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The Upper Mantle - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444410153, 9781483257266

The Upper Mantle

1st Edition

Editor: A. R. Ritsema
eBook ISBN: 9781483257266
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1972
Page Count: 256
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Developments in Geotectonics, 4: The Upper Mantle focuses on the upper mantle and its influence on the development of the earth's crust, including history of the moon and other planets and volcanology. The selection first offers information on the origin of the earth, including ideas on the formation process of the terrestrial planets, condensation of dust particles, nature of the earth's core, thermal history of the earth, and fractionation of iron in the terrestrial planets. The text then ponders on the beginning of continental evolution, as well as the oldest rocks of the earth's crust, thermal history of the moon, and early history of the other planets.
The text elaborates on magmatic activity as the major process in the chemical evolution of the earth's crust and mantle; trends in the evolution of continents; progress and problems in volcanology; and pressure and temperature conditions and tectonic significance of regional and ocean-floor metamorphism. The manuscript also takes a look at the state of mantle minerals, melting temperatures in the earth's mantle, and geomagnetic induction studies and the electrical state of the upper mantle.
The publication is a dependable reference for readers interested in the study of the upper mantle.

Table of Contents



Significance and Achievements of the Upper Mantle Project

Origin of the Earth

Modern Ideas on the Formation Process of the Terrestrial Planets. Origin of the Solar Nebula. Nucleosynthesis of the Solar System Material. Condensation of Dust Particles. The Rate of Accumulation of the Earth. Initial Temperature of the Earth. The Early Thermal History of the Upper Mantle and The Evolution of the Earth-Moon System. The Nature of the Earth's Core. Thermal History of the Earth. Fractionation of Iron in the Terrestrial Planets. Fractionation of Trace Elements. Some Urgent Problems.

The Beginning of Continental Evolution

The Oldest Rocks of the Earth's Crust. Thermal History of the Moon. Implications With Regard to the Early History of the Earth. Early History of Other Planets.

Magmatic Activity As The Major Process in the Chemical Evolution of the Earth's Crust and Mantle

Crust-Mantle Differentiation As Exemplified by Recent Basaltic Volcanism. Evolution of Modern Oceanic Crust. Crustal Evolution in Island Arcs. Crustal Evolution Throughout Geological Time. The Archaean Crust.

New Insights Into Old Shields

Summary of Work During The U.M.P. (1960-1970) On Shield Areas (Not Necessarily Complete). The Division of Precambrian Time Into Eras and of Precambrian Shields Into Provinces. A Possible Mechanism For The Uplift and Break-Up of Continents and For Sea-Floor Spreading.

Basic Trends in the Evolution of Continents

Endogenous Regimes. Evolution of Endogenous Regimes. Recurrence of Endogenous Processes. The Origin of Folding. Correlation of Endogenous Regimes With Deep Processes and Structure. A Model of Deep Processes.

Magmatic History of the Alps - A Short Summary

Progress and Problems in Volcanology

Geophysical Data. The Depth of Magmatic Chambers. Petrochemistry of Volcanic Rocks. Geochemical Data. Xenoliths. Experimental Investigations. Study of Eruptions. Practical Aspects of Volcanology. Volcanism and The Upper Mantle. Some Important Problems of Volcanology For The Future.

Pressure and Temperature Conditions and Tectonic Significance of Regional and Ocean-Floor Metamorphism

Pressure and Temperature of Metamorphism. Nature and Tectonic Significance of Regional Metamorphism. Finding of Ocean-Floor Metamorphism and Its Significance.

The System Mgo-Feo-SiO2 At High Pressures and Temperatures - Phase Equilibria and Elastic Properties

Experimental Procedure. The System Mg2SiO4-Fe2SiO4 at High Pressures and High Temperatures. The System MgSi03-FeSiO3 At High Pressures and High Temperatures. Highpressure Transformations in SiO2. Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Crystal-Chemical and Elastic Properties of Wüstite, Fe1̶XO.

The State of Mantle Minerals

Constitution of the Mantle. Equation of State Data. Mantle Modeling With More Than One Mineral. Conclusions and Summary.

Melting Temperatures in the Earth's Mantle

Influence of Pressure On Melting. Mineralogy and Density of the Mantle. Melting Curves. Liquidus of the Mantle. Solidus of the Mantle. Results.

Geomagnetic Induction Studies and The Electrical State of the Upper Mantle

Principles of Geomagnetic Induction. Inductive Response Functions. Developments Prior to the Upper Mantle Project. Progress During The Upper Mantle Project.

