The Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

The Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Editor: Johannes Everse
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150842

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The Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes provides a comprehensive discussion of the evolution, properties, and reactions of pyridine nucleotide coenzymes. The pyridine nucleotide coenzymes, NAD and NADP, appear to be among the most versatile of molecules with respect to their biological functions. In addition to their well-documented roles in a large number of oxidation-reduction reactions, these coenzymes are involved in many aspects of metabolic regulation. The book begins by tracing the evolution of coenzymes and pyridine nucleotide coenzymes. This is followed by separate chapters that deal with the static and dynamic properties of the pyridine nucleotide coenzymes; chemistry and solution conformation of the pyridine coenzymes; pyridine nucleotide analogs; and the three-dimensional structures of pyridine nucleotide binding enzymes. Subsequent chapters cover the synthesis and characterization of immobilized coenzymes and derivatives and their applications in affinity chromatography and enzyme reactors; the pathways to quinolinate, a major precursor of pyridine nucleotides; the role of pyridine nucleotides in phagocytosis; and non-oxidation-reduction reactions of pyridine nucleotides.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Nathan O. Kaplan: A Tribute by Martin D. Kamen

    To Nate by Fritz Lipmann

    To Nate by W. D. McElroy

    Origins of Pyridine Nucleotide Research at the McCollum-Pratt Institute in the 1950s by Sidney P. Colowick

    1 Evolution of Coenzymes and the Origin of Pyridine Nucleotides

    I. Catalysts in Prebiotic Evolution

    II. Existence of Coenzymes before a Reliable Translation Apparatus Evolved

    III. Proteins as a Secondary Phenomenon in the Evolution of Coenzyme-Dependent Enzymes

    IV. Coenzyme Requirements of Contemporary Enzymes

    V. Nucleotide Structure of Coenzymes as a Clue to Their Evolution

    VI. Vestiges of a Polynucleotide Ancestry in Contemporary Biochemistry

    VII. Amino Acids as an Extension of Coenzyme Evolution

    VIII. Implications for Enzyme Tertiary Structure

    IX. Difficulties with the Model for Coenzyme Evolution

    X. Some Considerations on the Evolution of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes


    2 Spectroscopic Studies of the Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes and Their Complexes with Dehydrogenases

    I. Introduction

    II. Absorption and Circular Dichroic Spectral Studies of Dehydrogenase-Coenzyme Complexes

    III. Fluorescence

    IV. The Triplet States of NAD+ and NADH

    V. Conclusion


    3 Chemistry and Solution Conformation of the Pyridine Coenzymes

    I. α-Pyridine Nucleotides and Anomerization

    II. Base-Catalyzed Reactions of NAD+

    III. Acid-Catalyzed Reactions of NADH

    IV. Solution Conformation and Intramolecular Association of the Pyridine Coenzymes


    4 Analogs of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

    I. Introduction

    II. Synthesis of Coenzyme Analogs

    III. Specific Modifications of NAD

    IV. Properties of Coenzyme Analogs

    V. Applications

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    5 Structural Interactions with Enzymes

    I. Introduction

    II. Pyridine Nucleotide Binding Enzymes

    III. Coenzyme Binding

    IV. Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    V. Conclusions


    6 Immobilized Coenzymes and Derivatives

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Modifications of Coenzymes and Derivatives for Immobilization

    III. General Ligand Affinity Chromatography

    IV. Applications of Immobilized Coenzymes in Enzyme Reactors

    V. Other Applications of Immobilized Coenzyme Derivatives

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    7 Biosynthetic and Salvage Pathways of Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes

    I. Synthesis of Quinolinate

    II. Conversion of Quinolinate and Nicotinate to NAD+

    III. Interconversion of NAD+ and NADP+

    IV. Pyridine Nucleotide Cycles

    V. Degradation, Excretion, and Secondary Metabolites of NAD+


    8 The Role of Pyridine Nucleotides in Phagocytosis

    I. Introduction

    II. Phagocytosis by Neutrophils

    III. Pyridine Nucleotide Oxidases

    IV. Myeloperoxidase

    V. Discussion


    9 Membrane-Bound Pyridine Dinucleotide Transhydrogenases

    I. Introduction

    II. Linkage with the Oxidative Phosphorylation System

    III. Purification, Reconstitution, and Characterization of Transhydrogenase

    IV. Studies on Rhodospirillum rubrum Transhydrogenase


    10 Non-Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Pyridine Nucleotides

    I. Introduction

    II. Poly ADP-Ribosylation of Protein

    III. Mono ADP-Ribosylation

    IV. Choleragen

    V. Other Choleragen-Like Bacterial Toxins

    VI. Diphtheria Toxin

    VII. Other Toxins Analogous to Diphtheria Toxin

    VIII. ADP-Ribosyltransferases of Bacteriophage Origin

    IX. A Eukaryotic ADP-Ribosyltransferase

    X. The NAD Glycohydrolases

    XI. Other Enzyme Systems



Product details

  • No. of pages: 426
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150842

About the Editor

Johannes Everse

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Lubbock, U.S.A.

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