The Terrestrial Environment, A - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444417800, 9781483289618

The Terrestrial Environment, A

1st Edition

Editors: P. Fritz
eBook ISBN: 9781483289618
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st June 1980
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Table of Contents


Preface

List of Contributors

Introduction

Definitions

Standards

References

Chapter 1. The Isotopes of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Precipitation

Introduction

Tritium in Atmospheric Waters

Stable Isotope Distribution in Atmospheric Waters: Data

Models of the Isotope Fractionation During Evaporation and Condensation of Water in the Atmosphere

In-Storm Variation of Isotopic Composition, Cloud Models and Hailstone Studies

Stable Isotope Distribution in Atmospheric Waters: The Global Model

References

Chapter 2. Carbon-14 in Hydrogeological Studies

Introduction

The Abundance Of 14C

The 14C Age Determination

14C Dating in Groundwater

Summary

References

Chapter 3. Environmental Isotopes in Groundwater Hydrology

Introduction

Basic Principles

Groundwater Recharge

Relations Between Surface- and Groundwaters

Mechanism and Components of the Run-Off

Leakage Between Aquifers

Isotope Hydrology of Fractured Rocks

Mechanism of Salinization

Groundwater Dating

Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Environmental Isotopes In Ice and Snow

Introduction

Isotope Content of a Snow Cover in Accretion

Isotope Distribution During The Reduction of a Temperate Snow Cover

Isotope Variations in the Transition of Snow to Glacier Ice

Snow and Ice Isotope Hydrology

Historical Glaciology

References

Chapter 5. Isotopic Evidence on Environments of Geothermal Systems

Introduction

Isotope Hydrology of Geothermal Systems

Geothermometry

Isotopic Dating of Geothermal Waters

Origin of Chemical Constituents

Solid Phase Studies

Summary

Appendix — Methods of Collection and Analysis

References

Chapter 6. Sulphur and Oxygen Isotopes in Aqueous Sulphur Compounds

Introduction

Isotope Fractionation

Geochemistry and Isotope Distribution of Aqueous Sulphur Compounds

Field Studies of Groundwater Systems

Summary

References

Chapter 7. Uranium Disequilibrium in Hydrologic Studies

Introduction

Isotopic Fractionation of 234U

Mixing Studies: Continental Waters

Mixing and Uranium Balances: Marine Waters

Aquifer Interactions

Age Dating

Summary

Appendix — Analytical Techniques For 234U And 238U Analysis

References

Chapter 8. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Effects in Low-Temperature Mineral-Water Interactions

Introduction

Isotopic Fractionations Between Minerals and Water

Isotope Effects During Weathering and Soil Formation

Isotopic Studies of Marine Sedimentation, Halmyrolysis, Authigenesis and Early Diagenesis

Evaporite Formation

Later Diagenetic Processes

Serpentinization of Ultramafic Rocks

Effect of Mineral-Water Interaction on the Isotopic Composition of Pore Water

References

Chapter 9. The Isotopic Composition of Reduced Organic Carbon

Introduction

Photosynthesis and the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Plants

The Carbon Isotopic Composition of Organic Matter in Sediments

The Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil Fuels

The Carbon Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Compounds

References

Chapter 10. Nitrogen-15 in the Natural Environment

Introduction

15N in Nature

Isotope Fractionations

15N in Organic Matter and Soils

15N in Nitrates

15N in the Hydrosphere

References

Chapter 11. Sulphur Isotopes in Our Environment

Introduction

Terrestrial Sulphur Isotope Abundances and Cycling of Mobile Sulphur Compounds

Elucidation of Sources, Mbcing, and Dispersion of Sulphur Compounds

Sulphur Isotope Fractionation During Transformations of Atmospheric and Aqueous

Sulphur Compounds

Sulphur Isotope Fractionation in the Pedosphere

Sulphur Isotopes Elucidate Uptake of Industrial Sulphur Compounds by Vegetation

Evaluation of Anthropogenic and Natural Sources of Sulphur Compounds

Summary

References

Chapter 12. Environmental Isotopes as Environmental and Climatological Indicators

Introduction

The Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Composition of Freshwater Shells

Freshwater Lakes and Sediments

Deuterium in Organic Matter as Paleoclimatic Indicators

References

References Index

Subject Index

Description

Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 1: The Terrestrial Environment, A focuses on isotope hydrology and aqueous geochemistry, as well as an overview of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial systems.

The selection first elaborates on the isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, carbon-14 in hydrogeological studies, and environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology. Concerns cover groundwater dating, mechanism of salinization, groundwater recharge, models of the isotope fractionation during evaporation and condensation of water in the atmosphere, and stable isotope distribution in atmospheric waters.

The book then examines environmental isotopes in ice and snow, isotopic evidence on environments of geothermal systems, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes in aqueous sulfur compounds. Discussions focus on geochemistry and isotope distribution of aqueous sulfur compounds, isotopic dating of geothermal waters, origin of chemical constituents, geothermometry, isotope distribution during the reduction of a temperate snow cover, and snow and ice isotope hydrology. The manuscript explores environmental isotopes as environmental and climatological indicators, sulfur isotopes in the environment, nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, and the isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon.

The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.


Details

Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9781483289618

Reviews

@qu:...an impressive collection of papers describing isotope research primarily in the fields of hydrology, aqueous geochemistry and biogeochemistry. To most geoscientists, the book would be described as `everything we wanted to know about isotopes and much, much more'. Without doubt, a necessary reference book for any geochemist. @source: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology


About the Editors

P. Fritz Editor