The Psychology of Learning

The Psychology of Learning

An Introduction for Students of Education

1st Edition - January 1, 1974

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  • Author: Gordon R. Cross
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483159492

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The Psychology of Learning: An Introduction for Students of Education underlines some of the practical implications of the classical and more traditional topics of study, as well as the theoretical models of learning and psycholinguistics. The book explores various aspects of learning, including memory, motivation, skills, language, thinking, problem-solving, intelligence, ability, personality, educational technology, and moral behavior. The topics discussed in this book will be very valuable for all teachers in training.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Chapter 1. Learning I

    Concept of Learning


    Thorndike's Structure of S–R Bonds

    Pavlov's Classical Conditioning

    Skinner's Operant Conditioning

    Hull's Need Reduction

    Chapter 2. Learning II

    Tolman's Sign Learning

    The "Gestalt" School

    Servo-Mechanisms and Theoretical Models

    Deutsch; Miller's TOTE Plan; Lunzer

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 3. Memory


    Broadbent's Model of Selective Attention

    Short-term Memory

    Long-term Memory


    RNA and Memory

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 4. Motivation

    Concept of Motivation

    Objectives and Goals

    Bloom's Taxonomy

    Self-concepts and Ego-Involvement

    Social-Group Influences

    Arousal and Vigilance

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 5. Skills

    Nature of Skill

    Welford's Model of Sensori-Motor Performance

    The Acquisition of Skill

    Teaching Skills


    Transfer of Training

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 6. Language

    Communication in Man and Animals

    Acquisition of Language

    Behaviorist Theories

    Pavlov; Skinner

    Early Language Development

    Babbling and Imitation; Open and Pivot Words; Expansion and Elaboration

    Social Aspects

    Bernstein; Luria and Yudovitch

    Chomsky's Rule Generation Theory

    Some Psycholinguistic Experiments

    Social Class Differences in Rule Mastery; Difficulty in Making Sentence

    Transformations; Yngve's Depth Hypothesis; Language and Memory Storage; Phrase Structure and Perception; Function Words and Inflections


    Word Association; Semantic Differential

    Language Learning

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 7. Thinking and Problem-Solving


    Piaget's Theory

    (a) Sensori-Motor

    (b) Preconceptual Thought

    (c) Intuitive Thought

    (d) Concrete Operations

    (e) Formal Operations

    Educational Implications of Piaget's Work

    Learning Concepts, Rules and Principles

    Harlow's Learning Set; Language and Thought; Gagnés Model


    Bruner on Scanning and Focusing; Algorithmic and Heuristic Approaches

    Principles of Problem-Solving

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 8. Intelligence and Ability

    Concept of Intelligence

    Fallacies about Intelligence

    Innate and Fixed; Development Peaks; National Intelligence is Declining; Distribution of Intelligence; Compensatory Factors

    Types of Intelligence Test

    The Structure of Abilities and Factor Analysis

    Creativity and Its Assessment

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 9. Personality

    Concept of Personality

    Personality Assessment

    Theories of Personality Development

    Eysenck; Cattell, Psychoanalytic

    Physique and Temperament

    Assessment in Schools

    Anxiety and Achievement

    Alleviating Stress

    Personality and Achievement

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 10. Educational Technology


    Programmed Learning

    Pressey's Teaching Machine; Skinner's Linear Program; Crowder's

    Branching Technique; Effectiveness of Programmed Learning; Computer-Assisted Methods

    Audio-Visual Aids

    Games and Simulation


    Effectiveness of Audio-Visual Techniques

    Additional Reading

    Chapter 11. Moral Behavior

    Concept of Morality

    Piaget's Theory

    Kohlberg's Theory

    Moral Development and Learning Theory

    Discipline and Order



    Discipline: The School and the Community

    Additional Reading

    Notes on Some Statistical and Technical Terms Used in Psychometrics

    Standard Deviation

    Correlation Coefficient

    Reliability of a Test


    Objectivity in Marking

    Standardization for Age

    Titles and Publishes of Tests Mentioned in the Text

    References to Authors Cited in the Text

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 302
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1974
  • Published: January 1, 1974
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483159492

About the Author

Gordon R. Cross

About the Editor

Edmund King

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