The Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122447501, 9780323150842

The Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

1st Edition

Editors: Johannes Everse
eBook ISBN: 9780323150842
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 426
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Description

The Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes provides a comprehensive discussion of the evolution, properties, and reactions of pyridine nucleotide coenzymes. The pyridine nucleotide coenzymes, NAD and NADP, appear to be among the most versatile of molecules with respect to their biological functions. In addition to their well-documented roles in a large number of oxidation-reduction reactions, these coenzymes are involved in many aspects of metabolic regulation. The book begins by tracing the evolution of coenzymes and pyridine nucleotide coenzymes. This is followed by separate chapters that deal with the static and dynamic properties of the pyridine nucleotide coenzymes; chemistry and solution conformation of the pyridine coenzymes; pyridine nucleotide analogs; and the three-dimensional structures of pyridine nucleotide binding enzymes. Subsequent chapters cover the synthesis and characterization of immobilized coenzymes and derivatives and their applications in affinity chromatography and enzyme reactors; the pathways to quinolinate, a major precursor of pyridine nucleotides; the role of pyridine nucleotides in phagocytosis; and non-oxidation-reduction reactions of pyridine nucleotides.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Nathan O. Kaplan: A Tribute by Martin D. Kamen

To Nate by Fritz Lipmann

To Nate by W. D. McElroy

Origins of Pyridine Nucleotide Research at the McCollum-Pratt Institute in the 1950s by Sidney P. Colowick

1 Evolution of Coenzymes and the Origin of Pyridine Nucleotides

I. Catalysts in Prebiotic Evolution

II. Existence of Coenzymes before a Reliable Translation Apparatus Evolved

III. Proteins as a Secondary Phenomenon in the Evolution of Coenzyme-Dependent Enzymes

IV. Coenzyme Requirements of Contemporary Enzymes

V. Nucleotide Structure of Coenzymes as a Clue to Their Evolution

VI. Vestiges of a Polynucleotide Ancestry in Contemporary Biochemistry

VII. Amino Acids as an Extension of Coenzyme Evolution

VIII. Implications for Enzyme Tertiary Structure

IX. Difficulties with the Model for Coenzyme Evolution

X. Some Considerations on the Evolution of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

References

2 Spectroscopic Studies of the Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes and Their Complexes with Dehydrogenases

I. Introduction

II. Absorption and Circular Dichroic Spectral Studies of Dehydrogenase-Coenzyme Complexes

III. Fluorescence

IV. The Triplet States of NAD+ and NADH

V. Conclusion

References

3 Chemistry and Solution Conformation of the Pyridine Coenzymes

I. α-Pyridine Nucleotides and Anomerization

II. Base-Catalyzed Reactions of NAD+

III. Acid-Catalyzed Reactions of NADH

IV. Solution Conformation and Intramolecular Association of the Pyridine Coenzymes

References

4 Analogs of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis of Coenzyme Analogs

III. Specific Modifications of NAD

IV. Properties of Coenzyme Analogs

V. Applications

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

5 Structural Interactions with Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Pyridine Nucleotide Binding Enzymes

III. Coenzyme Binding

IV. Substrate Binding and Catalysis

V. Conclusions

References

6 Immobilized Coenzymes and Derivatives

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Modifications of Coenzymes and Derivatives for Immobilization

III. General Ligand Affinity Chromatography

IV. Applications of Immobilized Coenzymes in Enzyme Reactors

V. Other Applications of Immobilized Coenzyme Derivatives

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

7 Biosynthetic and Salvage Pathways of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

I. Synthesis of Quinolinate

II. Conversion of Quinolinate and Nicotinate to NAD+

III. Interconversion of NAD+ and NADP+

IV. Pyridine Nucleotide Cycles

V. Degradation, Excretion, and Secondary Metabolites of NAD+

References

8 The Role of Pyridine Nucleotides in Phagocytosis

I. Introduction

II. Phagocytosis by Neutrophils

III. Pyridine Nucleotide Oxidases

IV. Myeloperoxidase

V. Discussion

References

9 Membrane-Bound Pyridine Dinucleotide Transhydrogenases

I. Introduction

II. Linkage with the Oxidative Phosphorylation System

III. Purification, Reconstitution, and Characterization of Transhydrogenase

IV. Studies on Rhodospirillum rubrum Transhydrogenase

References

10 Non-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Pyridine Nucleotides

I. Introduction

II. Poly ADP-Ribosylation of Protein

III. Mono ADP-Ribosylation

IV. Choleragen

V. Other Choleragen-Like Bacterial Toxins

VI. Diphtheria Toxin

VII. Other Toxins Analogous to Diphtheria Toxin

VIII. ADP-Ribosyltransferases of Bacteriophage Origin

IX. A Eukaryotic ADP-Ribosyltransferase

X. The NAD Glycohydrolases

XI. Other Enzyme Systems

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
426
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323150842

About the Editor

Johannes Everse

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Lubbock, U.S.A.