • Chapter 11: Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors
    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Introduction to Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors
    • 11.2 Liquid Propellant Rocket Motor Nozzles
    • 11.3 Specific Impulse
    • 11.4 Liquid Propellants
    • 11.5 Combustion Chambers for Liquid Propellant Rockets
    • 11.6 Liquid Propellant Rocket Motor Operational Considerations
    • 11.7 Characteristics of Real Liquid Propellant Rockets
    • 11.8 Liquid Propellant Tanks and Feed Systems
    • 11.9 Summary
    • 11.10 Useful Constants, Definitions, and Conversion Factors
    • 11.11 Nomenclature
    • 11.12 Exercises
  • Chapter 12: Solid Propellant Rocket Motors
    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Introduction to Solid Propellant Rocket Motors
    • 12.2 Solid Propellant Rocket Description
    • 12.3 Solid Propellant Grain Configurations
    • 12.4 Burning Rate
    • 12.5 Grain Design for Thrust-Time Tailoring
    • 12.6 Combustion Chamber Pressure
    • 12.7 Erosive Burning
    • 12.8 Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Performance
    • 12.9 Transient Operation of Solid Propellant Rocket Motors
    • 12.10 Nozzle Heat Transfer
    • 12.11 Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Sizing
    • 12.12 Hybrid Rockets
    • 12.13 Summary
    • 12.14 Nomenclature
    • 12.15 Exercises
  • Chapter 13: Space Propulsion
    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Introduction to Space Propulsion
    • 13.2 Space Propulsion Systems
    • 13.3 Electric Propulsion Systems
    • 13.4 Electrothermal Propulsion Devices
    • 13.5 Electrostatic Propulsion Devices
    • 13.6 Electromagnetic Propulsion Devices
    • 13.7 Nuclear Propulsion Devices
    • 13.8 Summary
    • 13.9 Nomenclature
    • 13.10 Exercises
  • Appendix A: Shock Waves, Expansions, Tables and Charts
    • A.1 Normal Shock Wave Relations
    • A.2 Oblique Shock Wave Relations
    • A.3 Prandtl-Meyer Expansion
    • A.4 Tables and Charts for Isentropic Compressible Gas Flows and Shock Waves in a Gas With γ = 1.4
    • A.5 Nomenclature
  • Appendix B: Properties of Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion
    • B.1 Tables and Charts of Some Thermodynamic Properties
    • B.2 Nomenclature
  • Appendix C: Earth's Atmosphere
    • C.1 The Atmospheric Environment
    • C.2 The 1976 US Standard Atmosphere Model
    • C.3 Tables of Atmospheric Properties
    • C.4 Nomenclature
  • Appendix D: Boost Phase and Staging of Rockets
    • D.1 General Equations for Launch Vehicles
    • D.2 Simplified Boost Analysis With Constant Thrust and Zero Lift and Drag
    • D.3 Staging of Rockets
    • D.4 Single-Stage to Orbit (SSTO)
    • D.5 Two-Stage Vehicle to Orbit (TSTO)
    • D.6 Three-Stage Vehicle to Orbit
    • D.7 Staging Considerations
    • D.8 Nomenclature
  • Appendix E: Safety, Reliability, and Risk Assessment
    • E.1 System Safety and Reliability
    • E.2 Apportioning Mission Reliability
    • E.3 The Reliability Function
    • E.4 Failure Rate Models and Reliability Estimation
    • E.5 Apportionment Goals
    • E.6 Overview of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)
    • E.7 Launch Escape Systems and Crew Safety
    • E.8 Nomenclature
  • Appendix F: Aircraft Performance
    • F.1 The Range Equation
    • F.2 Take-Off Performance
    • F.3 Turboprop Powered Aircraft
    • F.4 The Air Data System
    • F.5 Nomenclature
  • Appendix G: Thermodynamic Properties of Selected Species
    • G.1 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties
    • G.2 Reference
    • G.3 Properties of Selected Species
  • Appendix H: Units and Conversion Factors
  • Index

Description

Theory of Aerospace Propulsion, Second Edition, teaches engineering students how to utilize the fundamental principles of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics to analyze aircraft engines, understand the common gas turbine aircraft propulsion systems, be able to determine the applicability of each, perform system studies of aircraft engine systems for specified flight conditions and preliminary aerothermal design of turbomachinery components, and conceive, analyze, and optimize competing preliminary designs for conventional and unconventional missions. This updated edition has been fully revised, with new content, new examples and problems, and improved illustrations to better facilitate learning of key concepts.

Key Features

  • Includes broader coverage than that found in most other books, including coverage of propellers, nuclear rockets, and space propulsion to allows analysis and design of more types of propulsion systems
  • Provides in-depth, quantitative treatments of the components of jet propulsion engines, including the tools for evaluation and component matching for optimal system performance
  • Contains additional worked examples and progressively challenging end-of- chapter exercises that provide practice for analysis, preliminary design, and systems integration

Readership

Undergraduate and graduate level students in aerospace or mechanical engineering studying aerospace propulsion or turbomachinery. Aerospace or mechanical engineers working in gas turbines, turbomachinery, aircraft propulsion and rocket propulsion


Details

No. of pages:
848
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9780128096017
Paperback ISBN:
9780128093269

About the Authors

Pasquale Sforza Author

Pasquale Sforza received his PhD from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in 1965. He has taught courses related to commercial airplane design at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and the University of Florida. His research interests include propulsion, gas dynamics, and air and space vehicle design. Dr. Sforza has also acted as Co-Editor of the Journal of Directed Energy and Book Review Editor for the AIAA Journal. His previous books include Theory of Aerospace Propulsion (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2011) and Commercial Airplane Design Principles, (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2014)

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA