The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125867801, 9780323147217

The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation

1st Edition

Editors: Martin Reite
eBook ISBN: 9780323147217
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 25th April 1985
Page Count: 524
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Description

The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation provides an understanding of certain theoretical issues involved in social attachment and separation. The book brings together a number of investigators studying animal and human models of the psychobiology of attachment and separation. The contributors are actively conducting studies that incorporate physiological measures in attachment-separation paradigms. Thus, the book's unique features include reviews and interpretations of recent data on the physiological correlates of attachment and separation behavior in both animals and humans.

The book is divided into two parts, one on animal models and one on human models. The first part reviews research from several animal species, including studies on the biology of maternal behavior and physiological, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical correlates of both attachment and separation. The chapters on animal models provide an overview of the state of knowledge on both the biology of social attachment and the biological correlates of separation. The second part presents reviews and new data on attachment and separation in human infants. A summary chapter examines both animal and human data and offers a synthesis of the results, including clinical implications and ideas for future research.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Part I Animal Models

1. Brain Opioids and Social Emotions

Conceptual Background

The Brain Opioid Hypothesis of Social Affect

Social Bonding and Narcotic Addiction

Brain Mechanisms of Gregariousness

Separation-Induced Physiological Changes and Brain Opioids, Social Attachments, and Psychopathologies

Conclusions

References

2. Biology of Maternal Behavior: Recent Findings and Implications

Introduction

Mothers, Maternal Behavior, and Maternal Attachment

Biological Bases of Maternal Behavior in Rats

Biological Bases of Maternal Behavior in Nonhuman Primates

Implications

Conclusions

References

3. Neurobiology of Affiliative Behavior in Nonhuman Primates

Introduction

Brain Lesion and Electrical Recording Studies

Neurochemical Studies

Neural Mechanisms Reconsidered

References

4. Effects of Differences in Early Social Experience on Primate Neurobiological-Behavioral Development

The Social Primate: A Social-Biological Approach

Effects of Early Deprivation on Rhesus Monkeys: The Isolation Syndrome

Experimental Approaches to the Study of the Neurobiology of Attachment

Implications for Human Social Behavior and Psychopathology

References

5. Endocrine and Immune Responses to Separation and Maternal Loss in Nonhuman Primates

Introduction

Temporal Aspects of the Separation Response in Squirrel Monkeys

Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Separation Response

Influence of the Home Environment and Social Support

Effect of Repeated Separation Experiences

Pharmacological Manipulations of the Vocalization Response

Importance of the Adrenal Response to Separation

Effect of Separation on the Immune System

Comparison with the Separation Response of the Rhesus Macaque

General Considerations

References

6. Separation and Depression: Biological Markers

Introduction

Relationship to Human Depression

General Considerations Concerning Disease Models

Mother-Infant Separation

Peer Separation Model

Interactions of Pharmacological Agents with Peer Separation

Use of Animal Models to Investigate an Interactive Model of Depression

References

7. On the Nature of Social Separation and Social Attachment

Introduction

Attachment as Viewed from the Standpoint of Separation

Attachment and Psychobiological Synchrony

Evidence for the Neurobiological Basis of Attachment

Evolutionary Correlates

Clinical Considerations

Conclusions

References

Part II Human Models

8. The Attachment Learning Process and Its Relation to Cultural and Biological Evolution: Proximate and Ultimate Considerations

Introduction

The Paleoanthropological Background

Biological Constraints on Behavioral Development and the Ecological Adaptation of Behavior

Proximate Developmental Processes and the Role of Learning

Attachment Learning: A Comparative Analysis

Processes of Proximate and Ultimate Causation: A Developmental Perspective

On the Evolutionary Origins of Attachment Behavior

Parental Investment, Inclusive Fitness, and Attachment Theory: The New Synthesis

Concluding Remarks

References

9. Multiple Caretaking in the Context of Human Evolution: Why Don't the Efé Know the Western Prescription for Child Care?

Introduction

Continuous Care and Contact Model

Selected Observations of Efé Child-Rearing Practices

Efé Practices: Social and Biological Demands

A Model of Regulation of Exchanges between Organism and Environment

References

10. Biobehavioral Antecedents in the Development of Infant-Mother Attachment

Introduction

Ethological-Organizational Theory

Attachment Quality: Assessment and Diagnosis

Antecedents of Attachment Quality

Biobehavioral Pathways to Infant-Mother Attachment

Neuroendocrine Antecedents to Infant Attachment

The Michael Reese Infant-Mother Research Program

Method

Summary and Conclusion

References

11. Variations in Parental and Nonparental Response to Early Infant Communication

Introduction

Parental Responses to Infant Smiles and Cries

Parental Responses to Premature Infants

Response of Mothers Who Have Preterm Infants of Their Own

Response Patterns of Abusive Mothers

Children's Responses to Infant Smiles and Cries

Summary

References

12. Cardiac Responses of Mothers and Infants in Ainsworth's Strange Situation

Introduction

Empirical Studies

Analogue Studies of Maternal Responsivity

Cardiac Response of Mothers and Infants in the Strange Situation

Learned Helplessness Model of Maternal Response

Application of the Helplessness Model

Summary

References

13. Behavioral and Autonomic Antecedents of Attachment in High-Risk Infants

Introduction

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a Measure of Central Nervous System (CNS) Integrity

HRV Differences among High-Risk Infants

HRV and Facial Expression

The Relations of HRV to Attachment

Developmental Implications

Summary

References

14. Attachment as Psychobiological Attunement: Being on the Same Wavelength

Introduction

The Bowlby-Ainsworth Model of Attachment

Physiological Data Confirming a Biphasic Response to Separation

Separation: A Sufficient But Not a Necessary Condition

Peer Attachment and Separation

Differential Stimulation and Arousal Modulation Needs May Be Met by Different Individuals

Mother-Infant Interactions Illustrating Attunement

Disturbed Mother-Infant Interactions Illustrating Lack of Attunement

Manipulations of Early Mother-Infant Interactions: Perturbations of Attunement

Peer Interactions

Attachments between Adults

Summary

References

15. The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation: A Summary

Introduction

Individual Differences in Attachment

Biological Markers and Mechanisms Underlying Attachment and Separation: Animal Models

Separation Behavior: Biphasic Response

Psychobiological Attunement or Synchrony: An Alternative Model of Attachment

Future Directions for Research

References

Author Index

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
524
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323147217

About the Editor

Martin Reite