The Photosynthetic Apparatus: Molecular Biology and Operation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127150109, 9780323147231

The Photosynthetic Apparatus: Molecular Biology and Operation

1st Edition

Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants

Editors: Lawrence Bogorad
eBook ISBN: 9780323147231
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th July 1991
Page Count: 524
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The Photosynthetic Apparatus: Molecular Biology and Operation: Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, Volume 7B is a collection of papers that discuss plastids – organelles found in plants that set them apart from other organisms. The book is divided into two parts. Coverage of Part I includes concepts such as photosynthesis and the photosynthetic apparatus - light energy and photosynthetic electronic transport, photosynthetic phosphorylation, and fractionation of the photosynthetic apparatus; photosystem II – its protein components, genetic aspects, and structure and function; the cytochrome b6/f complex; and the structure and function of coupling factor components. Coverage of Part II includes the biochemistry and molecular biology of chlorophyll; genes and enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis; photoregulated development of chloroplasts; and the differentiation of amyloplasts and chromoplasts. The text is recommended for botanists, molecular biologists, and biochemists who are interested in the study of plant cells and photosynthesis.

Table of Contents



General Preface


Contents of Previous Volumes

Part I

1 An Introduction to Photosynthesis and the Photosynthetic Apparatus

I. Introduction

II. The Path of Carbon—Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction

III. Light Energy and Photosynthetic Electron Transport

IV. Chloroplast Isolation and Structure

V Biophysics and More Biochemistry

VI. Photosynthetic Phosphorylation

VII. Fractionation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

VIII. Photosynthetic Electron Transport is Vectorial

IX. Summary to the Mid-1970s

X. A Current View of the Photosynthetic Apparatus for Oxygenic Photosynthesis


2 Photosystem II

I. Introduction

II. PS II Protein Components

III. Genetic Aspects of PS II

IV. PS II Structure and Function

V Light-Harvesting Components

VI. Genetic Modification


3 Regulated Development of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Anoxygenic Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Composition and Organization of the Bacterial Photosynthetic Apparatus

III. Formation of an Electrochemical Gradient of Protons

IV Photosynthetic Genes

V Assembly Process of the Photosynthetic Apparatus and Development of the Membrane System


4 The Cytochrome b6/f Complex

I. Introduction

II. Topography of the Subunits in the Membrane Bilayer

III. Function of bblf Complex in Electron Transport and H+ Translocation


5 Photosystem I

I. Introduction

II. Electron Transfer in PS I

III. Composition and Structure

IV Genes Encoding PS I Subunits

V Biogenesis

VI. The LHC of PS I

VII. Evolution

VIII. Conclusion


6 Coupling Factor Components: Structure and Function

I. General Nature of CFoCF1

II. Evolution of CF1/CFo Subunits

III. Biochemical Context

IV Structure, Molecular Genetics, and Function of Individual Subunits

V Subunit Interactions: The Integrated Functions

VI. Summary


Part II

7 Cyanobacterial Phycobilisomes: Progress Toward Complete Structural and Functional Analysis via Molecular Genetics

I. Introduction

II. PBPs and PBsomes

III. PBsomes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

IV Organization and Transcription of Genes Encoding PBsome Components in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

V Organization and Transcription of Genes Encoding PBsome Components in Other Cyanobacteria

VI. Mutational Analyses of Genes Encoding Peripheral Rod Components of PBsomes of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

VII. Mutational Analyses of Genes Encoding Core Components of PBsomes of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

VIII. Effects of Nutrient Availability and Light Intensity on PBP Gene Expression in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002


8 Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Chlorophyll Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Formation of δ-Aminolevulinate

III. δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase (Porphobilinogen Synthase)

IV. Porphobilinogen Deaminase and Uroporphyrinogen III Synthase

V Urogen III Decarboxylase and Coprogen Oxidase

VI. Protogen Oxidase

VII. Magnesium Chelatase

VIII. S-Adenosylmethionine: Mg-Protoporphyrin O-Methylatransferase

IX. Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Monomethyl Ester Cyclase

X. Vinyl Reductase

XL Protochlorophyllide Reductase

XII. Formation of Chlorophyll a from Chlorophyllide a: Chlorophyll Synthetase

XIII. Chlorophyll b Synthesis

XIV Regulatory Aspects of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis


9 Genes and Enzymes for Carotenoid Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthetic Pathway and Its Enzymes

III. ABA Biosynthesis

IV. Structural Roles

V. Concluding Remarks


10 RuBisCO: Genes, Structure, Assembly, and Evolution

I. Introduction

II. RuBisCO Genes and Their Expression

III. Structure of RuBisCO

IV. Assembly of RuBisCO

V. Evolution of RuBisCO


11 Photoregulated Development of Chloroplasts

I. Introduction

II. Routes of Chloroplast Development

III. Gene Expression during Chloroplast Development

IV. Photoreceptors and Signal-Response Chain(s)

V. Chloroplast Differentiation in C4 Plants

VI. Prospects and Conclusions


12 Differentiation of Amyloplasts and Chromoplasts

I. Introduction

II. Characteristics of Amyloplasts and Chromoplasts

III. Expression of Genes for Nonphotosynthetic Plastid Formation

IV. Suppressed Expression of Genes for Photosynthesis

V. Concluding Remarks


13 Chromatic Adaptation by Cyanobacteria

I. Introduction

II. PBsome Structure, Composition, and Function

III. Physical Organization and Transcription of the Genes Involved in the Synthesis of PBsomes

IV. Regulation of the Synthesis of PBsome Components

V Photoreceptor(s) and Possible Regulatory Effectors

VI. Conclusions and Further Prospects


14 Possibilities for Intergenomic Integration: Regulatory Crosscurrents between the Plastid and Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Compartments

I. Introduction

II. Nuclear Control of Plastid Gene Expression

III. Plastid Regulation of Nuclear Gene Expression

IV. Evolution of Integrating Systems

V. Future Research


15 Protein-Coding Genes in Chloroplast DNA: Compilation of Nucleotide Sequences, Data Base Entries, and Rates of Molecular Evolution

I. Introduction

II. Genome Sequences and Gene Nomenclature

III. GenBank Entry Names and Electronic Mail Access to Sequence Data Bases

IV. Rates of Molecular Evolution




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© Academic Press 1991
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Lawrence Bogorad

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