The Pancreatic Beta Cell

The Pancreatic Beta Cell

1st Edition - February 20, 2014

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  • Editor: Gerald Litwack
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128004401
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001745

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Description

First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Series provides up-to-date information on vitamin and hormone research spanning data from molecular biology to the clinic. A volume can focus on a single molecule or on a disease that is related to vitamins or hormones.  A hormone is interpreted broadly so that related substances, such as transmitters, cytokines, growth factors and others can be reviewed. This volume focuses on the pancreatic beta cell.

Key Features

  • Expertise of the contributors
  • Coverage of a vast array of subjects
  • In depth current information at the molecular to the clinical levels
  • Three-dimensional structures in color
  • Elaborate signaling pathways

Readership

Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.

Table of Contents

  • Former Editors
    Contributors
    Preface
    Chapter One: Metabolic Regulation of Insulin Secretion
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

    3 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

    4 Amino Acid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

    5 Association of Nutrient Metabolism with Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction

    6 Conclusions

    Chapter Two: Proinsulin Entry and Transit Through the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Pancreatic Beta Cells
    Abstract

    1 Overview of Insulin Biosynthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    2 Proinsulin Entry into the ER

    3 Proinsulin Transit Through the ER

    4 Conclusion and Perspective

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Three: Metabolism–Secretion Coupling and Mitochondrial Calcium Activities in Clonal Pancreatic β-Cells
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Importance of Mitochondria to β-Cell Function

    3 Oxidative Metabolism of β-Cells

    4 Mitochondrial Ca2 + and Energy Metabolism

    5 Ca2 + Handling in β-Cells

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Four: Metabolic Syndrome and Ionic Channels in Pancreatic Beta Cells
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 A Rapid Fly on Metabolic Syndrome

    3 Physiology of Pancreatic Islets in Glucose Homeostasis

    4 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Ionic Channels

    5 Concluding Remarks

    Chapter Five: The Beta Cell Immunopeptidome
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Autoantigens in T1D

    3 Antigen Processing

    4 Identifying T Cell Epitopes in T1D

    5 Peptide-Based Intervention and the Role of Small Molecules

    6 Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Identification of PTMs

    7 Conclusions

    Chapter Six: Autophagy and Pancreatic β-Cells
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Autophagy

    3 Autophagy and Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis

    4 Adaptive Autophagy in Pancreatic β-Cell

    5 Autophagy and Diabetes

    6 Modulation of Autophagy as Therapeutic Strategy

    7 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Seven: The Somatostatin Receptor in Human Pancreatic β-Cells
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 SST in Pancreatic Islets

    3 Regulation of SST Secretion from Pancreatic δ-Cells

    4 Effects of Exogenous SST on Hormone Secretion from Pancreatic Islets

    5 Cellular Mechanisms Underlying SST Inhibition of Pancreatic Hormone Secretion

    6 SSTRs in Pancreatic Islet Cells

    7 Physiological Role of SST Signaling in Pancreatic Islets

    8 SST and δ-Cells in Diabetes Mellitus

    9 Clinical Uses of SSTR Agonists and Pancreatic Islets

    10 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Eight: Modulation of the Pancreatic Islet-Stress Axis as a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target in Diabetes Mellitus
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Factors and Conditions Predisposing to the Development of Diabetes Mellitus

    3 Current Options and Concepts for the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    4 Implication of the Pancreatic Islet-Stress Axis in Diabetes Mellitus: A Potential Target for Prevention and Therapy

    5 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Nine: Regenerative Medicine for Diabetes: Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β-Cells In Vitro and Their Proposed Journey to Clinical Translation
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Diabetes and Its History

    3 Differentiation Protocols for Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to β-Cells

    4 hESC/hPSC-Derived Beta Islets-Based Cell Therapy for Diabetes

    5 Conclusion

    Chapter Ten: The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and β-Cell Function
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR)

