The Science and Technology of Rubber

The Science and Technology of Rubber

4th Edition - April 25, 2013

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  • Editors: James Mark, Burak Erman, Mike Roland
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123948328
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123945846

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Description

The 4e of The Science and Technology of Rubber provides a broad survey of elastomers with special emphasis on materials with a rubber-like elasticity. As in previous editions, the emphasis remains on a unified treatment of the material, exploring chemical aspects such as elastomer synthesis and curing, through recent theoretical developments and characterization of equilibrium and dynamic properties, to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing. Updated material stresses the continuous relationship between ongoing research in synthesis, physics, structure and mechanics of rubber technology and industrial applications. Special attention is paid to recent advances in rubber-like elasticity theory and new processing techniques for elastomers. Exciting new developments in green tire manufacturing and tire recycling are covered.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete survey of elastomers for engineers and researchers in a unified treatment: from chemical aspects like elastomer synthesis and curing to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing
  • Contains important updates to several chapters, including elastomer synthesis, characterization, viscoelastic behavior, rheology, reinforcement, tire engineering, and recycling
  • Includes a new chapter on the burgeoning field of bioelastomers

Readership

· Practicing engineers involved with materials science and research, specifically in polymer and elastomer science.
· Professionals and practitioners in the rubber industry, with special emphasis on the tire industry and professional societies interested in promoting efficient and environmentally appropriate systems for the life cycle of rubber products.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Rubber Elasticity: Basic Concepts and Behavior

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Elasticity of a Single Molecule

    1.3 Elasticity of a Three-Dimensional Network of Polymer Molecules

    1.4 Comparison with Experiment

    1.5 Continuum Theory of Rubber Elasticity

    1.6 Second-Order Stresses

    1.7 Elastic Behavior Under Small Deformations

    1.8 Some Unsolved Problems in Rubber Elasticity

    References

    Chapter 2. Polymerization: Elastomer Synthesis

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Classification of Polymerization Reactions and Kinetic Considerations

    2.3 Polyaddition/Polycondensation

    2.4 Chain Polymerization by Free Radical Mechanism

    2.5 Emulsion Polymerization

    2.6 Copolymerization

    2.7 Chain Polymerization by Cationic Mechanism

    2.8 Chain Polymerization by Anionic Mechanism

    2.9 Stereospecific Chain Polymerization and Copolymerization by Coordination Catalysts

    2.10 Graft and Block Copolymerization

    References

    Chapter 3. Structure Characterization in the Science and Technology of Elastomers

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Chemical Composition

    3.3 Sequence Distribution of Repeat Units

    3.4 Chain Architecture

    3.5 Glass Transition and Secondary Relaxation Processes

    3.6 Morphology

    References

    Chapter 4. The Molecular Basis of Rubberlike Elasticity

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Structure of a Typical Network

    4.3 Elementary Molecular Theories

    4.4 More Advanced Molecular Theories

    4.5 Phenomenological Theories and Molecular Structure

    4.6 Swelling of Networks and Responsive Gels

    4.7 Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Rubber Elasticity: The Force-Temperature Relations

    4.8 Direct Determination of Molecular Dimensions

    4.9 Single-Molecule Elasticity

    References

    Chapter 5. The Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubber and Dynamics of Blends

    Nomenclature

    1 Introduction

    5.2 Definitions of Measured Quantities, image(image), image(image), and image(image); and Spectra image(image) and image(image)

