The Technical Applications of Radioactivity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483200095, 9781483225128

The Technical Applications of Radioactivity

1st Edition

Authors: Engelbert Broda Thomas Schönfeld
eBook ISBN: 9781483225128
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 370
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The Technical Applications of Radioactivity, Volume 1 reviews the technical applications of radioactivity, with emphasis on the potentialities of nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry for the peaceful development of industrial productivity. Topics covered range from measurement of radioactivity to the production and chemistry of radio elements, as well as the application of radioactivity in chemical analysis and in the mining, metallurgical, electrical, and engineering industries.

Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume first deals with the fundamentals of modern atomic theory, followed by an introduction to the basic facts of radioactivity, the methods used for measuring it, and chemical operations with radioactive substances. Subsequent chapters focus on the use of radioactivity in chemical analysis, hydrology, and water supply, and in industries such as mining and oil production, engineering, and chemical sectors, along with forestry and agriculture. The final chapter looks at precautions in the use of radioactive materials to protect research workers, physicians, and other personnel against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.

This book is written for scientists and scientific or technical workers.

Table of Contents

Foreword to the First Edition

Foreword to the Second Edition

Foreword to the Third Edition

Note on Bibliography


1. Introduction

1.1. The Importance of Radioactivity for Science and Industry

1.2. The Development of Knowledge about the Atomic Nucleus

1.3. Survey of the Applications of Radioactive Substances

2. Fundamentals of Radioactivity

2.1. The Atom as a Planetary System

2.2. The Electrons in the Atoms

2.3. Molecules

2.4. Isotopy

2.5. Isotope Effects

2.6. Radioactivity

2.7. α-Radiation

2.8. β-Radiation

2.9. γ-Radiation

2.10. Radiation from the Extranuclear Region Due to Radioactivity

2.11. Energy of Radiations

2.12. Induced Nuclear Reactions

2.13. Nuclear Fission

2.14. Absorption of Radiation: Preliminary Remarks

2.15. Absorption of α-Radiation

2.16. Absorption of β-Radiation

2.17. Absorption of γ-Radiation

2.18. Radiation Dose

2.19. Decay of Radionuclides

2.20. Radioactive Equilibrium

2.21. Statistical Fluctuations of Radioactivity

General References to Chapter 2

3. The Measurement of Radioactivity

3.1. Introductory Remarks

3.2. Ionization Chambers

3.3. Proportional Counters

3.4. Geiger Counters

3.4.1. Principles

3.4.2. Construction Types

3.5. Scintillation Counters

3.6. Photographic Detection Methods

3.7. Preparation of Solid Samples

General References to Chapter 3

Literature on the Measurement of Radiocarbon and Tritium

4. The Production and Chemistry of Radioelements

4.1. Production of Radionuclides

4.2. General Aspects of Radiochemistry

4.3. Radiochemical Procedures

4.4. Radiosyntheses

General References to Chapter 4

5. The Radioactive Tracer Method

5.1. General Characteristics of the Tracer Method

5.2. Chemical Radiation Effects as a Disturbing Factor

5.3. The Emanation Method

General References to Chapter 5

6. Application of Radioactivity in Chemical Analysis

6.1. Survey of the Types of Application

6.2. Determination of Natural Radioelements

6.3. Indicator Analysis

6.4. Analysis with Radioactive Reagents

6.5. Isotope Dilution Methods

6.6. Activation Analysis

6.6.1. Principle of the Method

6.6.2. Direct Measurement of Activity Compared with Measurement After Chemical Separation

6.6.3. Neutron Activation: General Remarks

6.6.4. Sensitivity of Activation Analysis with Neutrons

6.6.5. Examples of Activation Analysis with Neutrons

6.6.6. Activation with Ions

6.6.7. Activation by γ- and X-Radiation

6.7. Analysis by Absorption or Scattering of Nuclear Rays (Absorption Analysis)

6.7.1. Analysis by Neutron Attenuation

6.7.2. Analysis by Slowing-Down of Neutrons or Ions

6.7.3. Analysis by Absorption and Scattering of β-Rays

6.7.4. Analysis by Absorption of γ- and X-Rays

6.7.5. Analysis by Induced X-Ray Emission

6.7.6. Analysis by Luminescence Quenching

References to Chapter 6

7. Application of Radioactivity in Mining and Oil Production

7.1. Mining

7.1.1. Analysis and Classification of Ores

7.1.2. Radionuclides in Coal Mining and Coke Production

7.1.3. Ore Dressing

7.2. Oil Prospecting

7.3. Bore-Hole Investigations by Measurement of Natural Radioactivity (Gamma-Logging, GL)

7.4. Bore-Hole Investigations with Radiation Sources

7.4.1. Neutron-Neutron-Logging (NNL)

7.4.2. Neutron-Gamma-Logging (NGL)

7.4.3. Activation Logging (AL)

7.4.4. Gamma-Gamma-Logging (GGL)

7.4.5. Gamma-Neutron-Logging (GNL)

7.4.6. Bore-Hole Accelerators

7.5. Bore-Hole Investigations by Introduction of Radionuclides

7.6. Application to Oil Pipe Lines

References to Chapter 7

Application of Radioactivity in the Metallurgical, Engineering and Electrical Industries

