The Togaviruses

The Togaviruses

Biology, Structure, Replication

1st Edition - January 28, 1980

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  • Author: Walter R Schlesinge
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138260

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The Togaviruses: Biology, Structure, Replication deals with the biology, structure, and replication of rotaviruses. This book covers topics such as the biochemistry of rotaviruses and the biological and medical challenges they pose. It also gives an account of their mechanisms of replication that might lead to perceptions of the capacity to solve biological and epidemiological problems through the concepts and technology of molecular biology. This text is comprised of 21 chapters that explore clinical details, routine procedures for diagnostic virus isolation and identification and for serological tests; immunological host responses; the role of interferons; antiviral chemotherapy; and vaccine development. The discussion begins with a historical overview of arboviruses, followed by a description of all the viruses that belong to Togaviridae. These include alpha- and flaviviruses, rubiviruses, pestiviruses, and other ""non-arbo"" togaviruses. The next chapters focus on the arthropod-vertebrate-arthropod transmission cycle and its experimental equivalents, along with the viruses' structure, composition, and replication. This book concludes with a summary of physicochemical, morphological, and clinical data on non-arbo togaviruses. This reference material will be of interest to physicians, veterinarians, ecologists, entomologists, epidemiologists, cell biologists, immunologists, virologists, physical chemists, biochemists, molecular biologists, and geneticists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1. Introduction

    I. Historical Background: The Arthropod-Borne Viruses (Arboviruses)

    II. The Togaviridae

    III. Prospectus


    2. Antigenic Characteristics and Classification of Togaviridae

    I. Introduction

    II. Antigenic Relationships among the Togaviridae

    III. Methods Used to Study Interrelationships

    IV. Other Factors Affecting Cross-Protection

    V. Medical and Biological Significance of Interfamily Relationships

    VI. Evolutionary Aspects of Togaviridae


    3. Medical Significance of Togaviruses: An Overview of Diseases Caused by Togaviruses in Man and in Domestic and Wild Vertebrate Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Description of Major Disease Groups

    III. Laboratory Infections

    IV. An Overview


    4. Virus-Host Interactions in Natural and Experimental Infections with Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses

    I. Complexities of "Virulence"

    II. Target Organs in Alpha- and Flavivirus Infections

    III. Phylogenetic Host Determinants of Virulence—Vertebrate versus Arthropod Host Systems

    IV. Viral Virulence Markers: The Question of Genotypic versus Phenotypic Polymorphism

    V. Conclusions


    5. Immunological Parameters of Togavirus Disease Syndromes

    I. Introduction

    II. Immunological Aspects of Dengue Infection

    III. The Immune Enhancement Hypothesis

    IV. Comment

    V. Appendix


    6. Epidemiology of Arthropod-Borne Togaviruses: The Role of Arthropods as Hosts and Vectors and of Vertebrate Hosts in Natural Transmission Cycles

    I. Introduction

    II. The Alphaviruses

    III. The Flaviviruses


    7. Arthropods as Hosts and Vectors of Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses—Experimental Infections

    I. Introduction

    II. Considerations in Undertaking Experimental Infection of Arthropods


    8. Togavirus Morphology and Morphogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Alphavirus Genus

    III. The Flavivirus Genus

    IV. The Rubivirus Genus

    V. The Pestivirus Genus

    VI. Unclassified Togaviruses

    VII. Comparisons and Conclusions


    9. Alphavirus Proteins

    I. Protein Composition of Alphaviruses

    II. Isolation of Alphavirus Proteins

    III. Topography of the Spike Proteins in the Membrane

    IV. Functions of the Alphavirus Spike Glycoproteins


    10. Lipids of Alphaviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Lipids

    III. Origin and Diversity of Lipids

    IV. Role of Lipids


    11. The Genome of Alphaviruses

    I. Physical Properties of the Alphavirus Genome

    II. Genetic Content and Organization of the Alphavirus Genome


    12. Synthesis of Alphavirus RNA

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Events

    III. Nature and Synthesis of Alphavirus Minus-Strand RNA

    IV. Nature and Synthesis of Alphavirus Plus-Strand RNA

    V. Mechanism of Synthesis of 26 S RNA

    VI. Regulation of the Synthesis of 42 and 26 S Plus-Strand RNA

    VII. Kinetics of Alphavirus Plus- and Minus-Strand Synthesis and of Polymerase Formation

    VIII. Mechanistic Aspects of the Synthesis of Alphavirus RNA


    13. Translation and Processing of Alphavirus Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Translation of Viral Proteins

    III. Glycosylation of Viral Envelope Proteins

    IV. Fatty Acid Acylation of Envelope Proteins

    V. Stoichiometry of Viral Structural Gene Products

    VI. Conclusion


    14. Mutants of Alphaviruses: Genetics and Physiology

    I. Introduction

    II. Types of Mutants

    III. Genetic Interactions between Alphaviruses

    IV. Functional Defects of the Alphavirus to Mutants

    V. Concluding Remarks


    15. Defective Interfering Alphaviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. First Reports of Defective Interfering Particles of Alphaviruses

    III. Properties of Alphavirus Defective Interfering Particles

    IV. Intracellular Viral Defective Interfering RNAs

    V. Sequences Found in Defective Interfering RNAs

    VI. Role and Influence of the Host Cell in the Generation and Replication of Alphavirus Defective Interfering Particles

    VII. Defective Interfering Particles in Persistently Infected Cultures

    VIII. Defective Interfering Particles in the Whole Animal

    IX. Concluding Remarks


    16. Effects of Alphaviruses on Host Cell Macromolecular Synthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Effects of Lytic Infection of Vertebrate Cell Cultures on the Macromolecular Synthesis of the Host Cell

    III. Effects of Noncytolytic Infection of Arthropod Cell Cultures on Macromolecular Synthesis of Host Cell


    17. The Assembly of Alphaviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Assembly of Alphavirus Nucleocapsids

    III. Assembly of Alphavirus Membranes

    IV. Envelopment of the Alphavirus Nucleocapsid

    V. Future Research in Alphavirus Assembly


    18. Chemical and Antigenic Structure of Flaviviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    III. Virion RNA

    IV. Proteins and Glycoproteins

    V. Lipids

    VI. Antigenic Characteristics

    VII. Present and Future Investigations


    19. Replication of Flaviviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Transcription

    III. Virus-Specified Proteins

    IV. Protein Synthesis in Infected Cells

    V. Assembly and Maturation

    VI. Summary of Flavivirus Replication


    20. Togaviruses in Cultured Arthropod Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Arthropod Cell Lines Used for the Growth of Togaviruses

    III. Growth of Viruses in Cell Lines of Arthropod Origin

    IV. Comparative Aspects of Togavirus Replication in Mosquito and Vertebrate Cells

    V. Cytopathic Effect in Mosquito Cells Infected with Togaviruses

    VI. Mosquito Cells Persistently Infected with Togaviruses

    VII. Mosquito Cells and Defective Interfering Particles of Alphaviruses

    VIII. Sindbis Virus Mutants in Cultured Mosquito Cells

    IX. Contaminating Viruses in Cultured Mosquito Cells

    X. Mutants of Mosquito Cells and Their Use for the Study of Togaviruses


    21. Non-Arbo Togaviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Pestiviruses

    III. Rubivirus

    IV. Other Viruses

    V. Non-Arbo Flaviviruses

    VI. Discussion



Product details

  • No. of pages: 687
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: January 28, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323138260

About the Author

Walter R Schlesinge

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