The Viruses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956750, 9780323150880

The Viruses

1st Edition

Biochemical, Biological, and Biophysical Properties

Editors: F Burnet
eBook ISBN: 9780323150880
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 424
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Description

The Viruses: Biochemical, Biological, and Biophysical Properties, Volume 2: Plant and Bacterial Viruses deals with the biochemistry, biology, and biophysics of plant viruses. The viruses considered are tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic viruses; tobacco ringspot virus; potato virus X; and bacterial viruses, such as lysogenic bacteria and phages. This volume is organized into 10 chapters and begins with a discussion of the tobacco mosaic virus and other plant viruses, emphasizing the process of infection and synthesis and general features of the host-virus system. The next chapters focus on the purification and protein components of plant viruses; the chemical correlates of biological variability in viruses; and biological cycles of plant viruses in insect vectors. This book describes the bacteriophage, which is considered as a model virus in comparison with typical microorganisms and cellular organelles. It also introduces the reader to the kinetics of phage reproduction; the intracellular multiplication of bacterial viruses; and the process of lysogeny in bacteria. The book concludes with a chapter on irradiation of phage with ultraviolet light, decay of incorporated radiophosphorus (""suicide""), and ionizing radiation (usually X-rays). Biologists, botanists, biochemists, biophysicists, and microbial physiologists will find this book a rich source of information on plant and bacterial viruses.

Table of Contents


Contributors to Volume 2

Contents of Volume 1

Contents of Volume 3

I. The Process of Infection and Virus Synthesis with Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Other Plant Viruses

