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The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323242738, 9780323243254

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging

1st Edition

Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use

Author: Barry A. Morris
eBook ISBN: 9780323243254
Hardcover ISBN: 9780323242738
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 1st September 2016
Page Count: 744
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Table of Contents

  • Series Page
  • Preface
  • Part I. Why Multilayer Films?
    • 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. History of Packaging
      • 1.2. Benefits of Packaging
      • 1.3. Consumption Patterns
      • 1.4. Packaging Value Chain
      • 1.5. Needs Along the Value Chain
      • 1.6. Assembling a Package: Benefits of Multiple Layers
      • 1.7. Packaging Trends in the Context of the Value Chain
  • Part II. Basic Processes
    • 2. Converting Processes
      • 2.1. Extrusion
      • 2.2. Film Converting
      • 2.3. Coating and Lamination
      • 2.4. Orientation
      • 2.5. Printing
    • 3. Packaging Equipment
      • 3.1. Brief Description of Packaging Equipment
      • 3.2. Unit Operations
  • Part III. Material Basics
    • 4. Commonly Used Resins and Substrates in Flexible Packaging
      • 4.1. Resin and Substrate Function
      • 4.2. Commonly Used Resins in Flexible Packaging
      • 4.3. Commonly Used Substrates in Flexible Packaging
      • 4.4. Material Specifications
      • 4.5. Regulatory Considerations
    • 5. Rheology of Polymer Melts
      • 5.1. Basic Terms
      • 5.2. Importance of Rheology in Flexible Packaging
      • 5.3. Rheological Measurements
      • 5.4. Factors Influencing Polymer Rheology
      • 5.5. Relaxation, Creep, and Constitutive Equations
    • 6. Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Why Blend?
      • 6.3. Blending Processes
      • 6.4. Physics of Blending
      • 6.5. Morphology Development in Blown Film
      • 6.6. Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites
      • 6.7. Rheology of Polymer Blends
      • 6.8. Conclusion
  • Part IV. Film Properties
    • Introduction
    • 7. Heat Seal
      • 7.1. Why It Is Important
      • 7.2. How to Measure
      • 7.3. Typical Values
      • 7.4. Factors That Influence Heat Seal Performance
      • 7.5. Science of Heat Sealing
      • 7.6. Modeling Heat Seal and Hot Tack
      • 7.7. Easy-Open Seal Technology
      • 7.8. Reclosable Seal Technologies
      • 7.9. Ultrasonic Sealing
      • 7.10. Failure Analysis and Troubleshooting
      • 7.11. Selecting Sealant Resins
    • 8. Barrier
      • 8.1. Why It Is Important
      • 8.2. How to Measure
      • 8.3. Typical Permeation Values
      • 8.4. Science of Permeation
      • 8.5. Emerging Technologies
    • 9. Strength, Stiffness, and Abuse Resistance
      • 9.1. Why It is Important
      • 9.2. How to Measure
      • 9.3. Typical Values
      • 9.4. Engineering Principles for Multilayer Films
    • 10. Adhesion
      • 10.1. Why Adhesion is Important
      • 10.2. How to Measure Adhesion
      • 10.3. Fundamentals
      • 10.4. Tie Resin Technology
    • 11. Thermoforming, Orientation, and Shrink
      • 11.1. Thermoforming
      • 11.2. Orientation and Shrink
    • 12. Frictional and Optical Properties
      • 12.1. Frictional Properties
      • 12.2. Optical Properties
  • Part V. Effect of the Converting Process on Properties
    • Introduction
    • 13. Effect of Processing on Quality
      • 13.1. Thermal Stability
      • 13.2. Die Drool
      • 13.3. Moisture-Related Issues
      • 13.4. Flow Maldistribution and Instability Issues
      • 13.5. Curl
    • 14. Effect of Process on Properties
      • 14.1. Stress–Strain History in Blown Film
      • 14.2. Air- Versus Water-Quench Blown Film
      • 14.3. Development of Blend Morphology in Blown Film
    • 15. Effect of Processing on Interlayer Adhesion
      • 15.1. Adhesion to Substrates in Extrusion Coating
      • 15.2. Interlayer Adhesion in Coextrusion
  • Part VI. End Use Considerations
    • 16. End-Use Factors Influencing the Design of Flexible Packaging
      • 16.1. Environmental Effects on Package Performance
      • 16.2. Packaging–Product Interactions
      • 16.3. Aging
      • 16.4. General Considerations
      • 16.5. Cost
  • Part VII. Structure Design and Modeling
    • 17. Analytical and Modeling Tools for Structure Design and Process Optimization
      • 17.1. Identification of Packaging Structures
      • 17.2. Modeling
  • Appendix A. Writing Guide for Packaging Films and Other Multilayer Structures
  • Appendix B. Examples of Flexible Packaging Film Structures
  • Index


The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging: Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use provides a comprehensive guide to the use of plastic films in flexible packaging, covering scientific principles, properties, processes, and end use considerations. The book brings the science of multilayer films to the practitioner in a concise and impactful way, presenting the fundamental understanding required to improve product design, material selection, and processes, and includes information on why one material is favored over another for a particular application, or how the film or coating affects material properties.

Detailed descriptions and analysis of the key properties of packaging films are provided from both an engineering and scientific perspective. End-use effects are also covered in detail, providing key insights into the way the products being packaged influence film properties and design.

The book bridges the gap between key scientific literature and the practical challenges faced by the flexible packaging industry, providing essential scientific insights, best practice techniques, environmental sustainability information, and key principles of structure design to enable engineers and scientists to deliver superior products with reduced development time and cost.

Key Features

  • Provides essential information on all aspects of multilayer films in flexible packaging
  • Aids in material selection and processing, shortening development times and delivering stronger products
  • Bridges the gap between scientific principles and key challenges in the packaging industry, with practical explanations to assist practitioners in overcoming those challenges


Engineers and Scientists responsible for designing polymers, making film, specifying packaging, running or operating film lines and packing lines, industrial designers, and consultants. Industry Sector – Packaging, especially flexible packaging, including food and non-food packaging (e.g., medical)


No. of pages:
© William Andrew 2016
1st September 2016
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
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Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

Barry A. Morris

Barry A. Morris is a technical fellow at DuPont with over 30 years of experience in packaging innovation and technology. He has had a variety of roles supporting DuPont’s ethylene copolymer business, including technical service, application development and R&D. He holds ten U.S. patents and has written for over 100 publications. He is a Fellow of the Society of Plastics Engineers, a long time board member and past chair of the SPE Extrusion Division, and a founding member and current chair of the SPE Flexible Packaging Division. A longtime member of TAPPI, he won the PLACE Division’s technology award in 2005 in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the advancement of flexible packaging technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical fellow, DuPont