The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging

Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use

1st Edition - September 1, 2016

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  • Author: Barry A. Morris
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323243254
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323242738

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The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging: Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use provides a comprehensive guide to the use of plastic films in flexible packaging, covering scientific principles, properties, processes, and end use considerations. The book brings the science of multilayer films to the practitioner in a concise and impactful way, presenting the fundamental understanding required to improve product design, material selection, and processes, and includes information on why one material is favored over another for a particular application, or how the film or coating affects material properties. Detailed descriptions and analysis of the key properties of packaging films are provided from both an engineering and scientific perspective. End-use effects are also covered in detail, providing key insights into the way the products being packaged influence film properties and design. The book bridges the gap between key scientific literature and the practical challenges faced by the flexible packaging industry, providing essential scientific insights, best practice techniques, environmental sustainability information, and key principles of structure design to enable engineers and scientists to deliver superior products with reduced development time and cost.

Key Features

  • Provides essential information on all aspects of multilayer films in flexible packaging
  • Aids in material selection and processing, shortening development times and delivering stronger products
  • Bridges the gap between scientific principles and key challenges in the packaging industry, with practical explanations to assist practitioners in overcoming those challenges


Engineers and Scientists responsible for designing polymers, making film, specifying packaging, running or operating film lines and packing lines, industrial designers, and consultants. Industry Sector – Packaging, especially flexible packaging, including food and non-food packaging (e.g., medical)

Table of Contents

    • Series Page
    • Preface
    • Part I. Why Multilayer Films?
      • 1. Introduction
        • 1.1. History of Packaging
        • 1.2. Benefits of Packaging
        • 1.3. Consumption Patterns
        • 1.4. Packaging Value Chain
        • 1.5. Needs Along the Value Chain
        • 1.6. Assembling a Package: Benefits of Multiple Layers
        • 1.7. Packaging Trends in the Context of the Value Chain
    • Part II. Basic Processes
      • 2. Converting Processes
        • 2.1. Extrusion
        • 2.2. Film Converting
        • 2.3. Coating and Lamination
        • 2.4. Orientation
        • 2.5. Printing
      • 3. Packaging Equipment
        • 3.1. Brief Description of Packaging Equipment
        • 3.2. Unit Operations
    • Part III. Material Basics
      • 4. Commonly Used Resins and Substrates in Flexible Packaging
        • 4.1. Resin and Substrate Function
        • 4.2. Commonly Used Resins in Flexible Packaging
        • 4.3. Commonly Used Substrates in Flexible Packaging
        • 4.4. Material Specifications
        • 4.5. Regulatory Considerations
      • 5. Rheology of Polymer Melts
        • 5.1. Basic Terms
        • 5.2. Importance of Rheology in Flexible Packaging
        • 5.3. Rheological Measurements
        • 5.4. Factors Influencing Polymer Rheology
        • 5.5. Relaxation, Creep, and Constitutive Equations
      • 6. Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. Why Blend?
        • 6.3. Blending Processes
        • 6.4. Physics of Blending
        • 6.5. Morphology Development in Blown Film
        • 6.6. Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites
        • 6.7. Rheology of Polymer Blends
        • 6.8. Conclusion
    • Part IV. Film Properties
      • Introduction
      • 7. Heat Seal
        • 7.1. Why It Is Important
        • 7.2. How to Measure
        • 7.3. Typical Values
        • 7.4. Factors That Influence Heat Seal Performance
        • 7.5. Science of Heat Sealing
        • 7.6. Modeling Heat Seal and Hot Tack
        • 7.7. Easy-Open Seal Technology
        • 7.8. Reclosable Seal Technologies
        • 7.9. Ultrasonic Sealing
        • 7.10. Failure Analysis and Troubleshooting
        • 7.11. Selecting Sealant Resins
      • 8. Barrier
        • 8.1. Why It Is Important
        • 8.2. How to Measure
        • 8.3. Typical Permeation Values
        • 8.4. Science of Permeation
        • 8.5. Emerging Technologies
      • 9. Strength, Stiffness, and Abuse Resistance
        • 9.1. Why It is Important
        • 9.2. How to Measure
        • 9.3. Typical Values
        • 9.4. Engineering Principles for Multilayer Films
      • 10. Adhesion
        • 10.1. Why Adhesion is Important
        • 10.2. How to Measure Adhesion
        • 10.3. Fundamentals
        • 10.4. Tie Resin Technology
      • 11. Thermoforming, Orientation, and Shrink
        • 11.1. Thermoforming
        • 11.2. Orientation and Shrink
      • 12. Frictional and Optical Properties
        • 12.1. Frictional Properties
        • 12.2. Optical Properties
    • Part V. Effect of the Converting Process on Properties
      • Introduction
      • 13. Effect of Processing on Quality
        • 13.1. Thermal Stability
        • 13.2. Die Drool
        • 13.3. Moisture-Related Issues
        • 13.4. Flow Maldistribution and Instability Issues
        • 13.5. Curl
      • 14. Effect of Process on Properties
        • 14.1. Stress–Strain History in Blown Film
        • 14.2. Air- Versus Water-Quench Blown Film
        • 14.3. Development of Blend Morphology in Blown Film
      • 15. Effect of Processing on Interlayer Adhesion
        • 15.1. Adhesion to Substrates in Extrusion Coating
        • 15.2. Interlayer Adhesion in Coextrusion
    • Part VI. End Use Considerations
      • 16. End-Use Factors Influencing the Design of Flexible Packaging
        • 16.1. Environmental Effects on Package Performance
        • 16.2. Packaging–Product Interactions
        • 16.3. Aging
        • 16.4. General Considerations
        • 16.5. Cost
    • Part VII. Structure Design and Modeling
      • 17. Analytical and Modeling Tools for Structure Design and Process Optimization
        • 17.1. Identification of Packaging Structures
        • 17.2. Modeling
    • Appendix A. Writing Guide for Packaging Films and Other Multilayer Structures
    • Appendix B. Examples of Flexible Packaging Film Structures
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 744
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2016
  • Published: September 1, 2016
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323243254
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323242738

About the Author

Barry A. Morris

Barry A. Morris retired from Dow as an R&D Fellow with over 30 years of experience in packaging innovation and technology. He has had a variety of roles supporting the ethylene copolymer business at Dow (formerly DuPont), including technical service, application development and R&D. He holds twelve U.S. patents and has written for over 125 publications. He is a Fellow of the Society of Plastics Engineers and a long-time board member of the SPE Flexible Packaging and Extrusion Divisions. He has won several industry awards for his contributions to the advancement of flexible packaging technology, including the TAPPI PLACE Division Technical Award (2005), SPE’s Bruce Maddock Award (2018) and the DuPont Pedersen Medal (2016).

Affiliations and Expertise

• R&D Fellow, DuPont and Dow (retired) • BA Morris Consulting, LLC

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Michaela A. Mon May 23 2022

    Very well written and comprehensive

    Very well written and comprehensive

  • AdelbertSchoonman Mon Apr 20 2020

    The science and technology of flexible packaging

    Contributes to a good and deep understanding not only of the typical flexible packaging materials, but also of advanced material combinations and their characteristics regarding barrier properties , run-ability in the extrusion process and on packaging lines, and final functionality in regard of use and the packed product. Highly recommended to those who didn't study polymer chemistry for packaging films but require a deeper understanding of the subject. In general a good source for many technologists in the flexible packaging industry.