The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation

The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation

1st Edition - April 25, 1985

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  • Editor: Martin Reite
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147217

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The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation provides an understanding of certain theoretical issues involved in social attachment and separation. The book brings together a number of investigators studying animal and human models of the psychobiology of attachment and separation. The contributors are actively conducting studies that incorporate physiological measures in attachment-separation paradigms. Thus, the book's unique features include reviews and interpretations of recent data on the physiological correlates of attachment and separation behavior in both animals and humans. The book is divided into two parts, one on animal models and one on human models. The first part reviews research from several animal species, including studies on the biology of maternal behavior and physiological, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical correlates of both attachment and separation. The chapters on animal models provide an overview of the state of knowledge on both the biology of social attachment and the biological correlates of separation. The second part presents reviews and new data on attachment and separation in human infants. A summary chapter examines both animal and human data and offers a synthesis of the results, including clinical implications and ideas for future research.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Part I Animal Models

    1. Brain Opioids and Social Emotions

    Conceptual Background

    The Brain Opioid Hypothesis of Social Affect

    Social Bonding and Narcotic Addiction

    Brain Mechanisms of Gregariousness

    Separation-Induced Physiological Changes and Brain Opioids, Social Attachments, and Psychopathologies



    2. Biology of Maternal Behavior: Recent Findings and Implications


    Mothers, Maternal Behavior, and Maternal Attachment

    Biological Bases of Maternal Behavior in Rats

    Biological Bases of Maternal Behavior in Nonhuman Primates




    3. Neurobiology of Affiliative Behavior in Nonhuman Primates


    Brain Lesion and Electrical Recording Studies

    Neurochemical Studies

    Neural Mechanisms Reconsidered


    4. Effects of Differences in Early Social Experience on Primate Neurobiological-Behavioral Development

    The Social Primate: A Social-Biological Approach

    Effects of Early Deprivation on Rhesus Monkeys: The Isolation Syndrome

    Experimental Approaches to the Study of the Neurobiology of Attachment

    Implications for Human Social Behavior and Psychopathology


    5. Endocrine and Immune Responses to Separation and Maternal Loss in Nonhuman Primates


    Temporal Aspects of the Separation Response in Squirrel Monkeys

    Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Separation Response

    Influence of the Home Environment and Social Support

    Effect of Repeated Separation Experiences

    Pharmacological Manipulations of the Vocalization Response

    Importance of the Adrenal Response to Separation

    Effect of Separation on the Immune System

    Comparison with the Separation Response of the Rhesus Macaque

    General Considerations


    6. Separation and Depression: Biological Markers


    Relationship to Human Depression

    General Considerations Concerning Disease Models

    Mother-Infant Separation

    Peer Separation Model

    Interactions of Pharmacological Agents with Peer Separation

    Use of Animal Models to Investigate an Interactive Model of Depression


    7. On the Nature of Social Separation and Social Attachment


    Attachment as Viewed from the Standpoint of Separation

    Attachment and Psychobiological Synchrony

    Evidence for the Neurobiological Basis of Attachment

    Evolutionary Correlates

    Clinical Considerations



    Part II Human Models

    8. The Attachment Learning Process and Its Relation to Cultural and Biological Evolution: Proximate and Ultimate Considerations


    The Paleoanthropological Background

    Biological Constraints on Behavioral Development and the Ecological Adaptation of Behavior

    Proximate Developmental Processes and the Role of Learning

    Attachment Learning: A Comparative Analysis

    Processes of Proximate and Ultimate Causation: A Developmental Perspective

    On the Evolutionary Origins of Attachment Behavior

    Parental Investment, Inclusive Fitness, and Attachment Theory: The New Synthesis

    Concluding Remarks


    9. Multiple Caretaking in the Context of Human Evolution: Why Don't the Efé Know the Western Prescription for Child Care?


    Continuous Care and Contact Model

    Selected Observations of Efé Child-Rearing Practices

    Efé Practices: Social and Biological Demands

    A Model of Regulation of Exchanges between Organism and Environment


    10. Biobehavioral Antecedents in the Development of Infant-Mother Attachment


    Ethological-Organizational Theory

    Attachment Quality: Assessment and Diagnosis

    Antecedents of Attachment Quality

    Biobehavioral Pathways to Infant-Mother Attachment

    Neuroendocrine Antecedents to Infant Attachment

    The Michael Reese Infant-Mother Research Program


    Summary and Conclusion


    11. Variations in Parental and Nonparental Response to Early Infant Communication


    Parental Responses to Infant Smiles and Cries

    Parental Responses to Premature Infants

    Response of Mothers Who Have Preterm Infants of Their Own

    Response Patterns of Abusive Mothers

    Children's Responses to Infant Smiles and Cries



    12. Cardiac Responses of Mothers and Infants in Ainsworth's Strange Situation


    Empirical Studies

    Analogue Studies of Maternal Responsivity

    Cardiac Response of Mothers and Infants in the Strange Situation

    Learned Helplessness Model of Maternal Response

    Application of the Helplessness Model



    13. Behavioral and Autonomic Antecedents of Attachment in High-Risk Infants


    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a Measure of Central Nervous System (CNS) Integrity

    HRV Differences among High-Risk Infants

    HRV and Facial Expression

    The Relations of HRV to Attachment

    Developmental Implications



    14. Attachment as Psychobiological Attunement: Being on the Same Wavelength


    The Bowlby-Ainsworth Model of Attachment

    Physiological Data Confirming a Biphasic Response to Separation

    Separation: A Sufficient But Not a Necessary Condition

    Peer Attachment and Separation

    Differential Stimulation and Arousal Modulation Needs May Be Met by Different Individuals

    Mother-Infant Interactions Illustrating Attunement

    Disturbed Mother-Infant Interactions Illustrating Lack of Attunement

    Manipulations of Early Mother-Infant Interactions: Perturbations of Attunement

    Peer Interactions

    Attachments between Adults



    15. The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation: A Summary


    Individual Differences in Attachment

    Biological Markers and Mechanisms Underlying Attachment and Separation: Animal Models

    Separation Behavior: Biphasic Response

    Psychobiological Attunement or Synchrony: An Alternative Model of Attachment

    Future Directions for Research


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 524
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: April 25, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147217

About the Editor

Martin Reite

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