The Pituitary

The Pituitary

5th Edition - May 20, 2022

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  • Editor: Shlomo Melmed
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323998994
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323985338

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Description

The Pituitary, Fifth Edition continues the tradition of a cogent blend of basic science and clinical medicine. The comprehensive text written by expert pituitary scholars is devoted to the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of pituitary disorders. The new fifth edition has been extensively revised to reflect the most recent data on new research advances in tumorigenesis and new therapeutic approaches for pituitary tumors, particularly in acromegaly and Cushing disease. Notably, new chapters devoted to the Pituitary-Immune Interface and Pituitary Radiotherapy have been included, along with a chapter on Aggressive Pituitary Adenomas developed to align with the WHOs Classification of Pituitary Tumors. Furthermore, new authors have been invited, ensuring a fresh perspective on critical issues in the field. This extensive body of knowledge is useful for students, trainees, physicians, and scientists who need to understand critical pituitary functions and how to care for patients with pituitary disorders.

Key Features

  • Provides a detailed description of the wide spectrum of clinical disorders emanating from the dysfunction of the “master gland” and the fundamental science underlying pituitary dysfunction
  • Brings together pituitary experts from all areas of research and practice who take readers all the way from bench research to genomic and proteomic analysis, clinical analysis, and new therapeutic approaches
  • Describes the mechanisms for disease pathogenesis, including both subcellular and extrinsic mechanisms that subserve normal and disordered pituitary hormone secretion and action

Readership

Researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in endocrinology and researchers of endocrine diseases across biomedical disciplines, as well as those working with endocrinologists such as neurosurgeons and OB/GYNs

