Theory and Practice of Biological Control

Theory and Practice of Biological Control

1st Edition - January 28, 1977

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  • Editor: C.B. Huffaker
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142441

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The Theory and Practice of Biological Control covers conventional biological control achievement in the major crop types and in public health problems. Composed of five sections encompassing 28 chapters, this book discusses the basic information concerning developments in other biologically based alternatives to chemical pesticides. The first two sections discuss the philosophy, theory, scope, history, and the biological and ecological bases of biological control. These sections also deal with the impact of predators and the host relationships of parasitoids and pathogens. The following section presents the methodological aspects of biological control. Discussions on the variability of natural enemies as encountered in biological control work; the fitness of individuals and populations; the ways fitness is being or can be influenced by importation procedures; and the ability of imported natural enemies to adapt to the new environment are included. The fourth section outlines the accomplishments of conventional biological control in various types of crops, forests, and public health areas. Lastly, the various components of integrated pest control other than conventional biological control that forms the essential ways used in the integrated control approach are covered in the last section of the book. This book is an ideal source for plant pathologists and researchers, microbiologists, parasitologists, and public health professionals.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Section I Introduction, History, and Ecological Basis of Biological Control

    1 The Philosophy, Scope, and Importance of Biological Control

    I. Introduction and Philosophy

    II. The Scope of Biological Control

    III. Biological Control and Integrated Control

    IV. The Importance, Limitations, and Future of Biological Control


    2 History of Biological Control

    I. Introduction

    II. Early History

    III. Intensive Period

    IV. Microbial Control

    V. International Organizations

    VI. Conclusions


    3 The Theoretical and Empirical Basis of Biological Control

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Control and the Balance of Nature

    III. The Role of Natural Enemies in Natural Control

    IV. Some Controversial Questions concerning Biological Control

    V. The Economics of Biological Control

    VI. Conclusion


    Section II Biology and Systematics in Biological Control

    4 Relationship of Systematics to Biological Control

    I. The Problem of Identification

    II. The Limitations of the Morphological Species Concept

    III. The Use of Other Morphological Characteristics

    IV. The Interpretation of Sibling Species

    V. Taxonomic Studies and Ecosystem Sampling

    VI. Need for Arthropod Specimen Data-Management Systems


    5 The Biology and Impact of Predators

    I. Introduction

    II. Impact of Predators

    III. Predatory Insects

    IV. Predatory Araneae and Acari


    6 Biology and Host Relationships of Parasitoids

    I. The Parasitoid in Nature

    II. The Developing Parasitoid

    III. Special Host Relationships


    7 Host Relationships and Utility of Pathogens

    I. Introduction

    II. Virus Infections

    III. Bacterial Infections

    IV. Fungus Infections

    V. Protozoan Infections

    VI. Nematode Infections

    VII. Future Prospects


    Section III Methodology

    8 Foreign Exploration and Importation of Natural Enemies

    I. Introduction

    II. Planning and Preparation of the Program

    III. Inventory Research and Investigations on Selected Species

    IV. Importation of Natural Enemies


    9 Variation, Fitness, and Adaptability of Natural Enemies

    I. Introduction

    II. Variability in Natural Enemies

    III. Fitness of Natural Enemies

    IV. Desirable Characteristics in Natural Enemies

    V. Improving the Adaptability of Imported Species

    VI. Conclusions


    10 Conservation and Augmentation of Natural Enemies

    I. Introduction

    II. Conceptual Basis for Conservation and Augmentation of Natural Enemies

    III. Natural Enemy Releases

    IV. Environmental Manipulations

    V. Manipulations in Glasshouses

    VI. Future Prospects


    11 Evaluation of the Impact of Natural Enemies

    I. Introduction

    II. Selection of Study Areas and the Duration of Studies

    III. Population Sampling

    IV. Experimental or Comparison Methods of Evaluation

    V. Census, Life Table, and Correlation Methods of Evaluation of Natural Enemies


    Section IV Biological Control in Specific Problem Areas

    12 Biological Control of Pests of Coniferous Forests

    I. Introduction

    II. Evaluation of Past Biological Control Attempts

    III. Microbial Agents

    IV. Prospects for Biological Control


    13 Biological Control of Pests of Broad-Leaved Forests and Woodlands

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Control of Specific Pest Insects

