The Theory of Recycle Processes in Chemical Engineering

The Theory of Recycle Processes in Chemical Engineering

International Series of Monographs on Chemical Engineering, Vol. 3

1st Edition - January 1, 1964

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  • Author: M. F. Nagiev
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222684

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Description

The Theory of Recycle Processes in Chemical Engineering deals with the theory and methods related to dynamic (flow) systems and with the processes in static systems with recycles, The book investigates complex recycle processes through the use of concepts and examples. The development and refinement of chemical technology involves processes that are purely chemical or technological in nature. The technological approach consists in the design of industrial processes where chemical reaction occurs with minimum by-products, and with the maximum useful employment of each unit of catalyst surface and reaction space. The book explores effective systems for the complex processing of chemical raw materials using the technological approach. The text reviews the elementary principles of the theory of recycle process through derivation of equations for simple recycling processes where one or more chemical reactions occur in a single medium or reactor in which the reactions happen consecutively, or in a parallel manner. The book also explains how the investigator can determine the technologically-optimum characteristics of the reaction unit employing five steps. The text will benefit industrial chemists, researchers, technical designers, and engineers, whose works are related with chemistry and recycling.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword to the English Edition

    Introduction

    I. Elementary Principles of the Theory of Recycle Processes

    1. The Physical Essentials of Recycle Processes

    A. Recycle Process with Repeated Processing of the Entire Unreacted Raw Material

    B. Recycle Process with Repeated Processing of Part of the Unreacted Raw Material

    C. Permissible Error on Reaching the Virtuauy Steady State

    D. The Consecutive Chemical Conversion of Unreacted Raw Material

    E. Common Features of Continuous and Consecutive Processes in the Chemical Conversion of Unreacted Raw Material

    F. Connexion Between Reaction Time and Recycling Coefficient

    2. Single-Reactor System with Multi-Component Recycle Stocks

    A. Recycle Process for Multi-Component System with Repeated Processing of the Entire Unreacted Raw Material

    B. Recycle Process for a Multi-Component System with Repeated Processing of Part of the Unreacted Raw Material

    C. Determining the Required Quantity of Fresh Feed Stock Components for a Given Constant Component Ratio in the Total Reactor Charge

    D. Practical Example

    3. Process with Simple and Conjugate Recycling in Single-Reactor Systems

    A. Conversion of Single-Component Fresh Feed Stock with the Production of Conjugate Recycle Stock

    B. Conversion of A Single-Component Feed Stock with Simple Recycling, and of Reaction Products with Simple and Conjugate Recycling

    II. Theory of Recycling Processes with Unrestricted Composition of Reactor Charge

    1. Combinaton of Once-Through Chemical Processes and Recycle Processes

    2. Theory of Recycle Processes with Unrestricted Ratio of the Charge Components

    3. Pracήcal Application of the Recycling Theory to Systems with Unrestricted Ratio of Reactor Charge Components

    A. Material Balance for the Synthesis of Adipinic Acid for Synthetic Fibre (Nylon) Manufacture

    B. Material Balance for the Synthesis of the Detergent Alkylaryl Sulphonate (Dodecylbenzene Sulphonate)

    C. Material Balance for the Synthesis of Dimethylterephthalate for Synthetic Fibre (Terylene) Manufacture

    D. Material Balance for the Complex Processing of Straight-Run Fuel Oil

    III. Law and Rules for the Making-Up of Complex Mixtures

    Law of Making-Up Complex Mixtures

    Rule I

    Rule II

    Rule III

    Rule IV

    IV. General Theory of Recycle Processes

    1. Derivation of Basic Equations

    2. The Number of Possible Alternative Calculations for the System

    3. Calculating the Total Mateioal Balance for a Multi-Stage Complex System

    4. Example of the Determination of the Efficiencies of Various Alternatives for the Complex Processing of Chemical Stocks

    V. Experimental Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Chemical Processes

    1. Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Simple Reaction Systems

    A. Method of Consecutive Chemical Conversion of Recycle Stocks

    B. Pseudo-Continuous Method with Recycling

    2. Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Conjugately-Operating Complex Reacton Systems

    A. Three-Reactor System

    Β. Multi-Reactor and Multi-Component System

    C. Examples of Determination of the Steady-State Parameters of Conjugate Recycling Systems

    Thermal Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Debitumenized Cracking Residue

    Synthesis of Dimethylterephthalate

    3. Application of Methods for Determining the Steady-State Parameters to the Solution of Practical Problems in Chemical Engineering

    A. Experimental Study of the Light Thermal Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Distillates for Repeated Light Cracking

    Short Description of Technological Diagram

    Study of Light Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Heavy Reflux

    Study of the Light Cracking of Fuel Oil with Recycling of the Heavy Reflux Obtained by Vacuum Distillation of Cracking Residue

    VI. Conversion of the Terms in the Basic Recycling Equations from Weight to Molar Units

    VII. Development of Elements for the Technological Process Leading to High Efficiencies Per Unit Volume of Reactor Space

    1. Determination of the Minimum Reactor Volume for the Isomerizaton Reacton

    A. Process with Recycling

    B. Two-Stage Process

    2. Determination of the Maximum Yields of the Intermediate Product in Consecunve Reactons Carried Out with Recycling

    3. Development of the Flow Diagram of a Reacton Unit for Propylene Hydrochlorination

    A. Derivation of Calculation Equations

    Single-Stage Direct-Flow Hydrochlorination Systems

    System without Recycling (Diagram I)

    System with Recycling of the Unreacted Raw Material (Diagram II)

    Two-Stage Hydrochlorination Systems with Counterflow Between Stages

    Simplest Two-Stage System (Diagram III)

    Two-Stage System with Removal of Reaction Product Between Stages (Diagram IV)

    Two-Stage System with Recycling of Unreacted Raw Material (Diagram V)

    Three-Stage Hydrochlorination System with Counterflow of the Reacting Components and Removal of the Reaction Product Between Stages (Diagram VI)

    Single-Stage Counterflow (Hypothetical) Hydrochlorination Systems

    System Without Recycling (Diagram VII)

    System with Recycling of Unreacted Raw Material (Diagram VIII)

    B. Determination of Minimum Reaction Volume and of Maximum Yield of End-Product in Process of Catalytic Hydrochlorination of Propylene

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 294
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1964
  • Published: January 1, 1964
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222684

About the Author

M. F. Nagiev

About the Editor

P. V. Danckwerts

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK

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