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The Principles of Forest Yield Study - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080066585, 9781483150932

The Principles of Forest Yield Study

1st Edition

Studies in the Organic Production, Structure, Increment and Yield of Forest Stands

Author: Ernst Assmann
Editor: P. W. Davis
eBook ISBN: 9781483150932
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 520
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The Principles of Forest Yield Study: Studies in the Organic Production, Structure, Increment and Yield of Forest Stands reviews the progress that has been made in the field of forest yield studies, especially those concerning the organic production, structure, increment, and yield of forest stands. Topics covered include woody growth as part of the total produce of plant societies; growth and form of forest trees; constitution and development of stands; and forest stand structure, increment, and yield in relation to silvicultural treatment. This book is divided into five sections and begins with an overview of the history of forest yield studies, as well as the place of forest yield theory in forest science. Research objectives and methods employed in forest yield studies are outlined. The discussion then turns to the interactions between soil, climate and plant production; the social structure of tree crops; growth performance of tree crops in relation to site; and disturbances in the normal trend of increment. The use of fertilizers for amelioration and treatment of forest soils are discussed from the standpoint of yield studies. This monograph will be a useful resource for practitioners in forestry, the natural sciences, plant physiology, soil science, and meteorology.

Table of Contents



1. Historical Development

2. The Place of Forest Yield Theory in Forest Science

3. Research Objects and Methods Employed in Forest Yield Studies

Section A. Woody Growth as Part of the Total Produce of Plant Societies

1. Soil, Climate and Plant Production

Mutual iIteractions between Soil, Climate and Plant Cover

Yields in Agriculture and Forestry

Soil Factors of Primary Importance in the Formation of Plant Material

2. The Assimilation Process from the Point of View of Quantitative Ecology

(a) The Principal Factors in the Assimilation Process

(b) The Characteristic Behavior of Different Forest Trees in the Assimilatory Process

(c) Assimilation Rates and Leaf Quantities of Trees and Stands

3. The Organic Production of Forest Stands and Its Components

The Production Equation of Boysen-Jensen

Foliage and Increment

Production Spectra of Mar:Moller

Section B. Tree Growth and Form

1. Annual Shoot Growth and Height Increase

(a) Seasonal Changes of the Annual Height Increment

(b) Height Growth Related to Age

(c) Factors Influencing Height Growth

2. Width of Annual Rings and Diameter Increment

(a) Seasonal Start, Duration and Rate of Formation of the Annual Ring

(b) The Growth Rhythm of Diameter and Basal Area in Relation to Age

(c) Annual Ring Width, Diameter and Sectional Area Increments at Different Stem Heights

3. The Shape of the Tree Stem

(a) The Stem Profile

(b) The Form of Stem Cross-sections

(c) Form Factor, Volume and Assortment Tables

(d) Formation and Dimensions of the Root System

(e) The Bark Fraction

(f) Units of Volume and Weight Employed in the Determination of Growth and Yield

4. Volume Increment

Current and Mean Annual Increment

Section C. The Constitution and Development of Stands

I. The Social Structure of Tree Crops

1. Tree Classes

2. Typical Structure of Stands according to Tree Classes and Storeys

II. Growing Space and Increment

1. Growing Space and Ground Coverage of Individual Trees in the Stand

2. Tree Crown and Increment Efficiency

III. The Pattern of Development and Growth of Pure Stands in Dependence on Age and Site Quality

1. Dependence on Age

2. Dependence on Site: Growth Performance of Tree Crops in Relation to Site

3. Disturbances in the Normal Trend of Increment

4. Growth Patterns and Their Interpretation

Section D. Structure, Increment and Yield of Stands in Relation to Silvicultural Treatment

I. Concept and Scope of Cultural Measures in Stands

Size Restrictions upon Silvicultural Units

Classification of Cultural Measures by Thinning

II. The Research Projects of the Verein der Forstlichen Versuchsanstalten (Association of Forest Research Institutes)

1. Characterization of Thinning Methods

2. Experimental Methods and the Accuracy of Growth Determinations

III. The Effects of Different Thinning Methods on Growth and Yield

1. Typical Increment Reactions to Thinning

2. Typical Changes of the Average Tree Dimensions

3. Enlargement of Dimensions, Improvement of Timber Quality and Financial Yields

IV. Results of Thinning Experiments carried out to Date in Pure Even-aged Stands

1. Common Beech

2. Norway Spruce

3. Scots Pine

4. Oak

V. The Influence of Methods of Establishment and Plant Spacing on Production

The Norway Spruce Cultural Trials at Wermsdorf

Norway Spruce Spacing Experiment Dietzhausen

South German Norway Spruce Spacing Experiments

Summary of Conclusions from Cultivation and Spacing Experiments

VI. Increment and Yield of Mixed Stands without Large Age Differences and in Underplanted Stands

1. Fundamental Problems of Growth in Mixed Species

2. Results of Experiments in Mixed Stands

VII. Increment and Yield in Open-stand Systems and Stands which are felled in Several Cutting Operations ("Mehrhiebig")

1. Open-stand and High Forest with Reserves System in Common Beech

2. The Scots Pine Standards (or Reserves) System

3. The "Perpetual Forest" System of Bärenthoren

VIII. Yield Changes Consequent on Deterioration or Improvement of the Local Site Conditions

1. Deterioration of Yield

2. Yield Improvements by Amelioration and Fertilizer Treatments

Section E. Forest Organization and Yield

I. Growth and Yield Relationships in Working Sections of the Normal High Forest

1. Model of the Normal Working Section

2. Changes in the Characteristic Values of Working Sections due to Different Grades of Thinning and Different Rotations

3. Age Divisions and Increment of Working Sections with an Irregular Structure

II. Growth and Output of Selection Forests

1. The Selection Forest as a Special Case of a Working Section

2. Production of Selection Stands and Comparison with the Production of Normal Even-aged High Forest Stands

III. Structure and Increment of Natural Forest Stands

Stages of Development in Natural Forests

Increment Production of Natural Forest Stands

IV. Organization and Production of Intensively Managed Economic Forests

Appendix 1. Hohenadl's Method

Appendix 2

Conversion Table of Metric into English Measurements

Dimensions of German Assortments

Classification of Timber

Assortments of Poles




No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1970
1st January 1970
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Ernst Assmann

About the Editor

P. W. Davis

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