The Science and Technology of Rubber - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780123945846, 9780123948328

The Science and Technology of Rubber

4th Edition

Editors: James Mark Burak Erman Mike Roland
eBook ISBN: 9780123948328
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123945846
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th April 2013
Page Count: 816
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The 4e of The Science and Technology of Rubber provides a broad survey of elastomers with special emphasis on materials with a rubber-like elasticity. As in previous editions, the emphasis remains on a unified treatment of the material, exploring chemical aspects such as elastomer synthesis and curing, through recent theoretical developments and characterization of equilibrium and dynamic properties, to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing. Updated material stresses the continuous relationship between ongoing research in synthesis, physics, structure and mechanics of rubber technology and industrial applications. Special attention is paid to recent advances in rubber-like elasticity theory and new processing techniques for elastomers. Exciting new developments in green tire manufacturing and tire recycling are covered.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete survey of elastomers for engineers and researchers in a unified treatment: from chemical aspects like elastomer synthesis and curing to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing
  • Contains important updates to several chapters, including elastomer synthesis, characterization, viscoelastic behavior, rheology, reinforcement, tire engineering, and recycling
  • Includes a new chapter on the burgeoning field of bioelastomers


· Practicing engineers involved with materials science and research, specifically in polymer and elastomer science. · Professionals and practitioners in the rubber industry, with special emphasis on the tire industry and professional societies interested in promoting efficient and environmentally appropriate systems for the life cycle of rubber products.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Rubber Elasticity: Basic Concepts and Behavior

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Elasticity of a Single Molecule

1.3 Elasticity of a Three-Dimensional Network of Polymer Molecules

1.4 Comparison with Experiment

1.5 Continuum Theory of Rubber Elasticity

1.6 Second-Order Stresses

1.7 Elastic Behavior Under Small Deformations

1.8 Some Unsolved Problems in Rubber Elasticity


Chapter 2. Polymerization: Elastomer Synthesis

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Classification of Polymerization Reactions and Kinetic Considerations

2.3 Polyaddition/Polycondensation

2.4 Chain Polymerization by Free Radical Mechanism

2.5 Emulsion Polymerization

2.6 Copolymerization

2.7 Chain Polymerization by Cationic Mechanism

2.8 Chain Polymerization by Anionic Mechanism

2.9 Stereospecific Chain Polymerization and Copolymerization by Coordination Catalysts

2.10 Graft and Block Copolymerization


Chapter 3. Structure Characterization in the Science and Technology of Elastomers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Chemical Composition

3.3 Sequence Distribution of Repeat Units

3.4 Chain Architecture

3.5 Glass Transition and Secondary Relaxation Processes

3.6 Morphology


Chapter 4. The Molecular Basis of Rubberlike Elasticity

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Structure of a Typical Network

4.3 Elementary Molecular Theories

4.4 More Advanced Molecular Theories

4.5 Phenomenological Theories and Molecular Structure

4.6 Swelling of Networks and Responsive Gels

4.7 Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Rubber Elasticity: The Force-Temperature Relations

4.8 Direct Determination of Molecular Dimensions

4.9 Single-Molecule Elasticity


Chapter 5. The Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubber and Dynamics of Blends