    5.3 The Glass Temperature

    5.4 Viscoelastic Behavior Above

    5.5 Viscoelastic Behavior of Other Model Elastomers

    5.6 Theoretical Interpretation of Viscoelastic Mechanisms and Anomalies

    5.7 Component Dynamics of Highly Asymmetric Polymer Blends

    References

    Chapter 6. Rheological Behavior and Processing of Unvulcanized Rubber

    6.1 Rheology

    6.2 Linear Viscoelasticity

    6.3 Nonlinear Viscoelasticity

    6.4 Engineering Analysis

    6.5 Practical Processing Considerations

    References

    Chapter 7. Vulcanization

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Definition of Vulcanization

    7.3 Effects of Vulcanization on Vulcanizate Properties

    7.4 Characterization of the Vulcanization Process

    7.5 Vulcanization by Sulfur without Accelerator

    7.6 Accelerated-Sulfur Vulcanization

    7.7 Vulcanization by Phenolic Curatives, Benzoquinone Derivatives, or Bismaleimides

    7.8 Vulcanization by the Action of Metal Oxides

    7.9 Vulcanization by the Action of Organic Peroxides

    7.10 Dynamic Vulcanization

    References

    Chapter 8. Reinforcement of Elastomers by Particulate Fillers

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Preparation of Fillers

    8.3 Morphological and Physicochemical Characterization of Fillers

    8.4 The Mix: A Nanocomposite of Elastomer and Filler

    8.5 Mechanical Properties of Filled Rubbers

    References

    Chapter 9. The Science of Rubber Compounding

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Polymers

    9.3 Filler Systems

    9.4 Stabilizer Systems

    9.5 Vulcanization System

    9.6 Special Compounding Ingredients

    9.7 Compound Development

    9.8 Compound Preparation

    9.9 Environmental Requirements in Compounding

    9.10 Summary

    References

    Chapter 10. Strength of Elastomers

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Initiation of Fracture

    10.3 Threshold Strengths and Extensibilities

    10.4 Crack Propagation

    10.5 Tensile Rupture

    10.6 Repeated Stressing: Mechanical Fatigue

    10.7 Failure Under Multiaxial Stresses

    10.8 surface Cracking by Ozone

    10.9 Abrasive Wear

    10.10 Computational Approaches to Failure Modeling

    Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 11. The Chemical Modification of Polymers

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Chemical Modification of Polymers Within Backbone and Chain Ends

    11.3 Esterification, Etherification, and Hydrolysis of Polymers

    11.4 The Hydrogenation of Polymers

    11.5 Dehalogenation, Elimination, and Halogenation Reactions in Polymers

    11.6 Other Addition Reactions to Double Bonds

    11.7 Oxidation Reactions of Polymers

    11.8 Functionalization of Polymers

    11.9 Miscellaneous Chemical Reactions of Polymers

    11.10 Block and Graft Copolymerization

    References

    Chapter 12. Elastomer Blends

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Thermodynamics and Solubility Parameters

    12.3 Preparation

    12.4 Miscible Elastomer Blends

    12.5 Immiscible Elastomer Blends

    12.6 Conclusion

    Appendix 1: Acronyms for Common Elastomers

    References

    Chapter 13. Thermoplastic Elastomers

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Synthesis of Thermoplastic Elastomers

    13.3 Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers

    13.4 Properties and Effect of Structure

    13.5 Thermodynamics of Phase Separation

    13.6 Thermoplastic Elastomers at Surfaces

    13.7 Rheology and Processing

    13.8 Applications

    References

    Chapter 14. Tire Engineering

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Tire Types and Performance

    14.3 Basic Tire Design

    14.4 Tire Engineering

    14.5 Tire Materials

    14.6 Tire Testing

    14.7 Tire manufacturing

    14.8 Summary

    References

    Chapter 15. Recycling of Rubbers

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Retreading of Tires

    15.3 Recycling of Rubber Vulcanizates

    15.4 Use of Recycled Rubber

    15.5 Pyrolysis and Incineration of Rubber

    15.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 816
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: April 25, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123948328
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123945846

About the Editors

James Mark

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati

Burak Erman

Professor Erman is currently professor of science and engineering at Koc University. He worked in the research group of Prof. P.J. Flory at Stanford University and IBM Research, San Jose, at various intervals between 1976-1985. His scientific collaborations include the Max-Planck Institute fur Polymerforschung in Mainz, and ESPCI, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Structurale et Macromoleculaire, Paris. He has been collaborating with Prof. J.E. Mark at Cincinnati University on rubber elasticity since 1987. He has over 200 scientific papers in refereed journals, 2 books and 2 edited books. Burak Erman is a member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences. He served on the Science Board of TUBITAK, editorial board of Computational Polymer Science and Polymer Gels and Networks. He received the 1991 Simavi Science Award, the 1991 TUBITAK Science Award and the 2007 American Chemical Society Whitby Award. His current research interests are focused on the application of the theory of elastomeric networks to predict protein function, and on polymer and protein physics and engineering, both dynamics and statics and experiment and theory, including computer simulations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey

Mike Roland

Dr. Roland is head of the Polymer Physics Section in the Chemistry Division at the Naval Research Laboratory. After earning his doctorate in chemistry at Pennsylvania State University, he worked as a researcher at The Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. before joining NRL in 1986. He has over 370 peer-reviewed publications and holds 13 patents. Roland has won various awards for his research, including the Sparks-Thomas and Melvin Mooney Awards from the American Chemical Society and the Pure Science Award from the NRL Edison Chapter of Sigma Xi. He has served in editorial and advisory capacities on several journals, including technical editor of Rubber Chemistry & Technology. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals, and Mining (UK).

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Polymer Physics Section, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC

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  • David S. Wed Jan 24 2018

    The Science and Technology of Rubber

    Excellent text. Comprehensible, comprehensive, well researched and supported. Highly recommended for those who seek a practical explanation of the intricacies of this intriguing and important material.