The Science of Signs and Symptoms

The Science of Signs and Symptoms

In Relation to Modern Diagnosis and Treatment: A Textbook for General Practitioners of Medicine

3rd Edition - January 1, 1934

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  • Author: Robert John Stewart McDowall
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483194387

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The Science of Signs and Symptoms in Relation to Modern Diagnosis and Treatment describes the state of consciousness in relation to concussion, cerebral compression, and quality of the blood. This book is composed of 48 chapters that discuss the physical basis of pain sensations, the different types of paralysis, and the significance of having a recurring headache. Some of the topics covered in the book are the pathways to different varieties of sensation; functions of the nervous pathway; varieties of sensory paralysis; description of functional disturbances; definition of axon and spinal reflex; important nature of tendon reflex; and neurological basis of clinical abnormalities of tone and posture. Other chapters deal with the different types of convulsions and the role of the eyes, muscle sense, and vestibular apparatus in equilibrium are extensively discussed. An analysis of the causes of vertigo is provided. The remaining chapters look into the formation and types of aphasia. These chapters also examine the effects of intracranial pressure. The book can provide useful information to the medical instructors, doctors, students, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface to Third Edition

    Extract from Preface to Second Edition

    Preface to First Edition

    Chapter I. Life as a Clinical Entity

    Chapter II. Consciousness

    Concussion, Cerebral Compression, Fainting, The Quality of the Blood, Gas Poisoning, High Altitude

    Chapter III. Delirium

    Chapter IV. Voluntary Movement

    The Nervous Pathway, Paralysis of Various Kinds

    Organic and Functional, Reaction of Degeneration, Facial Paralysis, Emotional Expression

    Chapter V. Sensation

    Its Physical Basis, Pain, the Significance of Sensation, Pain in Visceral Disease, Referred Pain, the Pathways of the Different Varieties of Sensation, Varieties of Sensory Paralysis, Functional Disturbances

    Chapter VI. Headache

    Persistent Headache

    Temporary Headache. Migraine

    Menstrual Migraine

    Chapter VII. Reflexes

    The Axon Reflex, the Spinal Reflex, the Significance of Its Absence or Exaggeration, the Essential Nature of the Tendon Reflex, Varieties of the Character of the Spinal Reflexes, Clonus, Plantar Reflexes, the Formation and Extinction of Conditional Reflexes, Conditioned Pain

    Chapter VIII. Muscle Tone and Posture

    The Neurological Basis of Clinical Abnormalities of Tone and Posture

    Chapter IX. Convulsions


    Epilepsy, Spinal Convulsions

    Chapter X. Equilibrium, Vertigo, Ataxia, Gait

    The Parts played by the Eyes, Muscle Sense, Vestibular Apparatus, Midbrain and Cerebellum as manifested by Disease

    Causes of Vertigo, Varieties of Ataxia, Abnormal Gaits

    Chapter XI. Tremor, Chorea, Athetosis

    Types of Tremor

    Nature of Tremor

    Toxic Tremor

    Tremor in Organic Nervous Disease

    Paralysis Agitans

    Extrapyramidal Neurones

    Cerebellar Tremor

    Hysterical Tremors

    Chorea. Athetosis

    Chapter XII. Speech

    Its Formation and how the different Varieties of Aphasia are Brought about

    Chapter XIII. The Cerebro-Spinal Fluid

    Its Origin, Circulation, Absorption and Functions


    Effects of Intracranial Pressure

    Appearance, Cytology and Chemistry of the Fluid in Health and Disease

    Chapter XIV. Sight

    How the Various Parts of the Eye May Produce Blindness

    Intra-Ocular Pressure, Glaucoma

    The Chief Errors of Refraction

    The Optic Disc and Field of Vision in Health and Disease

    The Pathways Concerned in Vision and the Effect of Lesion

    The Reflexes of the Eye

    The Pupil


    Chapter XV. Hearing and Taste

    How the Various Parts of the Ear May Produce Deafness



    Chapter XVI. The Rate of the Heart Beat

    The Causes if Increased Heart Rate in Various Conditions



    Chapter XVII. The Pulse

    Its Significance

    The Conducting Mechanism of the Heart and the Effect of Lesions

    The Rhythm of the Pulse, Extra Systole, Auricular Fibrillation, Ventricular Fibrillation

    The Action of Drugs

    The Character of the Pulse

    The Heart Sounds

    Their Production, the Significance of Changes in the Sounds

    Cardiac Pain

    Chapter XVIII. The Venous Pulse

    The Polygraph and the Electrocardiograph

    The Chief Features of and the Causes of Common Alterations in Their Tracings

    Chapter XIX. Blood Pressure

    The Factors on Which it Depends

    High Blood Pressure, Low Blood Pressure, Pulse Pressure, Venous Pressure

    Chapter XX. Hemorrhage, Surgical Shock

    Their Signs, Symptoms, Nature, Prevention, and Treatment

    Blood Groups

    The Natural Arrest of Hemorrhage, Adaptation to Posture, Thrombosis

    XXI. Histology of the Blood

    The Red Blood Corpuscles, the Causes of Variation, Regeneration

    The White Blood Corpuscles, Varieties and Causes of Variation

    Blood Platelets

    Chapter XXII. Physiological Principles in Relation to Cardiac Efficiency and Disease

