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The Science of Signs and Symptoms - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9781483166902, 9781483194387

The Science of Signs and Symptoms

3rd Edition

In Relation to Modern Diagnosis and Treatment: A Textbook for General Practitioners of Medicine

Author: Robert John Stewart McDowall
eBook ISBN: 9781483194387
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1934
Page Count: 558
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The Science of Signs and Symptoms in Relation to Modern Diagnosis and Treatment describes the state of consciousness in relation to concussion, cerebral compression, and quality of the blood. This book is composed of 48 chapters that discuss the physical basis of pain sensations, the different types of paralysis, and the significance of having a recurring headache. Some of the topics covered in the book are the pathways to different varieties of sensation; functions of the nervous pathway; varieties of sensory paralysis; description of functional disturbances; definition of axon and spinal reflex; important nature of tendon reflex; and neurological basis of clinical abnormalities of tone and posture. Other chapters deal with the different types of convulsions and the role of the eyes, muscle sense, and vestibular apparatus in equilibrium are extensively discussed. An analysis of the causes of vertigo is provided. The remaining chapters look into the formation and types of aphasia. These chapters also examine the effects of intracranial pressure. The book can provide useful information to the medical instructors, doctors, students, and researchers.

Table of Contents

Preface to Third Edition

Extract from Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition

Chapter I. Life as a Clinical Entity

Chapter II. Consciousness

Concussion, Cerebral Compression, Fainting, The Quality of the Blood, Gas Poisoning, High Altitude

Chapter III. Delirium

Chapter IV. Voluntary Movement

The Nervous Pathway, Paralysis of Various Kinds

Organic and Functional, Reaction of Degeneration, Facial Paralysis, Emotional Expression

Chapter V. Sensation

Its Physical Basis, Pain, the Significance of Sensation, Pain in Visceral Disease, Referred Pain, the Pathways of the Different Varieties of Sensation, Varieties of Sensory Paralysis, Functional Disturbances

Chapter VI. Headache

Persistent Headache

Temporary Headache. Migraine

Menstrual Migraine

Chapter VII. Reflexes

The Axon Reflex, the Spinal Reflex, the Significance of Its Absence or Exaggeration, the Essential Nature of the Tendon Reflex, Varieties of the Character of the Spinal Reflexes, Clonus, Plantar Reflexes, the Formation and Extinction of Conditional Reflexes, Conditioned Pain

Chapter VIII. Muscle Tone and Posture

The Neurological Basis of Clinical Abnormalities of Tone and Posture

Chapter IX. Convulsions


Epilepsy, Spinal Convulsions

Chapter X. Equilibrium, Vertigo, Ataxia, Gait

The Parts played by the Eyes, Muscle Sense, Vestibular Apparatus, Midbrain and Cerebellum as manifested by Disease

Causes of Vertigo, Varieties of Ataxia, Abnormal Gaits

Chapter XI. Tremor, Chorea, Athetosis

Types of Tremor

Nature of Tremor

Toxic Tremor

Tremor in Organic Nervous Disease

Paralysis Agitans

Extrapyramidal Neurones

Cerebellar Tremor

Hysterical Tremors

Chorea. Athetosis

Chapter XII. Speech

Its Formation and how the different Varieties of Aphasia are Brought about

Chapter XIII. The Cerebro-Spinal Fluid

Its Origin, Circulation, Absorption and Functions


Effects of Intracranial Pressure

Appearance, Cytology and Chemistry of the Fluid in Health and Disease

Chapter XIV. Sight

How the Various Parts of the Eye May Produce Blindness

Intra-Ocular Pressure, Glaucoma

The Chief Errors of Refraction

The Optic Disc and Field of Vision in Health and Disease

The Pathways Concerned in Vision and the Effect of Lesion

The Reflexes of the Eye

The Pupil


Chapter XV. Hearing and Taste

How the Various Parts of the Ear May Produce Deafness



Chapter XVI. The Rate of the Heart Beat

The Causes if Increased Heart Rate in Various Conditions



Chapter XVII. The Pulse

Its Significance

The Conducting Mechanism of the Heart and the Effect of Lesions

The Rhythm of the Pulse, Extra Systole, Auricular Fibrillation, Ventricular Fibrillation

The Action of Drugs

The Character of the Pulse

The Heart Sounds

Their Production, the Significance of Changes in the Sounds

Cardiac Pain

Chapter XVIII. The Venous Pulse

The Polygraph and the Electrocardiograph

The Chief Features of and the Causes of Common Alterations in Their Tracings

Chapter XIX. Blood Pressure

The Factors on Which it Depends

High Blood Pressure, Low Blood Pressure, Pulse Pressure, Venous Pressure

Chapter XX. Hemorrhage, Surgical Shock

Their Signs, Symptoms, Nature, Prevention, and Treatment

Blood Groups

The Natural Arrest of Hemorrhage, Adaptation to Posture, Thrombosis

XXI. Histology of the Blood

The Red Blood Corpuscles, the Causes of Variation, Regeneration

The White Blood Corpuscles, Varieties and Causes of Variation

Blood Platelets

Chapter XXII. Physiological Principles in Relation to Cardiac Efficiency and Disease

