The Science of Crime Scenes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123864642, 9780123864659

The Science of Crime Scenes

1st Edition

Authors: Max Houck Frank Crispino Terry McAdam
eBook ISBN: 9780123864659
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123864642
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th July 2012
Page Count: 400
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Description

The Science of Crime Scenes addresses the science of crime scene investigation and processing, including the latest methods and technologies. This book covers the philosophy of crime scenes as historical events, the personnel involved at a scene (including the media), the detection of criminal traces and their reconstruction, and special crime scenes, such as mass disasters and terrorist events. Written by an international trio of authors with decades of crime scene experience, it is the next generation of crime scene textbooks.

The book provides in-depth coverage of disasters and mass murder, terror crime scenes, and CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear) – topics not covered in any other text. It includes an instructor website with lecture slides, test bank, outlines, definitions, and activities, along with a student companion site with an image collection.

This text will be of interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in forensic science programs, as well as to forensic practitioners and crime scene technicians.

Key Features

  • Offers a science-based approach to crime scene investigation
  • Includes in-depth coverage of disasters and mass murder, terror crime scenes, and CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear) – not covered in any other text
  • Written by an international trio of authors with decades of crime scene experience
  • Instructor website with lecture slides, test bank, outlines, definitions, and activities, and a student companion site with an image collection

Readership

Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in forensic science programs; forensic practitioners and crime scene technicians

Table of Contents

Dedication

Foreword

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Section 1 The Science of Crime Scene Investigation

Chapter 1.0. The “Forensic Mindset”

Forensic Professionals Are Knowledge Workers

Hunting as an Origin for Forensic Science

Trifles, Traces, and Clues

From Science to Art to Literature

Evidence Is Proxy Data

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 1.1. From Scene to Laboratory to Court

Access to the Scene

Sensitivity to Initial Conditions

Downstream Effects

Documentation

Chain of Custody

Submitting Evidence for Analysis

Conclusion: Evidence in the Courtroom

References and Bibliography

Chapter 2.0. What Is a Crime Scene?

Introduction

A Definition

Staged Crime Scenes

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 2.1. Crime Scene Intelligence

Connections through Contact: Transfer and Persistence

Classification and Resolution

Individualization of Evidence

Relationships and Context

Known and Questioned Items

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Section 2 Personnel and Procedures

Chapter 3.0. Personnel

Forensic Scientist Focus

Time and Money

Contamination

Logistics

Building the Team

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 3.1. First Responder on the Scene

Competing Responsibilities

Securing the Scene

Preserving the Scene

Releasing the Scene

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 3.2. The Investigator in Charge

Security at the Crime Scene

Leadership at the Scene

Conclusion

References

Chapter 3.3. The Forensic Team

A Forensic Team

Conclusion

Reference

Chapter 3.4. Nonforensic Personnel

Information: Two Points of View

The Public as Reporters

Communicating to Superiors

Conclusion

Bibliography

Chapter 4.0. General Crime Scene Procedure

Chapter 4.1. “Freezing” the Scene and the Three R’s (Recognize, Recover, and Record)

Death Investigations

Preliminary Search

Recognizing Evidence

Recovering Evidence

Recording Evidence

Conclusion

Chapter 4.2. The Chain of Custody

A Chain of Custody Example

Problems with Chains of Custody

Conclusion

Chapter 4.3. Recording the Scene

Crime Scene Photography

Video

Measurements

Sketching

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) and Crime Mapping

Conclusion

Reference

Section 3 Detection and Reconstruction

Chapter 5.0. Searching for Evidence

From Trace to Proof, or Why Only Finding a Trace Is Not Sufficient

Which Evidence Is Useful?

The Search for Evidence

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 5.1. Detecting

What Is Light and How Do We See an Object?