1 Introduction

5.2 Definitions of Measured Quantities, (), (), and (); and Spectra () and ()

5.3 The Glass Temperature

5.4 Viscoelastic Behavior Above

5.5 Viscoelastic Behavior of Other Model Elastomers

5.6 Theoretical Interpretation of Viscoelastic Mechanisms and Anomalies

5.7 Component Dynamics of Highly Asymmetric Polymer Blends


Chapter 6. Rheological Behavior and Processing of Unvulcanized Rubber

6.1 Rheology

6.2 Linear Viscoelasticity

6.3 Nonlinear Viscoelasticity

6.4 Engineering Analysis

6.5 Practical Processing Considerations


Chapter 7. Vulcanization

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Definition of Vulcanization

7.3 Effects of Vulcanization on Vulcanizate Properties

7.4 Characterization of the Vulcanization Process

7.5 Vulcanization by Sulfur without Accelerator

7.6 Accelerated-Sulfur Vulcanization

7.7 Vulcanization by Phenolic Curatives, Benzoquinone Derivatives, or Bismaleimides

7.8 Vulcanization by the Action of Metal Oxides

7.9 Vulcanization by the Action of Organic Peroxides

7.10 Dynamic Vulcanization


Chapter 8. Reinforcement of Elastomers by Particulate Fillers

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Preparation of Fillers

8.3 Morphological and Physicochemical Characterization of Fillers

8.4 The Mix: A Nanocomposite of Elastomer and Filler

8.5 Mechanical Properties of Filled Rubbers


Chapter 9. The Science of Rubber Compounding

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Polymers

9.3 Filler Systems

9.4 Stabilizer Systems

9.5 Vulcanization System

9.6 Special Compounding Ingredients

9.7 Compound Development

9.8 Compound Preparation

9.9 Environmental Requirements in Compounding

9.10 Summary


Chapter 10. Strength of Elastomers

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Initiation of Fracture

10.3 Threshold Strengths and Extensibilities

10.4 Crack Propagation

10.5 Tensile Rupture

10.6 Repeated Stressing: Mechanical Fatigue

10.7 Failure Under Multiaxial Stresses

10.8 surface Cracking by Ozone

10.9 Abrasive Wear

10.10 Computational Approaches to Failure Modeling

Further Reading


Chapter 11. The Chemical Modification of Polymers

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Chemical Modification of Polymers Within Backbone and Chain Ends

11.3 Esterification, Etherification, and Hydrolysis of Polymers

11.4 The Hydrogenation of Polymers

11.5 Dehalogenation, Elimination, and Halogenation Reactions in Polymers

11.6 Other Addition Reactions to Double Bonds

11.7 Oxidation Reactions of Polymers

11.8 Functionalization of Polymers

11.9 Miscellaneous Chemical Reactions of Polymers

11.10 Block and Graft Copolymerization


Chapter 12. Elastomer Blends

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Thermodynamics and Solubility Parameters

12.3 Preparation

12.4 Miscible Elastomer Blends

12.5 Immiscible Elastomer Blends

12.6 Conclusion

Appendix 1: Acronyms for Common Elastomers


Chapter 13. Thermoplastic Elastomers

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Synthesis of Thermoplastic Elastomers

13.3 Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers

13.4 Properties and Effect of Structure

13.5 Thermodynamics of Phase Separation

13.6 Thermoplastic Elastomers at Surfaces

13.7 Rheology and Processing

13.8 Applications


Chapter 14. Tire Engineering

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Tire Types and Performance

14.3 Basic Tire Design

14.4 Tire Engineering

14.5 Tire Materials

14.6 Tire Testing

14.7 Tire manufacturing

14.8 Summary


Chapter 15. Recycling of Rubbers

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Retreading of Tires

15.3 Recycling of Rubber Vulcanizates

15.4 Use of Recycled Rubber

15.5 Pyrolysis and Incineration of Rubber

15.6 Concluding Remarks




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About the Editor

James Mark

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati

Burak Erman

Professor Erman is currently professor of science and engineering at Koc University. He worked in the research group of Prof. P.J. Flory at Stanford University and IBM Research, San Jose, at various intervals between 1976-1985. His scientific collaborations include the Max-Planck Institute fur Polymerforschung in Mainz, and ESPCI, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Structurale et Macromoleculaire, Paris. He has been collaborating with Prof. J.E. Mark at Cincinnati University on rubber elasticity since 1987. He has over 200 scientific papers in refereed journals, 2 books and 2 edited books. Burak Erman is a member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences. He served on the Science Board of TUBITAK, editorial board of Computational Polymer Science and Polymer Gels and Networks. He received the 1991 Simavi Science Award, the 1991 TUBITAK Science Award and the 2007 American Chemical Society Whitby Award. His current research interests are focused on the application of the theory of elastomeric networks to predict protein function, and on polymer and protein physics and engineering, both dynamics and statics and experiment and theory, including computer simulations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey

Mike Roland

Dr. Roland is head of the Polymer Physics Section in the Chemistry Division at the Naval Research Laboratory. After earning his doctorate in chemistry at Pennsylvania State University, he worked as a researcher at The Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. before joining NRL in 1986. He has over 370 peer-reviewed publications and holds 13 patents. Roland has won various awards for his research, including the Sparks-Thomas and Melvin Mooney Awards from the American Chemical Society and the Pure Science Award from the NRL Edison Chapter of Sigma Xi. He has served in editorial and advisory capacities on several journals, including technical editor of Rubber Chemistry & Technology. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals, and Mining (UK).

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Polymer Physics Section, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC


"Chemists provide colleagues and other scientists and engineers a thorough reference to the natural material."--Reference & Research Book News, October 2013