The Theory of Recycle Processes in Chemical Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483197654, 9781483222684

The Theory of Recycle Processes in Chemical Engineering

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Chemical Engineering, Vol. 3

Authors: M. F. Nagiev
Editors: P. V. Danckwerts
eBook ISBN: 9781483222684
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 294
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Description

The Theory of Recycle Processes in Chemical Engineering deals with the theory and methods related to dynamic (flow) systems and with the processes in static systems with recycles, The book investigates complex recycle processes through the use of concepts and examples. The development and refinement of chemical technology involves processes that are purely chemical or technological in nature. The technological approach consists in the design of industrial processes where chemical reaction occurs with minimum by-products, and with the maximum useful employment of each unit of catalyst surface and reaction space. The book explores effective systems for the complex processing of chemical raw materials using the technological approach. The text reviews the elementary principles of the theory of recycle process through derivation of equations for simple recycling processes where one or more chemical reactions occur in a single medium or reactor in which the reactions happen consecutively, or in a parallel manner. The book also explains how the investigator can determine the technologically-optimum characteristics of the reaction unit employing five steps. The text will benefit industrial chemists, researchers, technical designers, and engineers, whose works are related with chemistry and recycling.

Table of Contents


Foreword to the English Edition

Introduction

I. Elementary Principles of the Theory of Recycle Processes

1. The Physical Essentials of Recycle Processes

A. Recycle Process with Repeated Processing of the Entire Unreacted Raw Material

B. Recycle Process with Repeated Processing of Part of the Unreacted Raw Material

C. Permissible Error on Reaching the Virtuauy Steady State

D. The Consecutive Chemical Conversion of Unreacted Raw Material

E. Common Features of Continuous and Consecutive Processes in the Chemical Conversion of Unreacted Raw Material

F. Connexion Between Reaction Time and Recycling Coefficient

2. Single-Reactor System with Multi-Component Recycle Stocks

A. Recycle Process for Multi-Component System with Repeated Processing of the Entire Unreacted Raw Material

B. Recycle Process for a Multi-Component System with Repeated Processing of Part of the Unreacted Raw Material

C. Determining the Required Quantity of Fresh Feed Stock Components for a Given Constant Component Ratio in the Total Reactor Charge

D. Practical Example

3. Process with Simple and Conjugate Recycling in Single-Reactor Systems

A. Conversion of Single-Component Fresh Feed Stock with the Production of Conjugate Recycle Stock

B. Conversion of A Single-Component Feed Stock with Simple Recycling, and of Reaction Products with Simple and Conjugate Recycling

II. Theory of Recycling Processes with Unrestricted Composition of Reactor Charge

1. Combinaton of Once-Through Chemical Processes and Recycle Processes

2. Theory of Recycle Processes with Unrestricted Ratio of the Charge Components

3. Pracήcal Application of the Recycling Theory to Systems with Unrestricted Ratio of Reactor Charge Components

A. Material Balance for the Synthesis of Adipinic Acid for Synthetic Fibre (Nylon) Manufacture

B. Material Balance for the Synthesis of the Detergent Alkylaryl Sulphonate (Dodecylbenzene Sulphonate)

C. Material Balance for the Synthesis of Dimethylterephthalate for Synthetic Fibre (Terylene) Manufacture

D. Material Balance for the Complex Processing of Straight-Run Fuel Oil

III. Law and Rules for the Making-Up of Complex Mixtures

Law of Making-Up Complex Mixtures

Rule I

Rule II

Rule III

Rule IV

IV. General Theory of Recycle Processes

1. Derivation of Basic Equations

2. The Number of Possible Alternative Calculations for the System

3. Calculating the Total Mateioal Balance for a Multi-Stage Complex System

4. Example of the Determination of the Efficiencies of Various Alternatives for the Complex Processing of Chemical Stocks

V. Experimental Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Chemical Processes

1. Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Simple Reaction Systems

A. Method of Consecutive Chemical Conversion of Recycle Stocks

B. Pseudo-Continuous Method with Recycling

2. Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Conjugately-Operating Complex Reacton Systems

A. Three-Reactor System

Β. Multi-Reactor and Multi-Component System

C. Examples of Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Conjugate Recycling Systems

Thermal Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Debitumenized Cracking Residue

Synthesis of Dimethylterephthalate

3. Application of Methods for Determining the Steady-State Parameters to the Solution of Practical Problems in Chemical Engineering

A. Experimental Study of the Light Thermal Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Distillates for Repeated Light Cracking

Short Description of Technological Diagram

Study of Light Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Heavy Reflux

Study of the Light Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Heavy Reflux Obtained by Vacuum Distillation of Cracking Residue

VI. Conversion of the Terms in the Basic Recycling Equations from Weight to Molar Units

VII. Development of Elements for the Technological Process Leading to High Efficiencies Per Unit Volume of Reactor Space

1. Determination of the Minimum Reactor Volume for the Isomerizaton Reacton

A. Process with Recycling

B. Two-Stage Process

2. Determination of the Maximum Yields of the Intermediate Product in Consecunve Reactons Carried Out with Recycling

3. Development of the Flow Diagram of a Reacton Unit for Propylene Hydrochlorination

A. Derivation of Calculation Equations

Single-Stage Direct-Flow Hydrochlorination Systems

System without Recycling (Diagram I)

System with Recycling of the Unreacted Raw Material (Diagram II)

Two-Stage Hydrochlorination Systems with Counterflow Between Stages

Simplest Two-Stage System (Diagram III)

Two-Stage System with Removal of Reaction Product Between Stages (Diagram IV)

Two-Stage System with Recycling of Unreacted Raw Material (Diagram V)

Three-Stage Hydrochlorination System with Counterflow of the Reacting Components and Removal of the Reaction Product Between Stages (Diagram VI)

Single-Stage Counterflow (Hypothetical) Hydrochlorination Systems

System Without Recycling (Diagram VII)

System with Recycling of Unreacted Raw Material (Diagram VIII)

B. Determination of Minimum Reaction Volume and of Maximum Yield of End-Product in Process of Catalytic Hydrochlorination of Propylene

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
294
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483222684

About the Author

M. F. Nagiev

About the Editor

P. V. Danckwerts

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK