The Plant Cell - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126754018, 9781483220314

The Plant Cell

1st Edition

A Comprehensive Treatise

Editors: N. E. Tolbert
eBook ISBN: 9781483220314
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th August 1980
Page Count: 722
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Description

The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume I: The Plant Cell serves as an introduction to the various parts of the cell and to the basic biochemistry carried out in the different subcellular components. The book discusses the parts of a cell and the biochemical processes, such as respiration involving the mitochondria, microbodies or cytosol, or photosynthesis in the chloroplasts. The text also describes the use of plant cell cultures in biochemistry; the primary cell walls of flowering plants; and the morphology, purification, chemical and enzymatic composition, and functions of the plasma membrane and the cytosol. The biochemistry of the developmental and genetic processes involved, the development of function, and the biochemistry and metabolism of the mature organelle are also considered. The book further tackles the biochemistry of the plant mitochondria, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, plant nucleus, protein bodies, plant vacuoles, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Biochemists, chemists, biologists, botanists, plant pathologists, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

General Preface

Preface to Volume 1

1 The General Cell

I. Introduction

II. The Plasma Membrane

III. Microtubules

IV. Plasmodesmata

V. Cell Vacuoles

VI. The Nucleus

VII. The Cell Wall

VIII. The Endomembrane System

IX. Polyribosomes and Protein Synthesis

X. Microbodies

XI. Mitochondria

XII. Plastids

XIII. The Cytoplasmic Ground Substance

References

2 Use of Plant Cell Cultures in Biochemistry

I. Introduction

II. Choice of Experimental Organism

III. Regulation of Development and Metabolism

IV. Autotrophy by Plant Cells in Culture

V. Uptake and Transport Studies

VI. Isolation and Characterization of Organelles from Plant Cells in Culture

VII. Plant Cells and Protoplasts as Genetic Systems

VIII. Concluding Remarks

References

3 The Primary Cell Walls of Flowering Plants

I. Introduction

II. The Sugar Nomenclature and Abbreviations Used

III. Methods Used in the Structural Analysis of Cell Wall Polysaccharides

IV. The Pectic Polysaccharides

V. The Hemicelluloses

VI. Noncellulosic Glucan

VII. Cellulose

VIII. Cell Wall Protein

IX. Interconnections between the Primary Cell Wall Polymers

X. Are the Primary Cell Walls of Different Plants Structurally Related?

XI. Biosynthesis of Primary Cell Wall Polymers

XII. The Future of Primary Cell Wall Research

References

4 The Plasma Membrane

I. Introduction

II. Moφhology as Distinguished with the Electron Microscope

III. Purification of the Plasma Membrane

IV. Chemical Composition of the Plasma Membrane

V. Enzymatic Composition of the Plasma Membrane

VI. Functions

VII. Conclusions

References

5 The Cytosol

I. Introduction

II. Definition and Structure

III. Carbon Metabolism

IV. Nitrogen Metabolism

V. Phosphate Metabolism

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

6 Development, Inheritance, and Evolution of Plastids and Mitochondria

I. Introduction

II. Organelle Development and Inheritance

III. Origin of the Biochemical Building Blocks for Organelle Development

IV. Origin of the Genetic Information for Organelle Development

V. Coordination of Organelle Development through Induction by Light and Other Substrates

VI. Origin of Present Interrelationships among Organelles during Evolution

References

7 Biochemistry of the Chloroplast

I. Introduction

II. Moφhology of Higher Plant Chloroplasts

III. Fundamental Energy Processes in Photosynthesis

IV. Carbon Metabolism in the Chloroplast

V. Energetics and Shuttle Mechanisms of the Chloroplast

VI. Storage of Energy by Starch Accumulation

VII. Assimilation of Nitrogen

VIII. Sulfate Reduction

IX. Metabolism of Lipids

X. Protein Synthesis in the Chloroplast

References

8 Plant Mitochondria

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence, Form, and Development

III. Structure and Composition

IV. Enzymes and Enzymatic Activities

V. Cellular and Physiological Interactions

References

9 Microbodies—Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes

I. Introduction

II. Moφhologίcal Detection and Description

III. Isolation Procedures

IV. Enzymes in Microbodies—Catalase

V. Metabolic Pathways in Leaf Peroxisomes

VI. Metabolic Pathways in Glyoxysomes

VII. Other Enzymes in Microbodies

VIII. Microbody Membranes and Transport

IX. Distribution of Microbodies in Plant Tissues

X. Development and Biogenesis of Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes

XI. Function

References

10 The Endoplasmic Reticulum

I. Structure, Isolation, and Composition of the ER

II. Biogenesis and Degradation

III. Role of the ER in the Biogenesis of Cytoplasmic Organelles

IV. Role of the ER in the Biosynthesis and Secretion of Extracellular Molecules

V. Other Biosynthetic and Regulatory Functions of the ER

VI. Conclusion

References

11 Ribosomes

I. Introduction

II. Ribosome Structure and Biogenesis

III. Polyribosomes

12 The Golgi Apparatus

I. Introduction

II. Definition

III. Association with Other Cell Components: The Endomembrane Concept

IV. Biochemistry of Plant Golgi Apparatus

V. Cytochemistry of Plant Golgi Apparatus

VI. Role in Secretion

VII. Role in Membrane Differentiation

VIII. Role in Membrane Flow

IX. Physiology of the Plant Golgi Apparatus

X. Golgi Apparatus Multiplication

XI. Concluding Comments

References

13 The Plant Nucleus

I. Introduction

II. The Nucleus at Inteφhase

III. Structure and Functional Aspects of Inteφhase Chromatin

IV. Dynamic Aspects of Chromosomes during Division and Meiosis

V. Dynamic Aspects of Chromosomes in Differentiation

VI. The Nucleolus

VII. The Nuclear Envelope and Nuclear Pore Complexes

References

14 Protein Bodies

I. Introduction

II. Protein Body Structure

III. Protein Body Composition

IV. Changes in Protein Bodies during Germination and Early Seedling Growth

V. Development of Seed Protein Bodies

VI. Problems Encountered in Studies of Protein Bodies

VII. Future Research

15 Plant Vacuoles

I. Introduction

II. The Lysosome Concept

III. Vacuole Development

IV. Vacuole Function

V. Appendix: Methods for Isolating Vacuoles and Tonoplasts

VI. Conclusions

References

16 Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)

I. Introduction

II. Cytological Chemistry

III. Metabolism

IV. Genetics

V. Viruses

VI. Movement

VII. Culture

VIII. Regulation

IX. Development

X. Evolution

References

Index

Contents of Other Volumes


Details

No. of pages:
722
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483220314

About the Editor

N. E. Tolbert