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Section I. Hypothalamic—Pituitary Function
  • Chapter 1. Pituitary Development
  • The pituitary gland
  • Formation of Rathke's pouch
  • Glandular or endocrine gland development
  • Vascular development
  • Signals controlling pituitary development
  • Cell differentiation
  • Tissue architecture and cell networks
  • Pituitary cell cycle control
  • Progenitors and stem cells
  • Corticotrophs
  • Melanotrophs
  • Gonadotrophs
  • Somatotrophs
  • Lactotroph differentiation
  • Thyrotrophs
  • Perspectives
  • Chapter 2. Hypothalamic Regulation of Anterior Pituitary Function
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy and histology of the hypothalamic–pituitary unit
  • Cellular composition of the anterior pituitary
  • Hypothalamic factors regulating anterior pituitary function
  • Hypothalamic prolactin regulators
  • Summary
  • Chapter 3. Adrenocorticotrophin
  • Corticotroph biology
  • Proopiomelanocortin gene
  • Regulation of the HPA axis
  • Effects of secreted Pomc-derived peptides in physiology and disease
  • Measurement assays for ACTH
  • Chapter 4. Growth Hormone
  • Introduction
  • Growth hormone gene
  • GH synthesis
  • Hypothalamic hormones
  • GH action
  • GH and metabolism
  • GH and reproduction
  • GH/IGF-1 and cardiovascular function
  • GH effects on renal function
  • Tests of GH secretion
  • Clinical use of GH
  • GH replacement in adults
  • Side effects of GH replacement
  • GH replacement and hypopituitarism
  • GH replacement in acromegaly
  • GH in the healthy elderly
  • GH abuse by athletes
  • Chapter 5. Prolactin
  • Introduction
  • Ontogeny of lactotroph cells
  • Prolactin biosynthesis
  • Regulation of prolactin secretion
  • Physiology of PRL secretion
  • PRL receptors
  • PRL effects on target tissues
  • Drugs and chemicals interfering with prolactin synthesis and action
  • Biochemical evaluation of PRL secretion
  • Chapter 6. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
  • Introduction
  • History of the discovery of TSH
  • Ontogeny of thyrotroph cells
  • TSH subunit genes
  • TSH biosynthesis
  • Regulation of TSH biosynthesis
  • TSH secretion
  • Regulation of TSH secretion
  • Other regulators of TSH biosynthesis and secretion
  • TSH ACTION
  • TSH measurement
  • Disorders of TSH production
  • Chapter 7. Gonadotrophin Hormones
  • Introduction
  • Development, embryology, and histology
  • Biochemical structure and molecular biology of LH and FSH
  • Ontogeny and physiology of LH and FSH secretion
  • Biologic functions of LH and FSH
  • Assay systems for measurement of gonadotrophins
  • Hypothalamic regulation of LH and FSH
  • Feedback regulation of LH and FSH secretion
  • Molecular biology of LH and FSH subunit genes
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Clinical disorders affecting the gonadotroph
  • Mutations in genes encoding LHβ- and FSHβ-subunits
  • Acquired hypogonadotrophic disorders
  • Hypergonadotrophic disorders: excessive or nonphysiologic secretion of gonadotrophins
  • Treatment of hypogonadotrophic disorders
  • Chapter 8. The Posterior Pituitary
  • Neurohypophysis: anatomy and electrophysiology
  • Vasopressin and oxytocin genes
  • Vasopressin chemistry, processing, and metabolism
  • Control of vasopressin secretion
  • Vasopressin receptors and antagonists
  • Cellular actions of vasopressin
  • Quantitating renal water excretion
  • Clinical characteristics of diabetes insipidus disorders
  • Investigation of polyuria
  • Radioimmunoassay of AVP, copeptin, and other laboratory determinations
  • Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone
  • Signs, symptoms, and treatment of hyponatremia
  • Section II. Hypothalamic—Pituitary Disorders
  • Chapter 9. The Hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamic physiology
  • Pathophysiology of hypothalamic syndromes
  • Clinical features of hypothalamic syndromes
  • Specific hypothalamic disorders
  • Chapter 10. Anterior Pituitary Failure
  • Introduction
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology, mortality, and morbidity
  • Structural causes of pituitary failure
  • Functional causes of pituitary failure
  • Clinical manifestations
  • Diagnostic testing
  • Treatment of hypopituitarism
  • Chapter 11. Pituitary-Immune Interface
  • Immune-regulated hypothalamic and pituitary function
  • Cytokines and pituitary hormonal regulation
  • Stress response in the neuroendocrine system
  • Novel pituitary-directed autoimmunity
  • Chapter 12. Pituitary Dysfunction in Systemic Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Systemic disorders directly affecting the pituitary gland
  • Nonpituitary tumoral diseases (see also Chapter 22, Nonpituitary Sellar Masses)
  • Genetic multiglandular tumoral and nontumoral syndromes (see also Chapter 21, Genetics of Pituitary Adenoma Syndromes)
  • Vascular diseases
  • Effects of systemic illness on pituitary function
  • Changes in pituitary morphology and function with aging
  • Conditions mimicking pituitary disease
  • Chapter 13. Drugs and Pituitary Function
  • Introduction
  • Antineoplastic therapy
  • Opioids
  • Drug-induced hyperprolactinemia
  • Drugs that cause SIADH
  • Miscellaneous drugs
  • Chapter 14. The Pituitary Gland in Pregnancy
  • The pituitary during pregnancy
  • Pituitary tumors and pregnancy
  • Nontumoral pituitary disturbances related to pregnancy
  • Conclusions
  • Section III. Pituitary Adenomas
  • Chapter 15. Acromegaly
  • Introduction
  • Pathogenesis
  • Genetic syndromes
  • Clinical features of acromegaly
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Chapter 16. Prolactinoma
  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Epidemiology and natural history
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Special situations
  • Chapter 17. Cushing's Disease
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Chronic pituitary ACTH and proopiomelanocortin peptide oversecretion
  • Adrenal pathology in Cushing's disease
  • ACTH-dependent spontaneous Cushing's syndromes
  • ACTH-independent spontaneous Cushing's syndrome
  • Iatrogenic Cushing's syndromes
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis of Cushing's disease
  • Long-term outcomes of Cushing's disease
  • Diagnostic approach
  • Imaging
  • Pitfalls in diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Pituitary surgery and radiation
  • Medical treatments
  • Adrenal surgery
  • Overall approach for treatment
  • Chapter 18. Nonfunctioning and Gonadotrophin-Secreting Adenomas
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Pathology
  • Clinical features
  • Assessment
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Medical therapy for nonfunctioning adenomas
  • Predictors of regrowth
  • Follow-up
  • Functioning gonadotroph adenomas: clinical considerations
  • Distinguishing a gonadotroph adenoma from primary hypogonadism
  • Chapter 19. Thyrotrophin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas
  • Introduction
  • Pathology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Criteria for cure and follow-up
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 20. Aggressive Pituitary Adenomas
  • Introduction
  • Clinical aspects: epidemiology and diagnosis
  • Predictive markers and potential factors implicated in aggressiveness
  • Current and emerging therapeutic approaches
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 21. Genetics of Pituitary Adenoma Syndromes
  • Introduction
  • Syndromic conditions associated with pituitary adenomas
  • Genetic forms of isolated pituitary adenomas
  • Genetic testing overview
  • Chapter 22. Nonpituitary Sellar Masses
  • Introduction
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Imaging diagnosis
  • Morphological diagnosis
  • Specific lesions
  • Conclusions
  • Section IV. Pituitary Procedures
  • Chapter 23. Pituitary Imaging
  • Introduction
  • Imaging techniques
  • Imaging of pituitary adenomas
  • Imaging of other sellar and parasellar masses and pathologies
  • Chapter 24. Pituitary Surgery
  • Introduction
  • Historical overview
  • Diagnostic evaluation
  • Surgical anatomy
  • Surgical techniques
  • Transcranial approach
  • Complications
  • Selecting the correct surgical approach
  • Further treatment
  • Approach to pituitary tumors based on specific type
  • Evolving technologies
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 25. Radiotherapy in the Management of Pituitary Adenomas
  • Background
  • Radiotherapy techniques
  • Nonfunctioning adenomas
  • Functioning adenomas
  • Future directions
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 790
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: May 20, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323998994
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323985338

About the Editor

Shlomo Melmed

Shlomo Melmed, MB, ChB, FRCP, MACP, is Executive VP and Dean of the Medical Faculty at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. He leads Cedars-Sinai’s research and education programs, recruiting nationally recognized faculty leadership, establishing new educational programs and maintaining the highest academic standards. Dr. Melmed holds the Helene A. and Philip E. Hixon Distinguished Chair in Investigative Medicine. An international authority on pituitary medicine, he has pioneered the discovery and application of novel treatments for endocrine tumors and has authored more than 350 peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Melmed has been a faculty leader at Cedars-Sinai for nearly 40 years and has been the health system’s chief academic officer since 1998. Dr. Melmed's laboratory consistently has received competitive grant awards from the National Institutes of Health since 1980, and he has trained over 80 physicians, scientists and graduate students who occupy leading positions in academic endocrinology worldwide. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Investigation and is also an Associate Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine, Dean of the Medical Faculty, Cedars Sinai Health System, USA

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