The Process of Investigation - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780128001660, 9780128006436

The Process of Investigation

4th Edition

Concepts and Strategies for Investigators in the Private Sector

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Authors: Charles Sennewald John Tsukayama
eBook ISBN: 9780128006436
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001660
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 8th January 2015
Page Count: 368
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The Process of Investigation, Fourth Edition addresses the needs of today’s private sector investigative professional by providing a full-spectrum treatment of the investigative process, from case inception and investigative strategy selection to executing complex investigative techniques, to creating reports useful for corporate, legal, and prosecutorial purposes.

Continuing in the tradition of its previous editions, The Process of Investigation, Fourth Edition covers essential topics overlooked in books on the public aspects of investigation. Investigative skills such as surveillance techniques, interviewing and interrogation, collecting and documenting evidence, and taking confessions and written statements are all discussed, and supplemented with updated case studies and examples from the authors’ own professional experiences.

Key Features

  • Teaches the fundamentals of the investigative process and serves as a valuable reference tool for both the student and the professional
  • Experienced professionals can brush up on seldom-used specialty skills, and reconsider existing methods and approaches
  • Includes a new chapter on discrimination investigations


Corporate and private investigative professionals, security managers, security consultants, and students in two- and four-year colleges taking investigations courses

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Part I. Fundamentals of Security Investigation
    • Chapter 1. The Investigative Process
      • Two Categories of Investigation
      • The Investigative Process
      • The Creative Process in Investigation
    • Chapter 2. A Comparison of Public and Private Sectors
      • Source of Authority and Funding
      • Sources of Information
      • Job Security
      • Scope of Work
      • Image
      • Civil Liability
      • Training and Education
      • Technical Resources
      • Professionalism
      • Career Paths
      • Assistance
      • Personal Achievement
      • Overlapping Missions
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3. Qualities of the Investigator
      • Powers of Observation
      • Resourcefulness
      • Patience
      • Interacting With People
      • Understanding of Human Behavior
      • Understanding Legal Implications
      • Effective Communication Skills
      • Receptivity
      • Sense of Well-Being
      • Dedication to the Work
      • Self-Initiative
      • Healthy Skepticism
      • Intuition
      • Energy and Stamina
      • Acting Skills
      • Good Judgment
      • Logic
      • Intelligence
      • Creative Imagination
      • Good Character
      • Sense of Professionalism
      • A Self-Quiz
      • True Success
    • Chapter 4. Managing the Investigative Function
      • The Manager as Investigative Counselor
      • The Manager as Trainer
      • The Manager as Controller
      • The Manager as Motivator
      • The Manager as Evaluator
  • Part II. Methods of Security Investigation
    • Chapter 5. Undercover Investigations
      • Techniques and Methods
      • Problem Areas
      • The Absence of Professionalism
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 6. Surveillance
      • Covert Versus Overt Surveillance
      • The Stationary Surveillance
      • The Moving Surveillance
      • Moving And Stationary Surveillance
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 7. Background Investigations
      • Workplace Violence
      • The Application Package
      • Post-Hire Screening
    • Chapter 8. Discovering Covert Crimes
      • Deployment of Undercover Agents
      • Shoplifting Surveillance
  • Part III. Building a Case
    • Chapter 9. Interviews and Interrogations
      • Interviewing
      • Interrogation
      • Preparing for the Interrogation
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 10. An Overview of the Interview and Interrogation Process
      • Demeanor
      • Rapport
      • Interview and Interrogation
      • Conducting the Interview
      • Selling the Interview
      • Statement Analysis—The Untainted Story
      • Fact Gathering
      • Lifestyle Interviews
      • Cognitive Interviewing
      • Common Interviewer Errors
      • Behavioral Interviewing
      • Diagrams
      • Interrogation
      • Decision to Confess
      • Rationalization
      • Denials
      • Methods of Interrogation
      • Documenting the Confession or the Interview
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 11. Evidence
      • Demonstrative Evidence
      • Documentary Evidence
      • Some Rules and Definitions of Evidence
      • A Final Word about Evidence
    • Chapter 12. Written Statements, Admissions, and Confessions
      • Written Statements
      • Allowable Uses of Statements
      • Historical Background
      • Types of Constraints
      • Confessions and Admissions
      • The Written Admission
      • Videotaped Confessions
      • Value of the Confession
    • Chapter 13. The Use of Informants
      • Professional Contacts
      • Informants
      • The Anonymous Informant
      • Informant Control Stages
      • Maximizing Potential for Controlled Informant Recruitment
      • Unexpected Dividends
      • Treatment of Informants
      • The Need for Corroboration
    • Chapter 14. Report Writing and Note Taking
      • Defining the Investigative Report
      • Narrative Reports
      • Structured or Formalized Reports
      • Note Taking
      • Large Case Report Format
      • Summary
  • Part IV. Applying Investigative Strategies
    • Chapter 15. Problems Arise: The What of Investigation
    • Chapter 16. Crime and Solution: The How of Investigation
      • Scientific Detection Methods
      • How was it Accomplished? (Commission Strategy)
      • How can the Crime be Solved? (Solution Strategy)
      • The Modus Operandi
      • Selecting the Solution Strategy
    • Chapter 17. Identifying Suspects: The Who of Investigation
      • The Process of Elimination
      • Reading the Physical Evidence
      • The Investigative Interview
      • Combining Techniques
      • Summary
    • Chapter 18. Finding Information: The Where of Investigation
      • Sources of Information in the Private Sector
      • Directories and Periodicals
      • Information Sources in Local Government
      • Information Sources in State Government
      • Other Sources
    • Chapter 19. The Time Factor: The When of Investigation
      • Methods of Establishing Time
      • How to Pre-Establish Time
    • Chapter 20. Establishing Motive: The Why of Investigation
      • Motivation and Detection Strategy
      • Motives for Theft
      • Motive and Response
      • Summary
  • Part V. Technological and Specialized Investigative Techniques
    • Chapter 21. Imagery
      • Photography and Equipment
      • Scene Documentation
      • The Future of Investigative Photography
    • Chapter 22. Computers in Private Sector Investigations
      • A Changing Investigator’s World
      • Computers as Investigative Tools
      • Computers as Objects Of Evidence
      • Computers as Tools
      • Computers as Objects of Evidence
      • A Final Note on Cybercrime
    • Chapter 23. Targeted Violence Investigations
      • Types of Workplace Violence
      • Significance of Workplace Violence
      • A Common Mistake
      • Threats
      • A Threat in the Warehouse
      • The Long View
    • Chapter 24. Discrimination Investigations
      • Discrimination and Harassment
  • Index


