The Upper Atmosphere

The Upper Atmosphere

Meteorology and Physics

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: Richard A. Craig
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483282169

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The Upper Atmosphere: Meteorology and Physics focuses on the study of the characteristics, movements, composition, and observations of the upper atmosphere. The book first offers information on the meteorological conditions in the lower stratosphere and the structure and circulation of the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere. Topics include balloon sounding systems, climatology of the lower stratosphere, disturbed circulation of the lower stratosphere, rocket measurements, and frequent measurements with balloons and meteorological rockets. The text then ponders on the sun's radiation and the upper atmosphere and composition of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The manuscript elaborates on the composition and structure of the thermosphere, including photochemical processes, diffusion, composition and structure measurements, and structure of the thermosphere. The text also ponders on radiative processes and heat transfer; atmospheric tides and winds in the lower thermosphere; and transport of properties in the upper atmosphere. The publication is a valuable source of information for readers interested in the meteorology and physics of the upper atmosphere.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Variables Describing Structure and Composition

    1.2 The Composition of Air and Some Standard Atmospheres

    1.3 Nomenclature

    1.4 Scope and Plan of this Book


    Chapter 2. Meteorological Conditions in the Lower Stratosphere

    2.1 Balloon Sounding Systems

    2.2 The Tropopause

    2.3 Composition of the Lower Stratosphere—Water Vapor and Dust

    2.4 Climatology of the Lower Stratosphere

    2.5 The Disturbed Circulation of the Lower Stratosphere


    Chapter 3. Structure and Circulation of the Upper Stratosphere and the Mesosphere

    3.1 Large-Scale Features of the Wind and Temperature Variations

    3.2 Ground-Based Measurements

    3.3 Rocket Measurements

    3.4 Frequent Measurements with Balloons and Meteorological Rockets

    3.5 Summary and Discussion


    Chapter4. The Suns Radiation and the Upper Atmosphere

    4.1 Some Applicable Aspects of Spectroscopy and Quantum Mechanics

    4.2 Energy Exchange by Collision

    4.3 Black-Body Radiation and Some Simple Aspects of Radiative Transfer

    4.4 Absorption of Solar Radiation by an Exponential Atmosphere

    4.5 The Sun and Its Ultraviolet Radiation

    4.6 Absorption by the Upper Atmosphere


    Chapter 5. Composition of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere; Atmospheric Ozone

    5.1 Observations of the Total Amount of Ozone

    5.2 Observations of the Vertical Distribution of Ozone

    5.3 Photochemical Processes Affecting Ozone

    5.4 Meteorological Processes Affecting Ozone

    5.5 Composition of the Mesosphere

    5.6 Noctilucent Clouds


    Chapter 6. Composition and Structure of the Thermosphere

    6.1 Photochemical Processes in the Thermosphere

    6.2 Diffusion in the Thermosphere

    6.3 Composition Measurements

    6.4 Structure Measurements

    6.5 Structure of the Thermosphere


    Chapter 7. Radiative Processes and Heat Transfer

    7.1 Infrared Transfer in the Atmosphere

    7.2 Heat Transfer in the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    7.3 Heat Conduction and Thermospheric Models


    Chapter 8. Atmospheric Tides and Winds in the Lower Thermosphere

    8.1 Observation and Theory of Atmospheric Tides

    8.2 Measurements of Tidal Winds in the Lower Thermosphere

    8.3 Irregular, Small-Scale Wind Variations in the Lower Thermosphere


    Chapter 9. An Introduction to Some Other Aeronomic Problems

    9.1 An Introduction to the Earth's Magnetic Field and Its Variations

    9.2 An Introduction to the Ionosphere

    9.3 An Introduction to the Airglow and Aurora


    Chapter 10. The Transport of Properties in the Upper Atmosphere

    10.1 Transport through the Tropopause

    10.2 Meridional and Vertical Transport in the Stratosphere

    10.3 Transport in the Mesosphere


    Appendix A. Some Useful Constants

    Appendix B. Additional Comments on Spectroscopy and Quantum Mechanics

    B.1 The Schrödinger Wave Equation

    B.2 Electron Quantum Numbers

    B.3 Term Symbols for Atoms

    B.4 The Helium Spectrum

    B.5 Electronic Quantum Numbers for Molecules

    Appendix C. Comments on Radiation Nomenclature


    Appendix D. Absorption by an Exponential Atmosphere; Grazing Incidence


    Appendix E. The Götz Umkehr Method; Basic Equation

    Appendix F. Large-Scale Transport of Atmospheric Properties

    Appendix G. Some Early Studies of Radiative Effects on Thermal Structure


    Appendix H. Thermal Equilibrium and the Upper Atmosphere

    Appendix I. Harmonic Analysis and Significance Criteria


    Appendix J. Legendre Functions and Spherical Harmonics


    Appendix K. The Perturbation Equations


    Appendix L. An Early Account of an Auroral Display


    Appendix M. Glossary of Symbols

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 522
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483282169

About the Author

Richard A. Craig

About the Editor

J. Van Mieghem

Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Belgian Meteorological Institute, Uccle, Belgium

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