New Perspectives in Terrestrial Heat Flow

Continental Heat Flow. Ocean Heat Flow. The Explanation of the Equality of Heat Flow. Evidence in Favor of the Model. New Perspectives in Continental Heat Flow. New Perspectives in Oceanic Heat Flow. Consequences For Thermal Models. Conclusion.

Inland and Marginal Seas

The Arctic. Indian Ocean. The Pacific Ocean. The Mediterranean. The Caribbean. The Scotia Sea. Conclusion.

Explosion Seismology: Its Past, Present and Future

Technique of Experiment. Theory of Method. Global Generalization of D.S.S.-Data. Conclusion.

Paleomagnetism With Special Reference To Research in the U.S.S.R.

Reliability of Paleomagnetic Data. Geomagnetic Field Evolution. Paleomagnetism and Mantle History.

Global Gravity and Mantle Convection

Mantle Convection. Interpretation of the Gravity Field. Conclusions.

Earth Tides and Polar Motions

The Polar Motion. The Earth Tides.

Recent Crustal Movements: Techniques and Achievements

Uplift and Drift. Differential Movement. Tilt and Yaw. Change in Shape and Size of Surfaces. Conclusions.

Seismicity As A Guide To Global Tectonics and Earthquake Prediction

Plate Tectonics. Intra-Plate Earthquakes. Earthquake Prediction. Conclusion.

Criteria of High Seismicity, Determined by Pattern Recognition

Formulation of the Problem. The Method. A Physical Interpretation of the Features of Dangerous Knots. Why Did We Need No More Data?

Earthquake Mechanism

Dislocation theory. Some General Properties of Dislocation Models. Accuracy of Seismological Determination of Source Properties. Seismic Moment. Stress-Drop. Apparent Stress. Relationship Between Seismic Moment and Surface Wave Magnitude. Stress-Drop For Large and Small, Deep and Shallow Earthquakes. Mechanism of Deep Earthquakes.

The Travel Times of P Seismic Waves and Their Relevance to the Upper Mantle Velocity Distribution

P and S Station Anomalies. P Travel Time Data To 30°. Travel Times For Other Areas. Dt/dΔ Studies. The Use of Amplitudes and Theoretical Seismograms. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Reflections. Comparison of Upper Mantle Models.

The Inverse Problem of Seismology

The Computer Experiment. The Major Characteristics. Conclusions.

Observation and Inversion of Surface-Wave Dispersion

Regional Differences in Phase Velocities. Interpretation. Plate Tectonics. Accuracy of Observations.

The Role of Experimental Physical Acoustics in Geophysics

Birch Diagrams. Extrapolation of Compression To High Pressure. The Elastic Constant At Very High Temperatures. The Strange Behavior of Shear Constants With Pressure. Instabilities in the Earth's Mantle. Some Portents For The Future.

Fracture and Flow of Rocks

Fundamental Process of Deformation in Rocks. Strength of Rocks. Ductile Behavior of Rocks. Effects of Environmental Parameters On Strength and Ductility in Relation to the Earthquake Problem. Concluding Remark and Future Work.

Creep in the Earth and Planets

Experimental Creep Data. Damping of Free Nutations and Seismic Waves. Figures of the Earth and Moon. Rotation of the Satellites of the Planets. Damping of Seismic Waves and Free Vibrations. Is Convection in the Earth Possible? Answers To Questions Commonly Asked. Discussion.

Laboratory Observations of High-Temperature Rheology of Rocks

Experimental Results At Large Strains. Mechanisms of Deformation. Extrapolation of the Flow Law. The Effect of Pressure. Experimental Results At Small Strains.

The Anelasticity of the Mantle

Mechanism of Seismic Attenuation. Techniques of Measurement. Traveling Waves. Combined Traveling Wave-Standing Wave Experiment. Body-Wave Experiments. Body-Wave Data. Surface Waves. Free Oscillations. Inversion. Conclusions.

Dynamical Processes in the Deeper Mantle

Historical Introduction. Long Term Mechanical Properties of the Mantle. Theories of Plate Movements As Gravity Sliding. Theory of Convection and The Hydrodynamical Equation of the Earth's Mantle. Convection As The Key to the Earth's Thermal History. A Fundamental Relation Between The Geoid and The Pattern of Convection Currents. Conclusion.

Upper Mantle Project - Reports

List of Authors


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© Elsevier 1972
1st January 1972
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A. R. Ritsema

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