The Sebaceous Glands - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080099453, 9781483279176

The Sebaceous Glands

1st Edition

Proceedings of the Brown University Symposium on the Biology of Skin, 1962

Editors: William Montagna Richard A. Ellis Alene F. Silver
eBook ISBN: 9781483279176
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 272
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Description

Advances in Biology of Skin, Volume 3: The Sebaceous Glands covers the proceedings of the 1962 Brown University Symposium on the Biology of Skin. The symposium considers the developmental sequences of sebaceous glands in man, their structural and functional attributes, and the analysis of skin surface lipids and their synthesis. This book is organized into 14 chapters, and starts with an introduction to the sebaceous glands. The subsequent chapter deals with the sebaceous glands in oral and lip mucosa. These topics are followed by discussions on ectopic sebaceous glands and the structure of sebaceous glands of man. Other chapters describe the effect of age and sex on the metabolism of rat, as well as the problems in the analysis of sebum. The last chapters consider the hormonal control of sebaceous glands in both animals and humans. This book will be of value to biologists and research workers.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Introduction

Chapter I The Development of Sebaceous Glands in Man

I. Introduction

II. Development of the Epidermis

III. Development of the Hair Follicle

IV. Development of the Sebaceous Glands

V. Enzymes of the Fetal Sebaceous Glands

VI. Summary and Conclusions

VII. References

Chapter II The Sebaceous Glands in Man

I. Introduction

II. The Microscopic Anatomy of Sebaceous Cells

III. Histochemistry

IV. Mechanism of Growth

V. References

Chapter III Comparative Aspects of Sebaceous Glands

I. Introduction

II. Histochemistry

III. The Problems of Growth and Differentiation

IV. References

Chapter IV Sebaceous Glands in Oral and Lip Mucosa

I. Introduction

II. Sex Prevalence

III. Familial Prevalence

IV. Morphology and Histology

V. Development

VI. Properties and Composition of Buccal Sebum

VII. Function

VIII. Comparative Anatomy

IX. Increase With Advancing Age

X. References

Chapter V Ectopic Sebaceous Glands

I. Introduction

II. Female Genitalia

III. Male Genitalia

IV. The Nipples and Areolae

V. Ocular Structures

VI. The Palms and Soles

VII. The Parotid Glands

VIII. The Tongue

IX. Miscellaneous Sites

X. General Comment

XI. Summary and Conclusions

XII. References

Chapter VI The Ultrastructure of the Sebaceous Glands of Man

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Observations

A. The Peripheral Undifferentiated Sebaceous Cells

B. The Partially Differentiated Cells

C. The Fully Differentiated Cells

IV. Conclusions

V. References

Chapter VII The Uses of Sebum?

I. Introduction

II. Phylogenetic Considerations

III. The Lipid Film

IV. Comparative Physiology

V. Vitamin D

VI. Surface Lipids as Adjuncts to the Barrier Function of Skin

VII. Sebum as an Emulsifier: Its Role in Moisture Regulation

A. In Vitro Studies

B. In Vivo Studies

C. Sebum as an Emulsifier

VIII. The Antifungal Properties of Sebum

IX. Antibacterial Effect of Sebum

X. Harmful Effect of Sebum

XI. Nice Properties of Sebum

XII. Summary

XIII. References

Chapter VIII the Effect of Age and Sex on the Metabolism of the Preputial Gland of the Rat

I. Introduction

II. Observations

A. Effects of Age and Sex on the Preputial Gland

III. Discussion

IV. Summary and Conclusions

V. References

Chapter IX Problems in the Analysis of Sebum

I. Introduction

II. Collection of Sebum

III. Physical and Chemical Constants

A. Melting Point

B. Specific Gravity

C. Viscosity

D. Surface Tension

E. Acid Number or Neutralization Equivalent

F. Iodine Number

G. Saponification Number

H. Acetyl Number

I. Total Nitrogen

J. Lipid Phosphorus

IV. Single Components

A. Glycerol

B. Sterols and Steroids

C. Squalene

V. Fraction Methods

A. Whole Sebum

B. Non-Saponifiable Material

C. Urea Adduct Formation

VI. Miscellaneous Physical Methods

A. Fractional Distillation

B. Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectrometry

C. Mass Spectrometry

D. Counter-Current Distribution

VII. Applications of Gas Chromatography

A. Fatty Acids

B. Wax Alcohols

C. Sterols

D. Waxes

E. Non-Saponifiable Material and Whole Sebum

VIII. Conclusions

IX. References

Chapter X Studies on the Regulation of Cholesterol Synthesis in the Skin and Preputial Gland of the Rat