Cardiac Reserve

Effort Tolerance Tests, Pericardial Function

Heart Failure, its Signs, Symptoms and Treatment

Chapter XXIII. Breathing and Failure of Respiration

The Nature of Respiration

The Causes of Breathlessness, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Pneumonia, Cardiac Disease, Anemia, etc

Respiratory Efficiency

Types of Respiration

Chapter XXIV. Cyanosis and Its Relation to Breathlessness

The Nature of Cyanosis

The Causes of Cyanosis in Various Conditions

Bronchitis, Asthma, etc

Anoxemia or Oxygen Want

The Symptoms of General and Local Anoxemia, Oxygen Therapy, Carbon Dioxide Therapy

The Respiratory Function of the Blood, the Carriage of Oxygen, the Carriage of Carbon Dioxide

Chapter XXV. Protective Respiratory Reflexes, etc

Sneezing, Cough, Sputum, Protective Pain, Hiccup

Breath Sounds and Accompaniments

Chapter XXVI. Physiological Principles in Feeding

Energy Supply and Tissue Repair, Relation to Metabolic Rate, Vitamin Supply, Suitability of Food for the Alimentary Canal

Water and Salts

The Feeding of Infants

The Food Consumption of Three Normal Persons

Chapter XXVII. Vitamins

Vitamins A, B, C, D and E

Their Origin in Nature, the Effect of Deficiency, Their Significance in Human Diets

Chapter XXVIII. Swallowing, Digestion

Achalasia of the Cardiac Sphincter

Gastric Digestion, with Special Consideration of Indigestion

The Effects of Presentation of Food and of Alcohol

The Acidity of the Gastric Contents

The Movement of the Stomach

The Position of the Stomach

Chapter XXIX. Digestion, Intermediate Metabolism

Carbohydrates, Fatsr and Proteins

Chapter XXX. Gastric Pain, Common Gastric Ailments, Vomiting

The Causes of Pain in the Alimentary Canal

Gastric Pain, Resistance, Distension, Atony

Pain in Gastric and Duodenal Ulcer, Gastric Tenderness, Relation of Acid to Ulcer

Principles in Treatment

Etiological Considerations



X-ray Appearances

Chapter XXXI. Intestinal Movement and Pain

Constipation and Diarrhea

Intestinal Sensation

Characteristics of Abdominal Pain, X-ray Findings in the Colon

Chapter XXXII. Bile. Jaundice

The Origin and Excretion of Bile, the Varieties of Jaundice and Their Recognition

Chapter XXXIII. The Metabolic Rate

The Principle of its Estimation and Causes of Variation

Its Relation to the Thyroid Gland, Myxcedema, Exophthalmic Goiter

The Thyroid and Simple Goiter

Chapter XXXIV. Blood-Sugar and Pancreatic Efficiency

The Significance of the Blood-Sugar and Its Variations



The Blood-Sugar in Pregnancy

Chapter XXXV. Disorders of Metabolism

Purine Metabolism, Gout, Cystinuria, Melanuria, Ochronosis, Hemochromatosis

Chapter XXXVI. Body Weight

Energy Intake and Output

Appetite and Hunger


Relationship to Ductless Glands

Chapter XXXVII. Growth

Its Relation to Diet and Ductless Glands


Dwarfs and Giants


Local Growth

Chapter XXXVIII. The Urine


The Quantity and Specific Gravity, Causes of Variations, Reaction, Constituents of the Urine of Clinical Importance The Excretion of Dyes Protective Synthesis, Pathological Constituents

Chapter XXXIX. Œdema and the Water Content of the Body


Retention of Fluid, Its Local and General Causes


Chapter XL. The Temperature of the Body

Its Regulation, the Nature of Fever, Low Temperature

Chapter XLI. The Skin

Its Color in Health and Disease, Local Variations, Distribution of Rashes

Reaction to Stimuli, Morbid Eruptions

Chapter XLII. Hypersensitivity and Allergy

Local and General Hypersensitivity, Asthma, Urticaria, Their Nature and Treatment


Its Relation to Ovarian and Other Functions

Chapter XLIII. Acid-Base Equilibrium

Its Maintenance by Various Factors

Alveolar Carbon Dioxide and Its Significance

Alkali Reserve

Hydrogen Ion Concentration, Its Meaning



Chapter XLIV. The Autonomic Nervous System

Its Function in Health and Disease, and Related Pharmacological Reactions

Chapter XLV. The Effect and Importance of Exercise and Rest

The Necessity for Rest, Sleep, and Interest

Chapter XLVI. Protection against Disease

The Skin, the Leucocytes, Lymph Glands, Factors of Immunity

Chapter XLVII. Principles in the Treatment of Emergencies

Circulatory and Respiratory Failure

Chapter XLVIII. The Psychological Production of Symptoms

Theory of Psychology

Neural Foundation of the Mind

Psychological Superstructure


Mode of production of Neurotic Symptoms

Selected Bibliography



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2034
1st January 1934
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Robert John Stewart McDowall

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