    III. Biological Control of Tree Diseases

    IV. Critique


    14 Biological Control of Pests of Temperate Fruits and Nuts

    I. Introduction

    II. Apple Pests

    III. Pear Pests

    IV. Peach Pest

    V. Walnut Pest

    VI. Olive Pest

    VII. Summary


    15 Biological Control of Pests of Tropical Fruits and Nuts

    I. Introduction

    II. Pests of Citrus

    III. Pests of Coffee

    IV. Pests of Cocoa

    V. Pests of Guavas

    VI. Pests of Passion Fruit

    VII. Pests of Pineapples

    VIII. Pests of Bananas

    IX. Pests of Avocados

    X. Pests of Macadamia Nuts

    XI. Pests of Coconuts

    XII. Pests of Oil Palms

    XIII. Fruit-Piercing Moths

    XIV. Tropical Fruit Flies


    16 Range, Forage, and Grain Crops

    I. Introduction

    II. Rice

    III. Cereal Grains Other than Rice

    IV. Range and Pasture Grasslands

    V. Forage Legumes


    17 Biological Control of Insect Pests of Row Crops

    I. Introduction

    II. Classic Biological Control

    III. Naturally Occurring Biological Control and Integrated Control

    IV. Conclusion


    18 Biological Control of Medical and Veterinary Pests

    I. Introduction

    II. Mosquitoes

    III. Medically Important Snails

    IV. Synanthropic Diptera—Vector and Noxious Fly Species


    19 Biological Control of Weeds

    I. Introduction

    II. Weeds and Natural Control

    III. The Development of a Program of Biological Weed Control

    IV. The Utilization of Biological Control

    V. Summary of Biological Control of Weeds Projects


    20 Biological Control among Vertebrates

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles

    III. Attempts at Biological Control

    IV. Successes and Failures

    V. Untested Ideas


    21 Biological Control of Plant Pathogens

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens in Nature

    III. Conclusions—The Complexity of Relationships and Future Possibilities


    Section V Components of Integrated Control and Its Implementation

    22 The Importance of Natural Enemies in Integrated Control

    I. The Importance of Natural Enemies

    II. Factors Affecting Natural Enemy Efficiency

    III. Natural Enemies and Integrated Control


    23 Selective Pesticides and Selective Use of Pesticides

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiological Selectivity

    III. Ecological Selectivity

    IV. Insect Growth Regulators and Pheromones

    V. Conclusions


    24 Cultural Controls

    I. Introduction

    II. Cultural Practices to Reduce Overwintering Pest Populations

    III. Use of a Host-Free Season

    IV. Use of Crop Rotation

    V. Use of Harvesting Procedures

    VI. Use of Habitat Diversification

    VII. Use of Planting Time

    VIII. Use of Plowing and Tillage

    IX. Management of Drift of Chemicals and Road Dust


    25 Use of Plant Resistance

    I. Introduction

    II. Types of Resistance

    III. Selected Examples of Resistance

    IV. Problems Associated with Breeding for Resistance to Insects

    V. Utilization of Resistant Varieties


    26 Use of Autocidal Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. Sterile Insect Release Method

    III. Genetic Technique

    IV. Conclusions


    27 Integrated Control: A Realistic Alternative to Misuse of Pesticides?

    I. Introduction

    II. Definition and Objectives of Integrated Control

    III. Some Successful Integrated Control Programs

    IV. The Prospects of Integrated Control

    V. Conclusions


    Section VI Appendix

    28 Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds by Imported Parasites, Predators, and Pathogens




Product details

  • No. of pages: 810
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 28, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142441

About the Editor

C.B. Huffaker

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