The Stimulated Brain - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124047044, 9780124047129

The Stimulated Brain

1st Edition

Cognitive Enhancement Using Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

Editors: Roi Cohen Kadosh
eBook ISBN: 9780124047129
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124047044
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 3rd June 2014
Page Count: 568
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The Stimulated Brain—which garnered an Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience at the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers—presents the first integration of findings on brain stimulation from different research fields with a primary focus on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES), one of the most frequently used noninvasive stimulation methods.

The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the amount of research exploring how noninvasive brain stimulation can not only modulate but also enhance cognition and brain functions. However, although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and particularly tES have the potential to become more widely applicable techniques (as they come with none of the risks associated with deep brain stimulation) the reference literature on these neurotechnologies has been sparse.

This resource provides a broad survey of current knowledge, and also marks future directions in cognitive and neuro-enhancement. It expands our understanding of basic research findings from animals and humans, including clear translational benefits for applied research and the therapeutic use of noninvasive brain stimulation methods. The book's coverage includes a primer that paves the way to a more advanced knowledge of tES and its physiological basis; current research findings on cognitive and neuro-enhancement in animals and typical and atypical human populations, such as neurological patients; and discussions of future directions, including specific neuroethical issues and pathways for collaboration and entrepreneurialism.

The Stimulated Brain is the first book to provide a comprehensive understanding of different aspects of noninvasive brain stimulation that are critical for scientists, clinicians, and those who are interested in “stimulating their minds” by exploring this fascinating field of research.

Key Features

  • Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers
  • The only reference on the market to focus on transcranial electrical stimulation (tES)
  • Coverage across technical, historical, and application topics makes this the single, comprehensive resource for researchers and students
  • Edited book with chapters authored by international leaders in the fields of medicine, neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy—providing the broadest, most expert coverage available


