The Togaviruses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126253801, 9780323138260

The Togaviruses

1st Edition

Biology, Structure, Replication

Authors: Walter R Schlesinge
eBook ISBN: 9780323138260
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1980
Page Count: 687
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The Togaviruses: Biology, Structure, Replication deals with the biology, structure, and replication of rotaviruses. This book covers topics such as the biochemistry of rotaviruses and the biological and medical challenges they pose. It also gives an account of their mechanisms of replication that might lead to perceptions of the capacity to solve biological and epidemiological problems through the concepts and technology of molecular biology. This text is comprised of 21 chapters that explore clinical details, routine procedures for diagnostic virus isolation and identification and for serological tests; immunological host responses; the role of interferons; antiviral chemotherapy; and vaccine development. The discussion begins with a historical overview of arboviruses, followed by a description of all the viruses that belong to Togaviridae. These include alpha- and flaviviruses, rubiviruses, pestiviruses, and other ""non-arbo"" togaviruses. The next chapters focus on the arthropod-vertebrate-arthropod transmission cycle and its experimental equivalents, along with the viruses' structure, composition, and replication. This book concludes with a summary of physicochemical, morphological, and clinical data on non-arbo togaviruses. This reference material will be of interest to physicians, veterinarians, ecologists, entomologists, epidemiologists, cell biologists, immunologists, virologists, physical chemists, biochemists, molecular biologists, and geneticists.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Introduction

I. Historical Background: The Arthropod-Borne Viruses (Arboviruses)

II. The Togaviridae

III. Prospectus


2. Antigenic Characteristics and Classification of Togaviridae

I. Introduction

II. Antigenic Relationships among the Togaviridae

III. Methods Used to Study Interrelationships

IV. Other Factors Affecting Cross-Protection

V. Medical and Biological Significance of Interfamily Relationships

VI. Evolutionary Aspects of Togaviridae


3. Medical Significance of Togaviruses: An Overview of Diseases Caused by Togaviruses in Man and in Domestic and Wild Vertebrate Animals

I. Introduction

II. Description of Major Disease Groups

III. Laboratory Infections

IV. An Overview


4. Virus-Host Interactions in Natural and Experimental Infections with Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses

I. Complexities of "Virulence"

II. Target Organs in Alpha- and Flavivirus Infections

III. Phylogenetic Host Determinants of Virulence—Vertebrate versus Arthropod Host Systems

IV. Viral Virulence Markers: The Question of Genotypic versus Phenotypic Polymorphism

V. Conclusions


5. Immunological Parameters of Togavirus Disease Syndromes

I. Introduction

II. Immunological Aspects of Dengue Infection

III. The Immune Enhancement Hypothesis

IV. Comment

V. Appendix


6. Epidemiology of Arthropod-Borne Togaviruses: The Role of Arthropods as Hosts and Vectors and of Vertebrate Hosts in Natural Transmission Cycles

I. Introduction

II. The Alphaviruses

III. The Flaviviruses


7. Arthropods as Hosts and Vectors of Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses—Experimental Infections

I. Introduction

II. Considerations in Undertaking Experimental Infection of Arthropods


8. Togavirus Morphology and Morphogenesis

I. Introduction

II. The Alphavirus Genus

III. The Flavivirus Genus

IV. The Rubivirus Genus

V. The Pestivirus Genus

VI. Unclassified Togaviruses

VII. Comparisons and Conclusions


9. Alphavirus Proteins

I. Protein Composition of Alphaviruses

II. Isolation of Alphavirus Proteins

III. Topography of the Spike Proteins in the Membrane

IV. Functions of the Alphavirus Spike Glycoproteins


10. Lipids of Alphaviruses

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Lipids

III. Origin and Diversity of Lipids

IV. Role of Lipids


11. The Genome of Alphaviruses

I. Physical Properties of the Alphavirus Genome

II. Genetic Content and Organization of the Alphavirus Genome


12. Synthesis of Alphavirus RNA

I. Introduction

II. Early Events

III. Nature and Synthesis of Alphavirus Minus-Strand RNA

IV. Nature and Synthesis of Alphavirus Plus-Strand RNA

V. Mechanism of Synthesis of 26 S RNA

VI. Regulation of the Synthesis of 42 and 26 S Plus-Strand RNA

VII. Kinetics of Alphavirus Plus- and Minus-Strand Synthesis and of Polymerase Formation

VIII. Mechanistic Aspects of the Synthesis of Alphavirus RNA


13. Translation and Processing of Alphavirus Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Translation of Viral Proteins

III. Glycosylation of Viral Envelope Proteins

IV. Fatty Acid Acylation of Envelope Proteins

V. Stoichiometry of Viral Structural Gene Products

VI. Conclusion


14. Mutants of Alphaviruses: Genetics and Physiology

I. Introduction

II. Types of Mutants

III. Genetic Interactions between Alphaviruses

IV. Functional Defects of the Alphavirus to Mutants

V. Concluding Remarks


15. Defective Interfering Alphaviruses

I. Introduction

II. First Reports of Defective Interfering Particles of Alphaviruses

III. Properties of Alphavirus Defective Interfering Particles

IV. Intracellular Viral Defective Interfering RNAs

V. Sequences Found in Defective Interfering RNAs

VI. Role and Influence of the Host Cell in the Generation and Replication of Alphavirus Defective Interfering Particles

VII. Defective Interfering Particles in Persistently Infected Cultures

VIII. Defective Interfering Particles in the Whole Animal

IX. Concluding Remarks


16. Effects of Alphaviruses on Host Cell Macromolecular Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. The Effects of Lytic Infection of Vertebrate Cell Cultures on the Macromolecular Synthesis of the Host Cell

III. Effects of Noncytolytic Infection of Arthropod Cell Cultures on Macromolecular Synthesis of Host Cell


17. The Assembly of Alphaviruses

I. Introduction

II. Assembly of Alphavirus Nucleocapsids

III. Assembly of Alphavirus Membranes

IV. Envelopment of the Alphavirus Nucleocapsid

V. Future Research in Alphavirus Assembly


18. Chemical and Antigenic Structure of Flaviviruses

I. Introduction

II. Physical and Chemical Characteristics

III. Virion RNA

IV. Proteins and Glycoproteins

V. Lipids

VI. Antigenic Characteristics

VII. Present and Future Investigations


19. Replication of Flaviviruses

I. Introduction

II. Transcription

III. Virus-Specified Proteins

IV. Protein Synthesis in Infected Cells

V. Assembly and Maturation

VI. Summary of Flavivirus Replication


20. Togaviruses in Cultured Arthropod Cells

I. Introduction

II. Arthropod Cell Lines Used for the Growth of Togaviruses

III. Growth of Viruses in Cell Lines of Arthropod Origin

IV. Comparative Aspects of Togavirus Replication in Mosquito and Vertebrate Cells

V. Cytopathic Effect in Mosquito Cells Infected with Togaviruses

VI. Mosquito Cells Persistently Infected with Togaviruses

VII. Mosquito Cells and Defective Interfering Particles of Alphaviruses

VIII. Sindbis Virus Mutants in Cultured Mosquito Cells

IX. Contaminating Viruses in Cultured Mosquito Cells

X. Mutants of Mosquito Cells and Their Use for the Study of Togaviruses


21. Non-Arbo Togaviruses

I. Introduction

II. Pestiviruses

III. Rubivirus

IV. Other Viruses

V. Non-Arbo Flaviviruses

VI. Discussion




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© Academic Press 1980
Academic Press
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About the Author

Walter R Schlesinge

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