8.1. Metallurgy

8.1.1. Blast Furnace Operation

8.1.2. Steel Production

8.1.3. Extraction of Non-Ferrous Metals

8.1.4. Investigation of Metals (Analysis, Detection of Inclusions, Investigation of Plastic Deformation and Welding)

8.2. Diffusion in Metals

8.3. Composition of Alloy Phases

8.4. Abrasion and Wear of Metals

8.4.1. Investigations on Models with Simple Surfaces

8.4.2. Investigations of Metal Working Processes

8.4.3. Investigations on Machines Under Operating Conditions

8.5. Corrosion and Scaling of Metals

8.6. The Electrical Industries

References to Chapter 8

9. Application of Radioactivity to General Problems of the Chemical Industry

9.1. Determination of Technically Important Physico-Chemical Quantities

9.1.1. Problems of Structure and Chemical Bonding

9.1.2. Solubilities

9.1.3. Formation of Complexes

9.1.4. Vapour Pressures

9.1.5. Adsorption

9.1.6. Diffusion, Heat Conduction and Viscosity

9.1.7. Surface Areas

9.1.8. Application of the Emanation Method

9.2. Elucidation of Reaction Mechanisms

9.2.1. General Kinetic Problems

9.2.2. Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

9.2.3. Catalysis in Gas Reactions

9.2.4. Combustion Reactions

9.2.5. Inorganic Chemical Reactions

9.3. Chemical Process Technology

9.3.1. Mixing and Separation

9.3.2. Detection of Losses

9.3.3. Level Gauging and Checking of Equipment Assembly

9.3.4. Flow Velocities

9.3.5. Mechanisms of Flow

9.3.6. Leak Detection

9.3.7. Determination of the Volume of Vessels and of Phases

9.3.8. Testing of Filters and Measurement of Particle Size

9.4. Industrial Hygiene

References to Chapter 9

10. Application of Radioactivity in Various Branches of the Chemical Industry

10.1. The Cellulose and Paper Industry

10.2. The Textile Industry

10.3. The Photographic Materials and Printing Industries

10.4. The Glass Industry

10.5. The Building Materials Industry

10.6. The Rubber and Plastics Industry

10.6.1. Quality Control

10.6.2. Study of Polymerization

10.6.3. Elucidation of Vulcanization

10.7. The Detergents Industry

10.8. The Pharmaceutical and Food Industries

References to Chapter 10

11. Application of Radioactivity in Agriculture and Forestry

11.1. Photosynthesis as the Basis of Agriculture and Forestry

11.2. Absorption, Transport and Excretion of Substances by Plants

11.2.1. Absorption Through the Roots

11.2.2. Translocation

11.2.3. Absorption Through Leaves

11.2.4. Excretion Processes

11.3. Studies with Fertilizers

11.3.1. General Considerations

11.3.2. Radiation Damage in Investigations with Fertilizers

11.3.3. Utilization of Individual Elements

11.3.4. Soil Condition

11.4. Animal Husbandry

11.5. Forestry and the Timber Industry

11.6. Pest Control

11.6.1. Absorption and Transport of Animal Pesticides

11.6.2. Absorption and Transport of Fungicides and Herbicides

11.6.3. Ecology of Animal Pests and of Other Animals

References to Chapter 11

12. Application of Radioactivity in Hydrology and Water Supply

12.1. Determination of Water Quality

12.2. Preparation and Measurement of Labelled Water

12.3. Tracing of Water

12.4. Flow Velocity in Water Courses

12.5. Hydrological Methods Based on Natural Tracers

12.6. Productivity of Waters

12.7. Movement of Sand and Gravel

12.8. Water Content of Soils

References to Chapter 12

13. Radiation Protection

13.1. Preliminary Remarks

13.2. The Concept of "Tolerance Dose"

13.3. External Radiation Exposure

13.4. Internal Radiation Exposure

13.5. Some Practical Advice

13.6. Work with High Activities

References to Chapter 13

Appendix 1: List of Radionuclides Important for Practical Use

Appendix 2: Important Units and Conversion Factors



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About the Author

Engelbert Broda

Thomas Schönfeld