The Terrestrial Environment, A

The Terrestrial Environment, A

1st Edition - June 1, 1980

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  • Editor: P. Fritz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289618

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Description

Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 1: The Terrestrial Environment, A focuses on isotope hydrology and aqueous geochemistry, as well as an overview of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen isotopes in terrestrial systems. The selection first elaborates on the isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, carbon-14 in hydrogeological studies, and environmental isotopes in groundwater hydrology. Concerns cover groundwater dating, mechanism of salinization, groundwater recharge, models of the isotope fractionation during evaporation and condensation of water in the atmosphere, and stable isotope distribution in atmospheric waters. The book then examines environmental isotopes in ice and snow, isotopic evidence on environments of geothermal systems, and sulfur and oxygen isotopes in aqueous sulfur compounds. Discussions focus on geochemistry and isotope distribution of aqueous sulfur compounds, isotopic dating of geothermal waters, origin of chemical constituents, geothermometry, isotope distribution during the reduction of a temperate snow cover, and snow and ice isotope hydrology. The manuscript explores environmental isotopes as environmental and climatological indicators, sulfur isotopes in the environment, nitrogen-15 in the natural environment, and the isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon. The selection is a valuable reference for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Standards

    References

    Chapter 1. The Isotopes of Hydrogen and Oxygen in Precipitation

    Introduction

    Tritium in Atmospheric Waters

    Stable Isotope Distribution in Atmospheric Waters: Data

    Models of the Isotope Fractionation During Evaporation and Condensation of Water in the Atmosphere

    In-Storm Variation of Isotopic Composition, Cloud Models and Hailstone Studies

    Stable Isotope Distribution in Atmospheric Waters: The Global Model

    References

    Chapter 2. Carbon-14 in Hydrogeological Studies

    Introduction

    The Abundance Of 14C

    The 14C Age Determination

    14C Dating in Groundwater

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 3. Environmental Isotopes in Groundwater Hydrology

    Introduction

    Basic Principles

    Groundwater Recharge

    Relations Between Surface- and Groundwaters

    Mechanism and Components of the Run-Off

    Leakage Between Aquifers

    Isotope Hydrology of Fractured Rocks

    Mechanism of Salinization

    Groundwater Dating

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Environmental Isotopes In Ice and Snow

    Introduction

    Isotope Content of a Snow Cover in Accretion

    Isotope Distribution During The Reduction of a Temperate Snow Cover

    Isotope Variations in the Transition of Snow to Glacier Ice

    Snow and Ice Isotope Hydrology

    Historical Glaciology

    References

    Chapter 5. Isotopic Evidence on Environments of Geothermal Systems

    Introduction

    Isotope Hydrology of Geothermal Systems

    Geothermometry

    Isotopic Dating of Geothermal Waters

    Origin of Chemical Constituents

    Solid Phase Studies

    Summary

    Appendix — Methods of Collection and Analysis

    References

    Chapter 6. Sulphur and Oxygen Isotopes in Aqueous Sulphur Compounds

    Introduction

    Isotope Fractionation

    Geochemistry and Isotope Distribution of Aqueous Sulphur Compounds

    Field Studies of Groundwater Systems

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 7. Uranium Disequilibrium in Hydrologic Studies

    Introduction

    Isotopic Fractionation of 234U

    Mixing Studies: Continental Waters

    Mixing and Uranium Balances: Marine Waters

    Aquifer Interactions

    Age Dating

    Summary

    Appendix — Analytical Techniques For 234U And 238U Analysis

    References

    Chapter 8. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Effects in Low-Temperature Mineral-Water Interactions

    Introduction

    Isotopic Fractionations Between Minerals and Water

    Isotope Effects During Weathering and Soil Formation

    Isotopic Studies of Marine Sedimentation, Halmyrolysis, Authigenesis and Early Diagenesis

    Evaporite Formation

    Later Diagenetic Processes

    Serpentinization of Ultramafic Rocks

    Effect of Mineral-Water Interaction on the Isotopic Composition of Pore Water

    References

    Chapter 9. The Isotopic Composition of Reduced Organic Carbon

    Introduction

    Photosynthesis and the Carbon Isotopic Composition of Plants

    The Carbon Isotopic Composition of Organic Matter in Sediments

    The Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil Fuels

    The Carbon Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Compounds

    References

    Chapter 10. Nitrogen-15 in the Natural Environment

    Introduction

    15N in Nature

    Isotope Fractionations

    15N in Organic Matter and Soils

    15N in Nitrates

    15N in the Hydrosphere

    References

    Chapter 11. Sulphur Isotopes in Our Environment

    Introduction

    Terrestrial Sulphur Isotope Abundances and Cycling of Mobile Sulphur Compounds

    Elucidation of Sources, Mbcing, and Dispersion of Sulphur Compounds

    Sulphur Isotope Fractionation During Transformations of Atmospheric and Aqueous

    Sulphur Compounds

    Sulphur Isotope Fractionation in the Pedosphere

    Sulphur Isotopes Elucidate Uptake of Industrial Sulphur Compounds by Vegetation

    Evaluation of Anthropogenic and Natural Sources of Sulphur Compounds

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 12. Environmental Isotopes as Environmental and Climatological Indicators

    Introduction

    The Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Composition of Freshwater Shells

    Freshwater Lakes and Sediments

    Deuterium in Organic Matter as Paleoclimatic Indicators

    References

    References Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1980
  • Published: June 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289618

About the Editor

P. Fritz

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