Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128094839, 9780128095171

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction

1st Edition

For Biofuels and Value-Added Products

Authors: Stephen Gent Michael Twedt Christina Gerometta Evan Almberg
eBook ISBN: 9780128095171
Paperback ISBN: 9780128094839
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 20th June 2017
Page Count: 224
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Description

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products presents a firm foundation of torrefaction technologies and their economic and sustainability aspects. It offers a theoretical background in the underlying principles of torrefaction reactions, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, process modeling, end-products, and value-added products such as biochar and torr-gas. It also provides an overview of best practices in torrefaction systems, reactor design and scale-up, and compares torrefaction with other thermochemical processing technologies.

The authors discuss feedstock availability for a variety of biomass types, such as agricultural residues, woody residues, energy crops and municipal solid waste. They also examine logistics and markets for torrefied products, which includes their use in co-firing and combined heat and power generation, as well as emissions and other environmental aspects. This balanced and thorough approach to the subject matter makes this an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in energy engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and agriculture.

Key Features

  • Offers a comprehensive overview of torrefaction, balancing theoretical and applied perspectives of torrefaction technologies from a holistic perspective
  • Examines economic and sustainability aspects, including logistics, markets, feedstock, and emissions
  • Presents a variety of relevant, real-world examples that underscore the production and utilization of torrefied material
  • Offers a balanced and thorough approach to the subject, making it an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion

Readership

Engineers, researchers and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering , biological engineering and agriculture

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Thermochemical Conversion Processes
  1.1 Motivation—A Need for Sustainable Energy and Products
  1.2 Biobased Energy and Products
  1.3 Conversion Pathways
  1.4 Classifying Thermochemical Conversion Pathways
  1.5 History of Torrefaction
  1.6 Units
  1.7 Intent of This Book
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
2. Introduction to Feedstocks
  2.1 Classifying Biomass Feedstocks
  2.2 Harvesting and Transporting Feedstocks
  2.3 Case Study: Determining the Availability of Corn Stover for Torrefaction
  2.4 Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
3. Fundamental Theories of Torrefaction by Thermochemical Conversion
  3.1 Temperature and Residence Time’s Implications on Torrefaction
  3.2 Chemical Reactions
  3.3 Torrefaction Model
  3.4 Properties of Torrefied Biomass
  Appendix A
  References
4. Design Practices for Torrefaction Systems
  4.1 Grinding and Drying Systems
  4.2 Reactor Designs
  4.3 Energy Capture and Reclamation
  4.4 Post-Processing of Torrefied Products
  4.5 Examples of Torrefaction Systems
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
  Further Reading
5. Techno-Economic Considerations of Torrefaction
  5.1 Markets for Torrefied Products
  5.2 Adding Value to Biomass
  5.3 Hydrophobicity
  5.4 Additional Value-Added Bioproducts
  5.5 System Economics/Calculating the Overall Rate of Return
  5.6 Techno-Economic Examples of Torrefaction Systems
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
6. Torrefaction Bioenergy Generation
  6.1 Fundamentals
  6.2 Torrefied Biomass vs. Coal for Power Generation
  6.3 Cofiring in Existing Coal Fired Power Plants
  6.4 Combined Heat and Power
  End of Chapter Sample Problems
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
7. Torrefaction Bioenergy Applications
  7.1 Applications
  7.2 Energy System Examples
  End of Chapter Sample Problems
  Solution
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
8. Environmental Considerations of Torrefaction
    8.1 Motivation—Our World in the Balance
  8.2 Environmental Considerations of Feedstocks
  8.3 Environmental Considerations of Torrefaction Processing
  8.4 Environmental Considerations of Utilizing Energy and Products Derived From Torrefied Biomass
  8.5 Holistic Perspective of Torrefaction in the Bioeconomy
  End of Chapter Questions
  References
  Further Reading

Index

Details

No. of pages:
224
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9780128095171
Paperback ISBN:
9780128094839

About the Author

Stephen Gent

Dr. Stephen Gent is an associate professor of mechanical engineering at South Dakota State University. He has been engaged in a variety of cutting-edge theoretical and applied research projects pertaining to renewable energy, sustainability, and agricultural processing. These projects include: 1) development of torrefaction technologies for converting agricultural residues to value-added biochar for soil amendment and biofuel applications; 2) development of fast pyrolysis strategies for producing bio-oil from non-food oilseed meals, 3) studying and computationally predicting the moisture release of corn in continuous flow drying for improved drying efficiency and throughput; 4) developing analytical tools and processes for improving the design of systems that grow algae for biofuels; 5) developing computational fluid dynamics modelling techniques for agricultural and biomedical applications, among others. The intention of his research has been how to effectively design engineered products and processes to be more efficient, reliable, and economical. Dr. Gent has an established publishing and funding record in which he has authored over 40 peer-reviewed publications and has been a PI or Co-PI on a variety of projects funded by the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Transportation, and private industry. Dr. Gent has also served as the technical program chair for the Alternative Fuels and Infrastructure track for the last two years at the ASME Energy Sustainability Conference. As a professor, Dr. Gent has taught a variety of courses in thermal-fluids science and energy systems, including thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and computational fluid mechanics, among others. He has embraced pedagogical strategies to actively engage students in the learning experience, while embracing traditional teaching styles that use well-written textbooks.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, South Dakota State University, USA

Michael Twedt

Michael P. Twedt is a registered Professional Engineer in the state of South Dakota and has been performing energy assessments, system and equipment economic feasibility studies and analyzing energy and bio-energy systems since 1992. In this time he has conducted over 300 energy assessments on public and private facilities in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. He is currently the Director for the SDSU Energy Analysis Lab and the Wind Application Center where he is involved with several research projects dealing with energy conversion, wind energy development, bio-energy conversion, and bio-processing. Mr. Twedt’s core specialties include energy analysis, energy efficiency, mechanical systems and HVAC design, industrial systems optimization, economic justification analysis, and cost reduction analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

BTU Engineering and South Dakota State University, USA

Christina Gerometta

Christina Gerometta has been analyzing energy systems since early 2012. She is currently completing her MS in Mechanical Engineering, with an emphasis on thermo-fluid energy systems, at South Dakota State University, where she completed her bachelor’s degree in 2011. In addition to analyzing energy systems for BTU Engineering, Ms. Gerometta is researching the potential of corn stover to be used as a bio-char for the Energy Analysis Lab at South Dakota State University. Ms. Gerometta is also a teaching assistant for the Measurements and Instrumentation course in the Mechanical Engineering Department at SDSU.

Affiliations and Expertise

BTU Engineering and South Dakota State University, USA

Evan Almberg

Evan Almberg is an Engineer (Engineer in Training, EIT) in the energy industry working with natural gas systems.

He graduated from South Dakota State University in 2016 holding a M.S. and B.S. in Mechanical Engineering where he focused on Sustainable Energy Systems and Thermo-fluids.

He worked doing research on energy systems; including pyrolysis and bio-oil production, feasibility and economic modeling of torrefaction systems, as well as studies comparing ethanol blends to gasoline.

Affiliations and Expertise

South Dakota State University, USA