Luminescence

From Theory to Practice: The Forensic Light Source

General Crime Scene Screening

Photoluminescence

Specific Crime Scene Screening

References and Bibliography

Chapter 5.2. Collection

Types of Evidence to Collect

Materials and Containers

Available Techniques to Collect Evidence

References and Bibliography

Chapter 5.3. Preserving

Threats to Evidence

Safety at the Scene

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 5.4. Submitting Evidence to the Laboratory

General Submission Guidelines

Biological Evidence

Trace Evidence

Impression Evidence

Explosives

Physical Match

Firearms Evidence

Toolmark Evidence

Latent Prints Evidence

Chapter 6.0. Evidence Types and Enhancement

Chapter 6.1. Chemical Evidence

Drugs

Arson

Explosives

GSR

Restoration of Serial Numbers

References and Bibliography

Chapter 6.2. Biological Evidence

DNA and Trace DNA

References and Bibliography

Chapter 6.3. Impression Evidence

Object Traces

References and Bibliography

Chapter 6.4. Other Types of Evidence

Questioned Documents

Computers, Cellphones, and Other Mass Storages

Pollen

Bones

Insects and Time Since Death

Diatoms

Odors

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 7.0. Crime Scene Reconstruction

Conclusion

References and Bibiliography

Chapter 7.1. An Archaeological Approach

Of Artifacts and Evidence

Terminology

Time and Space

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 7.2. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

Directionality

Grouping Bloodstains

Droplet Size and Force

Types of Bloodstains

Conclusion

Reference

Chapter 7.3. Photogrammetry and 3D Reconstruction

Photogrammetry

3D Laser Scanners

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Section 4 Special Crime Scenes

Chapter 8.0. Special Crime Scenes

Chapter 8.1. Disaster and Mass Fatalities

The Disaster Scene

Human Remains

Conclusion

Bibliography

Chapter 8.2. Terrorist Crime Scenes

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 8.3. CBRN Crime Scenes

Preparing for Forensic Collection

Collecting Relevant Evidence

Entering the Hot Crime Scene

An Operative Flowchart

Conclusion

References and Bibliography

Chapter 8.4. Underwater and Underground Crime Scenes

Underwater Scenes

Locating the Scene

Working the Scene

Preservation of Materials in Water

Underground Scenes

Conclusion

Reference and Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
400
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123864659
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123864642

About the Author

Max  Houck

Max Houck

Dr. Max M. Houck is an international forensic expert with over 25 years of experience. Houck has experience in the private sector, academia, local government, and worked at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division. He has worked as a forensic anthropologist, a trace evidence analyst, a researcher, and has managed millions of dollars in grants and awards. Most recently, he was the inaugural Director of the Department of Forensic Sciences in Washington, D.C., overseeing 150 employees and managing the forensic science laboratory, the public health laboratory, and crime scene sciences for the nation’s capital. Houck has worked on a number of mass casualty scenes, including the Branch Davidian Investigation and the September 11, 2001 attack on the Pentagon. Widely published, Houck has dozens of peer-reviewed journal articles and is the author and editor of numerous books. He is co-author of the best-selling Fundamentals of Forensic Science, Science of Crime Scenes, and Success with Expert Testimony, among others. He is the editor of the Advanced Forensic Science series of books. Houck is also founding co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management (the official journal of ASCLD), the only journal that addresses the management, policy, and administration of forensic science. Houck has served on numerous committees, including for the National Academies of Science, NIST, Interpol, The Royal Society, the Director of the FBI, and the White House. He is a popular public speaker and has given presentations at NASA, the Max Planck Institute, an Oxford Roundtable, as well as keynote talks at numerous international conferences. Houck has taught at several universities, including West Virginia University and University of Tampa. His research topics include management, leadership, and policy implications for forensic organizations. Houck has a Bachelors and Masters degree in anthropology from Michigan State University. He received his Ph.D. in Applied Chemistry Summa Cum Laude from Curtin University in Perth, Australia. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Forensic and Intelligence Services, LLC, Virginia, USA