Advanced students and researchers in cognitive neuroscience, neurology, physiology and developmental psychology.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
    • Chapter 1: Electricity and the Brain: An Historical Evaluation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Enlightenment electrotherapy and transcranial electrical stimulation
      • Nineteenth-century psychiatry and the psychiatric professions
      • Electricity in culture and society
      • Nineteenth-century electrotherapy
      • Electrical stimulation and mental energy
      • Popular electrotherapy
      • Skepticism towards electrotherapy
      • World war I
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS), and Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS)
      • Abstract
      • History of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES)
      • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
      • Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)
      • Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS)
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3: The Perils of Using Electrical Stimulation to Change Human Brains
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • The unique tool
      • DIY enhancement with tDCS
      • From bench to home: the good, the bad, and the ugly
      • The potential roots of unintended change
      • The underappreciated peril: if tDCS can change one function, it can change another
      • DIY tDCS is online right now
      • Regulation or lack thereof
      • Recommendations
      • Endnotes
    • Chapter 4: Computational Modeling Assisted Design of Optimized and Individualized Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Protocols
      • Abstract
      • Introduction to computational models of non-invasive neuromodulation
      • Methods and protocols in the generation of computational forward models of tDCS
      • Pitfalls and challenges in the application and interpretation of computational model predictions
      • Use of computational models in clinical practice
      • Consideration for Safety
      • Consideration for Individual Dose Titration
      • Example results of computational analysis in susceptible populations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 5: Transcranial Electrical Stimulation in Animals
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Experimental approaches for transcranial electrical stimulation in animals
      • Transcranial electrical stimulation effects in animals
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: The Physiological Basis of Brain Stimulation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Methods to measure the physiological mechanisms underlying transcranial stimulation in humans
      • Neuronal and synaptic effects induced by tDCS
      • Effects of tDCS on oscillatory activity
      • Relationship between tDCS and motor learning
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Effects of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation on Sensory Functions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Perception and attention
      • Stimulation of temporal and parietal areas combined with visual stimulation
      • Effects of alternating current stimulation on sensory functions
      • Clinical applications with regard to the stimulation of the visual cortex
      • tDCS and other sensory modalities
      • Summary
    • Chapter 8: Motor System
      • Abstract
      • The motor system
      • tES and motor cortical excitability
      • tES, motor performance and simple motor memory
      • tES and motor learning: serial reaction time paradigms
      • tES and motor learning: motor adaptation
      • tES and motor learning: fine motor skills, visuomotor learning
      • Mechanistic considerations
      • Summary and future directions
    • Chapter 9: Effects of Brain Stimulation on Declarative and Procedural Memories
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Declarative (explicit) memory
      • Procedural (implicit) memory
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: The Effects of Electrical Brain Stimulation Upon Visual Attention and Neglect
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Theory of attention
      • Alerting, orienting, and executive functions – the three networks model of attention
      • Visual search and the theory of visual attention by bundesen
      • Object-based features: global versus local aspects, high versus low saliency, allocentric versus egocentric reference frame
      • Attention involved in other cognitive domains
      • Spatial neglect – a multifaceted syndrome
      • Diversity of stimulation protocols, behavioral paradigms, and pathology
      • Conclusion
      • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 11: High-Level Cognitive Functions in Healthy Subjects
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • The tES family: tDCS, tACS, and tRNS
      • Effects of tDCS on language
      • Effects of tDCS on executive functions
      • Effects of tDCS on cognitive control
      • Effects of tDCS on learning and memory
      • Effects of tDCS on working memory
      • Effects of tDCS on numerical cognition
      • Neural underpinning of tDCS effects on cognition
      • Effects of tDCS on cognitive functions: methodological considerations
      • Discussion and future directions
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12: Brain Stimulation and its Role in Neurological Diseases
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Plasticity in the central nervous system: animal studies
      • Methods of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS)
      • Nibs in stroke recovery
      • Nibs in alzheimer’s disease
      • Nibs in the treatment of parkinson’s disease
      • Remarks and future directions
    • Chapter 13: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Cognition in the Elderly
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Studies in healthy older subjects
      • Studies in neurodegenerative diseases
      • An overall view
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 14: Clinical use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Psychiatry
      • Abstract
      • Historical remarks: tDCS in clinical psychiatry
      • Potential advantages of using tDCS in clinical psychiatry
      • Psychiatric disorders and tDCS
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: The Use of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in Drug Addictions
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • The addiction cycle and neurocircuitry
      • Non-invasive brain stimulation in drug addictions
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 16: Transcranial Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Cognitive Abilities in the Atypically Developing Brain
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgements
      • Introduction
      • Forms of tES
      • Learning and tES
      • Enhancing cognitive abilities with tES
      • Improving the deficits: examples for learning deficits
      • The young and plastic brain
      • A Dream come true: tES in the classroom?
      • Potential risks and ethical considerations
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 17: A Brief Guide to the Scientific Entrepreneur
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Market size and dynamics
      • Commercialization pathways
      • Disclosure and evaluation
      • Licensing
      • Spin-offs
      • Funding spin-offs
      • Regulatory pathways
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 18: The Neuroethics of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The treatment/enhancement distinction
      • Cognitive enhancement: the neuroethical debate
      • The perfect enhancer?
      • Two important objections
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 19: The Future Usage and Challenges of Brain Stimulation
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Introduction
      • Neurodevelopment
      • Ecological validity and transfer
      • The impact of tES
      • Individual differences
      • Cognitive and neural cost
      • Military use
      • Sport
      • Combination with other methods
      • Optimization
      • Home use
      • Conclusions
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2014
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Roi Cohen Kadosh

Roi Cohen Kadosh

Roi Cohen Kadosh is a Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Oxford. He received his PhD in Neuropsychology (summa cum laude, direct track) on the mental operations and neuropsychological mechanisms of numerical and magnitude processing under the supervision of Avishai Henik from the Ben-Gurion University in 2006. During this time he also had the opportunity to gain experience with neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI and ERP under the supervision of David Linden at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research (Frankfurt, Germany), and practiced for one year as clinical neuropsychologist at the Traumatic Brain Injuries Unit, Beit Lowenstein Rehabilitation Center in Israel. During his PhD period he also completed the European Diploma in Cognitive and Brain Sciences (EDCBS, 2003-4). He received funding from several sources including the International Brain Research Organization, and the European Union (Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship) to investigate the neural substrate of numerical representations using brain stimulation and neuroimaging during his postdoctoral training with Vincent Walsh at University College London. He joined EP as a Wellcome RCD Fellow in 2009 where he established the Cohen Kadosh Lab.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK


Honorable Mention, Biomedicine & Neuroscience, 2015 PROSE Awards, Association of American Publishers

Ratings and Reviews