I. Introduction

II. General Features of the Host-Virus System

A. Organization of Plant Leaves

B. Exclusion of Some Plant Viruses from Dividing Cells and Embryonic Tissues

C. Strains of Plant Viruses and Host Reactions

III. Behavior of Plant Viruses in a Local Lesion Host

A. Local Lesion Assay for Infectivity

B. The Susceptible Site and the Initial Act of Infection

C. Specific Infectivity of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

D. What Cells Serve as Entry Ports for Virus?

E. Nature of Virus Attachment at Susceptible Site

F. Intracellular Development of Viruses as Deduced from Irradiation Experiments

G. Inactivation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Ultraviolet Light

H. Changes in Virus Behavior during Early Stages of Infection

I. Inactivation of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Infectious Nucleic Acid

J. Spread of Infectivity from Focus of Infection

K. Yield of Virus per Infected Cell

L. Nature of Infectious Material

M. Is Tobacco Mosaic Virus Extracted from Lesions Identical with Tobacco Mosaic Virus Extracted from Systemic Hosts?

IV. Behavior of Plant Viruses in a Systemic Host

A. Quantities of Virus Synthesized

B. Direct Observation of Virus Activity in Hair Cells

C. Course of Virus Synthesis in Directly Inoculated Leaves

D. Necrosis and Phloem Cells

E. Effect of Virus Synthesis on Composition of Host Proteins

F. X-Protein

V. Summary of Steps Involved in Plant Virus Reproduction

References

II. The Biochemistry of Plant Viruses

I. Introduction

II. The Purification of Plant Viruses

A. Growing the Virus-Infected Plants

B. The Handling of the Virus-Containing Sap

C. Clarification

D. Centrifuge Separation Techniques

E. Following the Course of a Purification

III. The Protein Components of Plant Viruses

A. Polypeptides

B. The Determination of the Composition of Proteins

C. Methods for the Determination of the Structure of Polypeptide Chains

IV. The Nucleic Acids

A. The General Structure of Nucleic Acids

B. The Ribonucleic Acids

C. The Finer Structure of the Ribonucleic Acids

D. Deoxyribonucleic Acids

E. Physical Properties of the Nucleic Acids

V. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus

A. Introduction

B. The Virus in the Plant

C. Purified Preparations

D. Optical Properties

VI. Properties of the Virus Protein

A. Chemical Composition

B. Evidence Relative to the Existence of Substructure

C. The Amino Acid Composition of the Protein of a Typical Tobacco Mosaic Virus

D. The Polypeptide Subunit

E. The Chain Ends

F. The Position of the Nucleic Acid

G. The A-Protein

H. The X-Protein

I. Effect of Heat on the Virus

J. Reconstruction and the Infectivity of Virus Nucleic Acid

K. The Action of Various Agents upon the Infectivity of the Virus

L. The Nucleic Acid of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus

M. The Quantity of the Nucleic Acid in the Virus

N. The Effect of the Host on the Virus

O. Strains of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus

VII. The Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus

A. Purification

Β. Chemical Properties

C. Physical Properties

VIII. The Tobacco Ringspot Virus

A. Physical Properties

B. Chemical Properties

IX. The Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

A. Purification

B. Further Purification

C. Properties of the Preparation

D. The Two Components

E. Amino Acid Composition

F. The Nucleic Acid

X. The Wild Cucumber Mosaic Virus

A. Purification

B. The Two Components

XI. The Tobacco Necrosis Viruses

A. Purification

XII. The Alfalfa Mosaic Virus

XIII. Broad Bean Mottle Virus

A. Properties

XIV. The Southern Bean Mosaic Virus

A. Purification

B. Crystallization

C. Physical Properties

D. Chemical Composition

XV. Potato Virus X (Potato Latent Mosaic Virus)

A. Purification

XVI. The Use of Nucleic Acid Analogs in the Control of Plant Viruses

A. Azaguanine

References

III. Variation and its Chemical Correlates

I. Introduction

A. Historical

B. Terminology

C. Frequency of Mutation

D. Significance of Mutation

II. Plant Virus Strains

A. Characteristics of Strains

B. Methods for Securing Strains

C. Criteria of Strain Relationship

D. Evaluation of Criteria of Strain Relationship

III. Chemistry of Virus Strains

A. Protein Components

B. Nucleic Acids

IV. Production of Variants by Chemical and Physical Treatments

A. Chemical Derivatives of TMV

B. Relation of Radiations to Production of Variants

V. Summary and Perspectives

References

IV. Biological Cycles of Plant Viruses in Insect Vectors

I. Introduction

II. The Nature of the Insects and Viruses Involved in Biological Cycles

III. History of Research on the Problem

IV. Evaluation of Kinds of Evidence for Multiplication

V. Evaluation of Kinds of Evidence for Absence of Multiplication

VI. Significance of Biological Cycles

