The Relay Protection of High Voltage Networks - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483201054, 9781483226088

The Relay Protection of High Voltage Networks

1st Edition

Authors: Yong Zhou
eBook ISBN: 9781483226088
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1960
Page Count: 576
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The Relay Protection of High Voltage Networks presents the theoretical aspects of relay protection of high-voltage electrical networks. This book covers a variety of topics, including sequence networks for complex asymmetrical states, vector locus method, theories of symmetrical component filters, and power directional devices.

Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of sequence networks. This text then examines the relay protection of high-voltage networks with three-phase and single-phase tripping. Other chapters consider the principles of auxiliary devices, which serve for the selection of the faulty phase and for preventing the incorrect operation of protective gear during swings and for faulty conditions in the secondary windings of voltage transformers. The final chapter deals with the stability of parallel working of power stations in a system.

This book is a valuable resource for engineers, student, research workers, and readers specializing in the field of relay protection.

Table of Contents




1.1. Development of Protection Engineering in the U.S.S.R.

1.2. Problems of Theoretical Analysis in the Practice, Utilisation and Planning of Relay Protection of High-Voltage Networks.

Chapter I. Synthesis and Application of Sequence Networks for Unbalanced System Conditions

1.1. Disturbance of the Normal Operating Conditions in High-Voltage Networks

1.2. Symmetrical Component Analysis for the Case of Shunt Unbalance at One Point

1.3. Symmetrical Component Analysis for the Case of Series Unbalance

1.4. Sequence Networks for Double or Multiple Unbalances

1.5. The Use of Sequence Networks for the Calculation of Double Conditions

Chapter II. The Investigation of Transmission Operating Conditions by the Method of Vector Loci

2.1. Complex Equations and Vector Loci in the Complex Plane

2.2. Inversion of the Straight Line

2.3. Inversion of the Circle

2.4. Methods of Calculation

2.5. Diagrams of the Impedances of the Relay Terminals when the E.M.F. Varies at the Transmission Terminals

2.6. Diagrams of the Admittances at the Relay Terminals when the E.M.F. Varies at the Transmission Terminals

2.7. Diagrams of Currents at the Terminals of a Faulted Transmission Line

2.8. Diagrams of Currents and Voltages when the Resistance Varies at the Point of Fault

2.9. Diagrams Of Impedances at the Relay Terminals when the Resistance Varies at the Point of Fault

Chapter III. Methods of Calculating Transient Processes in High-Voltage Networks

3.1. The Present Position

3.2. The Complex Form of Transient Process Calculations

3.3. The Applicability of Single-Phase Equivalent Networks to the Calculation of Transient Processes in Asymmetrical Conditions