    Cardiac Reserve

    Effort Tolerance Tests, Pericardial Function

    Heart Failure, its Signs, Symptoms and Treatment

    Chapter XXIII. Breathing and Failure of Respiration

    The Nature of Respiration

    The Causes of Breathlessness, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Pneumonia, Cardiac Disease, Anemia, etc

    Respiratory Efficiency

    Types of Respiration

    Chapter XXIV. Cyanosis and Its Relation to Breathlessness

    The Nature of Cyanosis

    The Causes of Cyanosis in Various Conditions

    Bronchitis, Asthma, etc

    Anoxemia or Oxygen Want

    The Symptoms of General and Local Anoxemia, Oxygen Therapy, Carbon Dioxide Therapy

    The Respiratory Function of the Blood, the Carriage of Oxygen, the Carriage of Carbon Dioxide

    Chapter XXV. Protective Respiratory Reflexes, etc

    Sneezing, Cough, Sputum, Protective Pain, Hiccup

    Breath Sounds and Accompaniments

    Chapter XXVI. Physiological Principles in Feeding

    Energy Supply and Tissue Repair, Relation to Metabolic Rate, Vitamin Supply, Suitability of Food for the Alimentary Canal

    Water and Salts

    The Feeding of Infants

    The Food Consumption of Three Normal Persons

    Chapter XXVII. Vitamins

    Vitamins A, B, C, D and E

    Their Origin in Nature, the Effect of Deficiency, Their Significance in Human Diets

    Chapter XXVIII. Swallowing, Digestion

    Achalasia of the Cardiac Sphincter

    Gastric Digestion, with Special Consideration of Indigestion

    The Effects of Presentation of Food and of Alcohol

    The Acidity of the Gastric Contents

    The Movement of the Stomach

    The Position of the Stomach

    Chapter XXIX. Digestion, Intermediate Metabolism

    Carbohydrates, Fatsr and Proteins

    Chapter XXX. Gastric Pain, Common Gastric Ailments, Vomiting

    The Causes of Pain in the Alimentary Canal

    Gastric Pain, Resistance, Distension, Atony

    Pain in Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer, Gastric Tenderness, Relation of Acid to Ulcer

    Principles in Treatment

    Etiological Considerations



    X-ray Appearances

    Chapter XXXI. Intestinal Movement and Pain

    Constipation and Diarrhea

    Intestinal Sensation

    Characteristics of Abdominal Pain, X-ray Findings in the Colon

    Chapter XXXII. Bile. Jaundice

    The Origin and Excretion of Bile, the Varieties of Jaundice and Their Recognition

    Chapter XXXIII. The Metabolic Rate

    The Principle of its Estimation and Causes of Variation

    Its Relation to the Thyroid Gland, Myxcedema, Exophthalmic Goiter

    The Thyroid and Simple Goiter

    Chapter XXXIV. Blood-Sugar and Pancreatic Efficiency

    The Significance of the Blood-Sugar and Its Variations



    The Blood-Sugar in Pregnancy

    Chapter XXXV. Disorders of Metabolism

    Purine Metabolism, Gout, Cystinuria, Melanuria, Ochronosis, Hemochromatosis

    Chapter XXXVI. Body Weight

    Energy Intake and Output

    Appetite and Hunger


    Relationship to Ductless Glands

    Chapter XXXVII. Growth

    Its Relation to Diet and Ductless Glands


    Dwarfs and Giants


    Local Growth

    Chapter XXXVIII. The Urine


    The Quantity and Specific Gravity, Causes of Variations, Reaction, Constituents of the Urine of Clinical Importance The Excretion of Dyes Protective Synthesis, Pathological Constituents

    Chapter XXXIX. Œdema and the Water Content of the Body


    Retention of Fluid, Its Local and General Causes


    Chapter XL. The Temperature of the Body

    Its Regulation, the Nature of Fever, Low Temperature

    Chapter XLI. The Skin

    Its Color in Health and Disease, Local Variations, Distribution of Rashes

    Reaction to Stimuli, Morbid Eruptions

    Chapter XLII. Hypersensitivity and Allergy

    Local and General Hypersensitivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Their Nature and Treatment


    Its Relation to Ovarian and Other Functions

    Chapter XLIII. Acid-Base Equilibrium

    Its Maintenance by Various Factors

    Alveolar Carbon Dioxide and Its Significance

    Alkali Reserve

    Hydrogen Ion Concentration, Its Meaning



    Chapter XLIV. The Autonomic Nervous System

    Its Function in Health and Disease, and Related Pharmacological Reactions

    Chapter XLV. The Effect and Importance of Exercise and Rest

    The Necessity for Rest, Sleep, and Interest

    Chapter XLVI. Protection against Disease

    The Skin, the Leucocytes, Lymph Glands, Factors of Immunity

    Chapter XLVII. Principles in the Treatment of Emergencies

    Circulatory and Respiratory Failure

    Chapter XLVIII. The Psychological Production of Symptoms

    Theory of Psychology

    Neural Foundation of the Mind

    Psychological Superstructure


    Mode of production of Neurotic Symptoms

    Selected Bibliography


Product details

  • No. of pages: 558
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1934
  • Published: January 1, 1934
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483194387

About the Author

Robert John Stewart McDowall

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