References

V. Bacteriophage as a Model of Host-Virus Relationship

I. Introduction

II. The Bacteriophage

A. The Vegetative Phase

B. The Proviral Phase and the Lysogenic Bacterium

III. The Origin of Bacteriophage

IV. Is Bacteriophage an Organism?

V. Bacteriophage and Cellular Organelles

VI. Bacteriophage as a Virus

VII. Are Viral Diseases Always Infectious?

VIII. Remarks on the Pathogenicity of Viruses

IX. Conclusions

References

VI. The Initiation of Bacteriophage Infection

I. Introduction

II. Morphology and Composition of Bacteriophages

A. Size and Shape

B. Chemical and Morphological Components

C. Properties of the Components of Phage T2

III. The Bacterial Surface

IV. Injection

V. The Attachment Reaction

A. Reversibility

B. Influence of Temperature

C. Influence of the Medium

D. Tryptophan Requirement

E. Attachment to Noncellular Surfaces

F. Rate of Attachment

VI. Genetic Control of Attachment Specificity

A. Resistant Cell Mutants

B. Host-Range Mutants of Phages

C. Genetic Control of Tryptophan Requirement

D. Phenotypic Mixing

VII. On the Mechanism of Invasion

A. Alterations of Phage Tail Structure during Invasion

B. Action of Phage Enzyme on the Host Cell Wall

C. Release of Phage DNA

D. Summary of the Steps of Invasion

References

VII. Intracellular Multiplication of Bacterial Viruses

I. Introduction

II. Kinetics of Phage Reproduction

A. One-Step Growth

B. Single Burst

C. Lysis and Lysis Inhibition

D. The Eclipse

III. Synthesis of the Bacteriophage Progeny Substance

A. Incomplete Bacteriophages

B. The Precursor Pool

C. Maturation

IV. Synthesis of Nonprecursor Materials

A. Ribonucleic Acid

B. "Early" Protein

V. Fate of the Infecting Phage Particle

A. Functional Differentiation and Injection

B. Transfer of the Parental Nucleic Acid

C. Superinfection Breakdown

VI. Comparative Bacterial Virology

VII. The Vegetative Phage

References

VIII. Bacteriophage Genetics

I. Introduction

II. Phage Mutations

A. Plaque-Type Characters

B. Host-Range Mutants

III. Recombination

A. Linkage Map

B. Techniques of Phage Crosses

C. Two-Factor Crosses

D. Three-Factor Cross

IV. Multiple Matings in Individual Crosses

V. The Mating Event

A. Reciprocal Recombinants

B. Heterozygotes

C. Radioactive Tracer Experiments

VI. Mating Kinetics

A. General Assumptions

B. Distribution of Mutants

C. Distribution of Recombinants

D. The Mating Process

E. Distribution of Recombinants for Close Markers

VII. Fine Structure Genetics

A. The rll System

B. Deletions

C. Function Units

D. Negative Interference

VIII. Phenotypic Variations

A. Phenotypic Mixing

B. Host-Controlled Variation

IX. Conclusion

References

IX. Lysogeny

I. Introduction

II. Historical Development of Lysogeny

A. Discovery and Criteria of Lysogeny

B. Concept of Prophage

III. Detection and Occurrence of Lysogeny

IV. Phage Production by Lysogenic Bacteria

A. Spontaneous Production

B. Induction of Phage Production in Lysogenic Bacteria

C. Factors Controlling Induction

D. Mechanism of Induction

V. Properties of Lysogenic Bacteria

A. Infection of Lysogenic Bacteria with Phages Homologous or Closely Related to the Prophage : Immunity and Incompatibility

B. Infection with Unrelated Phages

C. Lysogenic Conversions

VI. Characters of Temperate Phages

A. General Properties

B. Action of Temperate Phages on Bacterial Metabolism

C. Genetics of Temperate Phages

D. Prophage Mutations: Defective Lysogenic Bacteria

VII. Lysogenization

A. Phenotypic Aspects of Lysogenization

B. Genetics of Lysogenization

VIII. Genetic Determinism of Lysogeny

A. Limited Number of Prophages per Cell

B. Chromosomal Location of the Prophage

C. Specific Locations of Different Prophages

D. Nature of the Prophage

IX. Temperate Phages as Genetic Vectors

X. Lysogeny and Latency of Viruses

References

X. Radiobiology of Bacteriophage

I. Introduction

A. Introductory Remarks

B. Target Theory

II. Ultraviolet Irradiation of T-Even Bacteriophage

A. Irradiation of T4

B. Comparative Radiobiology of T2 and T4

C. Irradiation of Infected Cells

III. The Inactivation of T-Even Phage by the Decay of Incorporated P32 (Suicide)

A. Basic Procedures

B. Cross and Multiplicity Reactivation

C. Luria-Latarjet Experiments

IV. X-Ray Inactivation of T-Even Phage

A. Survival of Infectivity

B. Multiplicity and Cross Reactivation

C. Luria-Latarjet Experiments

V. A Survey of Other Phages

A. Introductory Remarks

B. Survival of Infectivity

C. Multiplicity and Cross Reactivation

D. The Induction of Mutations by Radiation

VI. Summary and Principal Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Author Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
424
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1961
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323150880

About the Editor

F Burnet