Theory and Practice of Biological Control - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123603500, 9780323142441

Theory and Practice of Biological Control

1st Edition

Editors: C.B. Huffaker
eBook ISBN: 9780323142441
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1977
Page Count: 810
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The Theory and Practice of Biological Control covers conventional biological control achievement in the major crop types and in public health problems. Composed of five sections encompassing 28 chapters, this book discusses the basic information concerning developments in other biologically based alternatives to chemical pesticides.
The first two sections discuss the philosophy, theory, scope, history, and the biological and ecological bases of biological control. These sections also deal with the impact of predators and the host relationships of parasitoids and pathogens. The following section presents the methodological aspects of biological control. Discussions on the variability of natural enemies as encountered in biological control work; the fitness of individuals and populations; the ways fitness is being or can be influenced by importation procedures; and the ability of imported natural enemies to adapt to the new environment are included. The fourth section outlines the accomplishments of conventional biological control in various types of crops, forests, and public health areas. Lastly, the various components of integrated pest control other than conventional biological control that forms the essential ways used in the integrated control approach are covered in the last section of the book. This book is an ideal source for plant pathologists and researchers, microbiologists, parasitologists, and public health professionals.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Section I Introduction, History, and Ecological Basis of Biological Control

1 The Philosophy, Scope, and Importance of Biological Control

I. Introduction and Philosophy

II. The Scope of Biological Control

III. Biological Control and Integrated Control

IV. The Importance, Limitations, and Future of Biological Control


2 History of Biological Control

I. Introduction

II. Early History

III. Intensive Period

IV. Microbial Control

V. International Organizations

VI. Conclusions


3 The Theoretical and Empirical Basis of Biological Control

I. Introduction

II. Natural Control and the Balance of Nature

III. The Role of Natural Enemies in Natural Control

IV. Some Controversial Questions concerning Biological Control

V. The Economics of Biological Control

VI. Conclusion


Section II Biology and Systematics in Biological Control

4 Relationship of Systematics to Biological Control

I. The Problem of Identification

II. The Limitations of the Morphological Species Concept

III. The Use of Other Morphological Characteristics

IV. The Interpretation of Sibling Species

V. Taxonomic Studies and Ecosystem Sampling

VI. Need for Arthropod Specimen Data-Management Systems


5 The Biology and Impact of Predators

I. Introduction

II. Impact of Predators

III. Predatory Insects

IV. Predatory Araneae and Acari


6 Biology and Host Relationships of Parasitoids

I. The Parasitoid in Nature

II. The Developing Parasitoid

III. Special Host Relationships


7 Host Relationships and Utility of Pathogens

I. Introduction

II. Virus Infections

III. Bacterial Infections

IV. Fungus Infections

V. Protozoan Infections

VI. Nematode Infections

VII. Future Prospects


Section III Methodology

8 Foreign Exploration and Importation of Natural Enemies

I. Introduction

II. Planning and Preparation of the Program

III. Inventory Research and Investigations on Selected Species

IV. Importation of Natural Enemies


9 Variation, Fitness, and Adaptability of Natural Enemies

I. Introduction

II. Variability in Natural Enemies

III. Fitness of Natural Enemies

IV. Desirable Characteristics in Natural Enemies

V. Improving the Adaptability of Imported Species

VI. Conclusions


10 Conservation and Augmentation of Natural Enemies

I. Introduction

II. Conceptual Basis for Conservation and Augmentation of Natural Enemies

III. Natural Enemy Releases

IV. Environmental Manipulations

V. Manipulations in Glasshouses

VI. Future Prospects


11 Evaluation of the Impact of Natural Enemies

I. Introduction

II. Selection of Study Areas and the Duration of Studies

III. Population Sampling

IV. Experimental or Comparison Methods of Evaluation

V. Census, Life Table, and Correlation Methods of Evaluation of Natural Enemies


Section IV Biological Control in Specific Problem Areas

12 Biological Control of Pests of Coniferous Forests

I. Introduction

II. Evaluation of Past Biological Control Attempts

III. Microbial Agents

IV. Prospects for Biological Control


13 Biological Control of Pests of Broad-Leaved Forests and Woodlands

I. Introduction

II. Biological Control of Specific Pest Insects

III. Biological Control of Tree Diseases

IV. Critique


14 Biological Control of Pests of Temperate Fruits and Nuts

I. Introduction

II. Apple Pests

III. Pear Pests

IV. Peach Pest

V. Walnut Pest

VI. Olive Pest

VII. Summary


15 Biological Control of Pests of Tropical Fruits and Nuts

I. Introduction

II. Pests of Citrus

III. Pests of Coffee

IV. Pests of Cocoa

V. Pests of Guavas

VI. Pests of Passion Fruit

VII. Pests of Pineapples

VIII. Pests of Bananas

IX. Pests of Avocados

X. Pests of Macadamia Nuts

XI. Pests of Coconuts

XII. Pests of Oil Palms

XIII. Fruit-Piercing Moths

XIV. Tropical Fruit Flies


16 Range, Forage, and Grain Crops

I. Introduction

II. Rice

III. Cereal Grains Other than Rice

IV. Range and Pasture Grasslands

V. Forage Legumes


17 Biological Control of Insect Pests of Row Crops

I. Introduction

II. Classic Biological Control

III. Naturally Occurring Biological Control and Integrated Control

IV. Conclusion


18 Biological Control of Medical and Veterinary Pests

I. Introduction

II. Mosquitoes

III. Medically Important Snails

IV. Synanthropic Diptera—Vector and Noxious Fly Species


19 Biological Control of Weeds

I. Introduction

II. Weeds and Natural Control

III. The Development of a Program of Biological Weed Control

IV. The Utilization of Biological Control

V. Summary of Biological Control of Weeds Projects


20 Biological Control among Vertebrates

I. Introduction

II. Principles

III. Attempts at Biological Control

IV. Successes and Failures

V. Untested Ideas


21 Biological Control of Plant Pathogens

I. Introduction

II. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens in Nature

III. Conclusions—The Complexity of Relationships and Future Possibilities


Section V Components of Integrated Control and Its Implementation

22 The Importance of Natural Enemies in Integrated Control

I. The Importance of Natural Enemies

II. Factors Affecting Natural Enemy Efficiency

III. Natural Enemies and Integrated Control


23 Selective Pesticides and Selective Use of Pesticides

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Selectivity

III. Ecological Selectivity

IV. Insect Growth Regulators and Pheromones

V. Conclusions


24 Cultural Controls

I. Introduction

II. Cultural Practices to Reduce Overwintering Pest Populations

III. Use of a Host-Free Season

IV. Use of Crop Rotation

V. Use of Harvesting Procedures

VI. Use of Habitat Diversification

VII. Use of Planting Time

VIII. Use of Plowing and Tillage

IX. Management of Drift of Chemicals and Road Dust


25 Use of Plant Resistance

I. Introduction

II. Types of Resistance

III. Selected Examples of Resistance

IV. Problems Associated with Breeding for Resistance to Insects

V. Utilization of Resistant Varieties


26 Use of Autocidal Methods

I. Introduction

II. Sterile Insect Release Method

III. Genetic Technique

IV. Conclusions


27 Integrated Control: A Realistic Alternative to Misuse of Pesticides?

I. Introduction

II. Definition and Objectives of Integrated Control

III. Some Successful Integrated Control Programs

IV. The Prospects of Integrated Control

V. Conclusions


Section VI Appendix

28 Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds by Imported Parasites, Predators, and Pathogens





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© Academic Press 1976
Academic Press
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C.B. Huffaker

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