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

A. Demonstration of Two Pathways in Skin

B. Effects of Sex Hormones on Sterol Synthesis

C. Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on Sebaceous Gland Sterols

IV. Discussion

V. Conclusions

VI. References

Chapter XI Human Skin Surface Lipids—Origin, Composition and Possible Function

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Human Skin Surface Lipids

III. Chemical Composition of Human Surface Fat

A. The Sample

B. The Analytical Scheme

C. The Composition

IV. The Free Fatty Acids and Glycerides of Human Skin Surface Fat

V. The Wax Esters and Wax Alcohols of Human Skin Surface Fat

A. The Wax Alcohols

B. The Wax Esters

VI. Squalene, Sterol Esters and Free Sterols in Human Skin Surface Fat

VII. Paraffin Hydrocarbons

VIII. Summary

A. Biogenesis of Sebum and Its Contribution to Human Skin Surface Fat

B. Epidermal Lipids and Their Contribution to Human Skin Surface Fat

IX. References

Chapter XII The Effects of Progesterone and a Pituitary Preparation with Sebotropic Activity on Sebaceous Glands

Chapter XIII Hormonal Control of Sebaceous Glands in Experimental Animals

I. Introduction

II. Methods

A. Preparation of Whole Mounts and Sections

B. Estimation of Alveolar Volume

C. Estimation of Mean Alveolar Number

D. Cell Number and Cell Volume

E. Cell Proliferation and Turnover Time

III. Action of Androgens

IV. Action of Estrogens

A. Time of Response in Immature Female Rats

B. Effect of Estradiol on Mitosis in Immature Rats

C. Changes During the Estrous Cycle

D. Effect of Estradiol in Hypophysectomized and Adrenalectomized Rats

E. Concomitant Implantation of Estradiol and Testosterone

V. Progestogens

A. Conflicting Results With Progesterone

B. Progesterone in Spayed and Intact Adult Rats

C. Progesterone in Intact Immature Rats Treated With Estradiol

D. Progesterone in Spayed Immature Rats

E. Large Doses of Progesterone

VI. Synthetic Steroids

VII. Discussion

VIII. References

Chapter XIV The Hormonal Control of Human Sebaceous Glands

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Development of the Sebaceous Glands of the Face

III. Methods of Investigating the Effects of Hormones on Sebaceous Glands

A. Biopsy

B. Gravimetric Assay of Sebum Production

IV. The Role of Androgens in the Development of the Sebaceous Glands

A. The Responses in Sexes and Different Age Groups

B. The Rate of Response of the Sebaceous Glands to Methyl Testosterone

C. The Sensitivity of the Sebaceous Glands to Methyl Testosterone

D. The Site of Action of Testosterone

V. The Effect of Adrenal Hormones on the Human Sebaceous Glands

VI. The Effect of Progesterone on the Sebaceous Glands

VII. The Effects of Estrogen on the Sebaceous Glands

A. Systemic Administration of Estrogens

B. Local Application of Estrogens

VIII. The Effect of Simultaneous Methyl Testosterone and Ethynyl Estradiol Administration

IX. Effect of Gonadotropins on the Sebaceous Glands

X. Effect of Sebotropin

XI. Discussion and Conclusions

XII. References




Details

No. of pages:
272
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1963
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483279176

About the Editor

William Montagna

Affiliations and Expertise

Oregon Regional Primate Research Center, Beaverton, U.S.A.

Richard A. Ellis

Alene F. Silver