3.4. Calculation of Transient Processes by the Operator Method

3.5. The Fourier Integral Method

3.6. Characteristics Method

Chapter IV. Symmetrical Component Filters

4.1. Development of Symmetrical Component Filters

4.2. Initial Theoretical Principles

4.3. The Investigation of Filters by the Equivalent Source Method

4.4. The Condition for Maximum Output of the Filter into the Load

4.5. Types of Filters and their Technical Performance

4.6. The Removal of the Effect of Zero Sequence Components

4.7. Phase Shifts in Filters

4.8. Comparison of Voltage and Current Filters on the Basis of Duality

4.9. Internal Connections, Vector Diagrams and Parameters of Negative Sequence Fliters

4.10. The Choice of the Most Advantageous Negative Sequence Filter Network

4.11. Combined Current Filters

4.12. Summator Filters

4.13. The General Method of Filter Design

4.14. Design Expressions for a Four-Element Negative Sequence Filter

4.15. The Relay Parameters

Chapter V. Power Directional Devices

5.1. The Purpose of Power Directional Devices

5.2. Different Types of Power Directional Devices. The Technical Performance of Power Directional Devices

5.3. Characteristics of Power Directional Relays

5.4. Principles of Design of Power Directional Devices

5.5. The Distribution of Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Powers when the System is Faulted

5.6. Three-Phase Three-Element Power Directional Relays

5.7. Three-Phase Single-Element Power Directional Relays

5.8. Three-System and Two-System Power Directional Devices

5.9. A Single-Phase Power Directional Device Reacting to Full Currents And Voltages

5.10. Negative and Zero Sequence Power Directional Devices

Chapter VI. Distance Protection

6.1. The Purpose of Distance Protection

6.2. Classification of Types of Distance Relays

6.3. Characteristics of Distance Relays in the Complex Impedance and Admittance Planes

6.4. The Principles of Distance Relay Design

6.5. Methods of Voltage Compensation in the Presence of Different Types of Short-Circuit

6.6. The Connection of Distance Relays in Conjunction with a Transformer During Transmission

6.7. The Effect of Connection Between the Point of Protection and the Fault

6.8. The Effect of Impedance at the Point of Short-Circuit on the Working of Distance Relays

6.9. The Characteristics of the Distance Protection of Parallel Transmission Lines

6.10. The Characteristics of the Distance Protection of Series Compensated Transmission Lines

6.11. The Operation of Distance Relays when The E.M.F.S of the Generators Differ in Phase, Not Accompanied by Short-Circuits

6.12. The Operation of Distance Relays in Asymmetrical Conditions and in the Presence of Short-Circuits, Taking into Account the Phase Difference of the E.M.F.S of the Generators

6.13. The Effect of Star-Delta Transformation on the Operation of Distance Relays

6.14. The Operation of Distance Relays in Unbalanced Conditions

6.15. The Operation of High-Speed Distance Relays During Transients

6.16. Three-System Distance Protection

6.17. Two-System Distance Protection

6.18. Single-System Distance Protection

Chapter VII. Carrier Protection

7.1. The Purpose of Carrier Protection

7.2. Classification of Carrier Protection Equipment

7.3. Basic Requirements of Carrier Protection

7.4. The Operation of Carrier Protection in the Presence of Swings

7.5. Aspects of Carrier Protection with a Direct Onal Device in the Phases

7.6. High-Speed Filter Directional Carrier Protection

7.7. The Operation of Directional Carrier Protection in Unbalanced Conditions

7.8. Differential Phase Carrier Protection

7.9. Current Phase Relationships in the Presence of a Fault in the Protected Region

7.10. Phase Errors in the Presence of External Short-Circuits

7.11. Comparison and Starting Devices

7.12. The Principles Underlying Differential-Phase Carrier Protection in the U.S.S.R.

7.13. Characteristics of the Carrier Protection of Series-Compensated Transmission Lines

Chapter VIII, Devices for the Selection of the Faulty Phase in Single-Phase Automatic Reclosure Systems

8.1. Single-Phase Tripping and Automatic Reclosure

8.2. The Technical Performance of Devices for Selecting the Faulty Phase

8.3. Theory of Devices for Selecting the Faulty Phase with the Aid of Power Directional Devices

8.4. Distance Phase Selectors

Chapter IX. Differential Current Protection of Lines and Bus-Bars

9.1. The Differential Principle

9.2. Longitudinal Differential Current Protection of Lines

9.3. Transverse Balanced Current Protection of Parallel Lines

9.4. Transverse Differential Directional Protection of Parallel Lines

9.5. Features of Transverse Protection of Series-Compensated Parallel Transmission Lines

9.6. Differential Protection of Bus-Bars

Chapter X. Systems for Preventing the Incorrect Operation of Relay Protection Gear in the Presence of Swings and for Faulty Conditions in the Secondary Windings of Voltage Transformers

10.1. Measures for Increasing the Stability of Parallel Working of Power Stations in Power Systems

10.2. Systems for Preventing the Incorrect Operation of Protection in the Presence of Swings

10.3. Systems for Preventing the Incorrect Operation of Protection for Faulty Conditions in the Secondary Windings of Voltage Transformers


Appendix 1. Operating Regions of Cut-Offs Used as Basic Transmission Line Protection

Appendix 2. Verification of the Requirement for withdrawal from Operation of Single-System Impedance Protection from Interphase Faults in the Presence of Ground Faults

Appendix 3. Expressions for the Reactances at the Ohm Relay Terminals in the Presence of Ground Faults on One of the Parallel Lines




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© Pergamon 1960
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About the Author

Yong Zhou

Professor Yong Zhou is a recognized expert in the field of non-linear difference equations and their applications in China. He was Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Dynamical Systems and Differential Equations over 2007-2011, and is present Guest Editor at Optimization (T&F), Nonlinear Dynamics and Journal of Vibration and Control (Sage), and at Elsevier former Guest Editor of Computers & Mathematics with Applications over 2010-2012 and Applied Mathematics and Computation over 2014-2015.

Affiliations and Expertise

Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, P.R. China.