Frank Crispino

Dr Frank Crispino served for 25 years in the French Gendarmerie, one of the two State Police forces of France under military status. He retired with the rank of Colonel in 2012. A graduate from the French Air Force and Gendarmerie Academies, he joined l’Institut de recherche criminelle de la gendarmerie nationale (IRCGN), the Gendarmerie Forensic Institute, in 1993 to create the forensic anthropology department, as the core of the French Disaster Victim Identification Unit. Dr. Crispino is a graduate from the French War College (2003-2004), has a Ph.D. in forensic science from Lausanne University, School of Criminal Sciences (2006). He commanded two Criminal Investigation Departments at regional levels (serious/organized crimes and terrorism) in central and southwestern France (Bourges from 2002 to 2003 and Bordeaux from 2007 to 2011) and served as Deputy Head of the Antiterrorist Bureau at the General Headquarters of the French Gendarmerie in Paris (2003-2007), where he joined the G8 counter-terrorist group and other relevant EU bodies. He concluded his military career as representative of the Division General in charge of the Forensic and Intelligence Hub of the French Gendarmerie (2011-2012) to launch a new forensic academic curriculum in the Bachelor in Chemistry at l’Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR). Professor Crispino is author or co-author of two books, 8 book chapters, more than 40 peer-reviewed articles. He is the director of the Laboratoire de recherche en criminalistique (www.uqtr.ca/LRC) – Forensic Research Group – at the UQTR, regular researcher at the International Centre for Comparative Criminology (http://www.cicc.umontreal.ca/en).

Affiliations and Expertise

Chemistry-Biology Department, University of Quebec in Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, Canada

Terry McAdam

Terry McAdam is the Director of the Washington State Patrol Seattle Crime Laboratory. He has been a practicing forensic scientist for 39 years. He began his career with the State Crime Laboratory in Northern Ireland where he worked for 10 years in the testing of blood alcohols, breath alcohol, toxicology, fire debris, explosives, and trace evidence,. In the United States he has worked in many other disciplines in forensic science including, drug analysis, bloodstain pattern interpretation, and crime scene reconstruction. He has attended over 300 crimes scenes, and was a major participant in the crime scenes and the trace evidence analysis associated with the Green River homicides. He has assessed many crime laboratories throughout the world and in 2014 he was the recipient from the American Society of Crime Lab Directors, of the inaugural Longhetti/Keaton Assessor Excellence Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratory Manager, Washington State Patrol Crime Laboratory, Seattle, Washington, USA

Reviews

"The Science of Crime Scenes is a good reference for the crime scene investigator. It incorporates excellent tables, charts, and illustrations which can be a great aid when processing a scene…It does a good job in describing the total spectrum of factors which can impact crime scenes and provides the reader with the necessary knowledge and tools to successfully evaluate and process the scene of a crime." --Journal of Forensic Sciences, July 2013

"The text provides in-depth detail of the science behind the scene and demonstrates the latest methods and technologies - as well as the philosophy and history behind crime scene work." --Evidence Technology Magazine, July-August 2013

"…The Science of Crime Scenes is a good reference for the crime scene investigator. It incorporates excellent tables, charts, and illustrations which can be a great aid when processing a scene." --Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2013

"…The Science of Crime Scenes fits well within the framework of crime scene training and documents the nuances of the challenging tasks required of these specialized personnel. This reviewer’s recommendation is that forensic laboratories add The Science of Crime Scenes to their training literature, and allow analysts to garner invaluable insight from the highly experienced trio of authors." --Crime Scene, Volume 39, Issue 2, Spring 2013

"A half century has not dimmed skeptics' suspicions about the death of Marilyn Monroe at age 36, but the intervening decades have seen technological leaps that could alter the investigation were it to occur today… ‘The good news is we're very advanced from 50 years ago,’ said Max Houck, a forensic consultant and co-author of ‘The Science of Crime Scenes.’ ‘The bad news is, we're still trying to put it in context,’ he said." --Associated Press article on the 50th anniversary of Marilyn Monroe’s death carried on multiple publications and sites incuding CBSNews.com