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© Butterworth-Heinemann 2015
8th January 2015
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About the Author

Charles Sennewald

Charles Sennewald

Charles “Chuck” Sennewald, CSC, CPP, is an independent security management consultant and expert witness and the author of numerous Butterworth-Heinemann titles, including "Effective Security Management"; "Security Consulting"; "Retail Crime, Security and Loss Prevention: An Encyclopedic Reference;" "From the Files of a Security Expert Witness"; and earlier editions of this book "The Process of Investigation." Chuck is a graduate of California State University - Los Angeles with a BS degree in Police Science and Administration. Chuck is also the founder and first president of the International Association of Professional Security Consultants (IAPSC), and is a long-time member of ASIS International. He has lectured and is read in countries around the globe.

Affiliations and Expertise

Independent security management consultant, expert witness, and author, internationally based

John Tsukayama

John Tsukayama spent twenty-four years as a specialist investigator, starting with the U.S. government. In his twenty-two year career in the private sector he led joint public-private investigation teams while exercising authority as a law enforcement appointee. John’s areas of practice concentration included private sector investigations of theft of goods, embezzlement of funds, drug use and sales in the workplace, and illegal discrimination. He also conducted public sector investigations involving financial crimes, public corruption, embezzlement of public funds, and political campaign fundraising crimes. In addition, John specialized in high-stakes threat assessment and management to prevent targeted violence. John formerly held the designations of Certified Protection Professional (CPP), Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE), and Professional Certified Investigator (PCI). John holds a PhD from the University of St. Andrews School of International Relations, as well as a Master of Letters in Terrorism Studies (Distinction) and a Bachelor of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies (Political Science/History).

Currently John teaches International Relations, Political Philosophy, and Terrorism Studies classes. He is also doing authoring and research in Political Violence, and is preparing to conduct research on American counter-intelligence during the Cold War.

Affiliations and Expertise

Instructor, Brigham Young University, Hawaii; former executive vice president, Safeguard Services, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii.


"...has something interesting for all readers who work with investigations or just want to know more about the art and science…it should find a well-deserved place on the investigative professional’s bookshelf." --ASIS Dynamics

"...a venerable guide, newly published...covers a wide variety of principles including methods of investigating, building cases, using resources to plug in facts, and employing technology." --Security Letter

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