    3 Effects of CaSR on β-Cell Adhesion, Coupling, and Communication

    4 Effects of the CaSR on Insulin Secretion

    5 Effects of the CaSR on β-Cell Proliferation

    6 The CaSR and Diabetes Mellitus

    7 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter Eleven: Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 and Survival of Beta Cells Undergoing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 ER Stress in the Balance Between Cell Death and Survival

    3 ER Stress and Lipotoxicity in Beta Cell Failure

    4 Role of cIAP1 in Beta Cell Survival Under ER Stress

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Twelve: β-Cell Responses to Nitric Oxide
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Cytokine-Induced Damage

    3 Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide-Induced β-Cell Death: Apoptosis or Necrosis?

    4 Recovery from Nitric Oxide-Induced Damage

    5 Conclusions

    Chapter Thirteen: Activated Protein C and Its Potential Applications in Prevention of Islet β-Cell Damage and Diabetes
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Protein C and Activated Protein C

    3 Pancreas and Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Function

    4 APC and β-Cell Preservation in Diabetes

    5 Conclusions

    Chapter Fourteen: Zinc and Its Transporters, Pancreatic β-Cells, and Insulin Metabolism
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Zinc and Its Transporters in Insulin Synthesis and Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells

    3 Zinc Transporters and their Physiological Roles and Contributions to Insulin Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis: Studies in Mouse Knockout Models of Zinc Transporters

    4 Zinc and Its Transporters in the Development of Diabetes in Humans

    5 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Fifteen: The NOTCH Pathway in β-Cell Growth and Differentiation
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Role of the NOTCH Pathway in Pancreas Development

    3 Evidence for Reactivation of the NOTCH Pathway in Adult Pancreatic Cells

    4 Effect of the NOTCH Pathway on Proliferation, Dedifferentiation, and Redifferentiation of Cultured Human β-Cell-Derived Cells

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Sixteen: Roles of HNF1α and HNF4α in Pancreatic β-Cells: Lessons from a Monogenic Form of Diabetes (MODY)
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Clinical Features of HNF1α Diabetes (MODY3)

    3 Functional Regulation of β-Cells by HNF1α

    4 HNF1α Regulates β-Cell Growth

    5 HNF4α Gene and Diabetes

    6 Functional Role of HNF4α in β-Cells

    7 Anks4b Is a Novel Target of HNF4α in β-Cells

    8 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter Seventeen: Role of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes in Pancreatic β-Cell Mass Regulation
    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Pancreatic β-Cell Mass

    3 Structure of mTORC1/mTORC2 Complexes

    4 Insulin and mTORC2 Signaling in Pancreatic β-Cells

    5 Integration of Insulin, Energy, and Stress Signals by mTORC1

    6 Conclusions and Future Directions

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: February 20, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128004401
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001745

About the Serial Editor

Gerald Litwack

Gerald Litwack
Dr. Gerald Litwack obtained M.S. and PhD degrees from the University of Wisconsin Department of Biochemistry and remained there for a brief time as a Lecturer on Enzymes. Then he entered the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne as a Fellow of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. He next moved to Rutgers University as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and later as Associate Professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. After four years he moved to the Temple University School of Medicine as Professor of Biochemistry and Deputy Director of the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, soon after, becoming the Laura H. Carnell Professor. Subsequently he was appointed chair of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at the Jefferson Medical College as well as Vice Dean for Research and Deputy Director of the Jefferson Cancer Institute and Director of the Institute for Apoptosis. Following the move of his family, he became a Visiting Scholar at the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and then became the Founding Chair of the Department of Basic Sciences at the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, becoming Professor of Molecular and Cellular Medicine and Associate Director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the Texas A&M Health Science Center as his final position. During his career he was a visiting scientist at the University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, London and the Wistar Institute. He was appointed Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. He has published more than 300 scientific papers, authored three textbooks and edited more than sixty-five books. Currently he lives with his family and continues his authorship and editorial work in Los Angeles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, USA; Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA

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