The Pentose Phosphate Pathway - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127628608, 9780323160018

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

1st Edition

Authors: Terry Wood
eBook ISBN: 9780323160018
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1985
Page Count: 216
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Description

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway aims to explore the pentose phosphate cycle and the practical techniques applied in its investigation. The main focus of the book is the pentose phosphate cycle in animals as well as microorganisms, and does not discuss the one related to photosynthesis. The book covers the formulation of the pathway, its types, and its alternative formulations; the preparation, processes, and analysis of the pathway; and the enzymes involved. Also covered in the book are the intermediates in intact cells and tissues; distribution of enzymes among different tissues and species; the operation, regulation, and overall control of the pathway; and the clinical, nutritional, and metabolic aspects of the pathway. The text is recommended for biologists and biochemists who would like to understand further the pentose phosphate pathway and the processes related to it.

Table of Contents


Contents

Preface

List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction

Introduction

2 Formulation of the Pathway

Introduction

Experiments with Isotopes

The L-Type Pathway

Other Alternative Formulations of the Pathway

D-Erythrose 4-Phosphate as an Intermediate of the Pathway

The Transketolase-Transaldolase Coupled Reaction and the Existence of Enzyme Complexes

Conclusion

3 Preparation, Properties, and Analysis of the Intermediates of the Pathway

Introduction

General Analytical Methods

Preparation and General Chemistry

Individual Intermediates

4 Preparation, Properties, and Analysis of the Enzymes of the Pathway

Introduction

D-Ribose-5-Phosphate Ketol-Isomerase (EC 5.3.1.6)

D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase (EC 5.1.3.1)

Transaldolase (EC 2.2.1.2)

Transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1)

Other Enzymes

5 Intermediates in Intact Cells and Tissues

Introduction

Liver

Brain

Erythrocytes

Other Tissues

Ascites and HeLa Cells

Bacteria

Plants

Individual Intermediates

6 Distribution of the Enzymes among Different Tissues and Different Species

Introduction

General Surveys

Specific Tissues

Measurements on Other Species

Changes in Enzyme Levels during Development

Discussion

7 Operation and Regulation in Broken-Cell Preparations

Introduction

The Utilization of Different Substrates

8 Operation and Regulation in Intact Cells and Tissues

Introduction

Factors Stimulating the Oxidative Branch of the Pathway

The Effects of Changes in Physiological Factors on the Pathway

9 Overall Control of the Pathway

Introduction

Approach I: Rate-Limiting Enzymes

Approach II: Mass Action Ratios

Approach III: Cross-Over Plots

Approach IV: Enzymes under Hormonal and Allosteric Control

Approach V: Enzymes That Change in Response to Changes in the Environment

Control of the Oxidative Branch of the Pathway by an Activating Factor

Mathematical Models

Conclusion

10 Clinical and Nutritional Aspects

The Assay of Blood Transketolase

Normal Values for Blood Transketolase

The "TPP Effect"

Measurements of Other Enzymes

Clinical Studies of Various Pathological and Physiological States

Studies of Transketolase and Thiamine Deficiency in Other Species

The Mechanism of Activation of Transketolase by Thiamine

11 Glutathione Metabolism and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Text

12 Use of Radioisotopes in Elucidating the Nature of and Quantitating the Pentose Pathway

Introduction

The Nature of the Pathway

Quantitation

Conclusion

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
216
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323160018

About the Author

Terry Wood

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