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The Pancreatic Beta Cell - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128001745, 9780128004401

The Pancreatic Beta Cell, Volume 95

1st Edition

Serial Editor: Gerald Litwack
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128001745
eBook ISBN: 9780128004401
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th February 2014
Page Count: 520
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Table of Contents

Former Editors
Chapter One: Metabolic Regulation of Insulin Secretion

1 Introduction

2 Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

3 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

4 Amino Acid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

5 Association of Nutrient Metabolism with Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction

6 Conclusions

Chapter Two: Proinsulin Entry and Transit Through the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Pancreatic Beta Cells

1 Overview of Insulin Biosynthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

2 Proinsulin Entry into the ER

3 Proinsulin Transit Through the ER

4 Conclusion and Perspective


Chapter Three: Metabolism–Secretion Coupling and Mitochondrial Calcium Activities in Clonal Pancreatic β-Cells

1 Introduction

2 The Importance of Mitochondria to β-Cell Function

3 Oxidative Metabolism of β-Cells

4 Mitochondrial Ca2 + and Energy Metabolism

5 Ca2 + Handling in β-Cells


Chapter Four: Metabolic Syndrome and Ionic Channels in Pancreatic Beta Cells

1 Introduction

2 A Rapid Fly on Metabolic Syndrome

3 Physiology of Pancreatic Islets in Glucose Homeostasis

4 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Ionic Channels

5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter Five: The Beta Cell Immunopeptidome

1 Introduction

2 Autoantigens in T1D

3 Antigen Processing

4 Identifying T Cell Epitopes in T1D

5 Peptide-Based Intervention and the Role of Small Molecules

6 Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Identification of PTMs

7 Conclusions

Chapter Six: Autophagy and Pancreatic β-Cells

1 Introduction

2 Autophagy

3 Autophagy and Pancreatic β-Cell Homeostasis

4 Adaptive Autophagy in Pancreatic β-Cell

5 Autophagy and Diabetes

6 Modulation of Autophagy as Therapeutic Strategy

7 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Seven: The Somatostatin Receptor in Human Pancreatic β-Cells

1 Introduction

2 SST in Pancreatic Islets

3 Regulation of SST Secretion from Pancreatic δ-Cells

4 Effects of Exogenous SST on Hormone Secretion from Pancreatic Islets

5 Cellular Mechanisms Underlying SST Inhibition of Pancreatic Hormone Secretion

6 SSTRs in Pancreatic Islet Cells

7 Physiological Role of SST Signaling in Pancreatic Islets

8 SST and δ-Cells in Diabetes Mellitus

9 Clinical Uses of SSTR Agonists and Pancreatic Islets

10 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Eight: Modulation of the Pancreatic Islet-Stress Axis as a Novel Potential Therapeutic Target in Diabetes Mellitus

1 Introduction

2 Factors and Conditions Predisposing to the Development of Diabetes Mellitus

3 Current Options and Concepts for the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

4 Implication of the Pancreatic Islet-Stress Axis in Diabetes Mellitus: A Potential Target for Prevention and Therapy

5 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Nine: Regenerative Medicine for Diabetes: Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β-Cells In Vitro and Their Proposed Journey to Clinical Translation

1 Introduction

2 Diabetes and Its History

3 Differentiation Protocols for Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to β-Cells

4 hESC/hPSC-Derived Beta Islets-Based Cell Therapy for Diabetes

5 Conclusion

Chapter Ten: The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and β-Cell Function

1 Introduction

2 The Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR)

3 Effects of CaSR on β-Cell Adhesion, Coupling, and Communication

4 Effects of the CaSR on Insulin Secretion

5 Effects of the CaSR on β-Cell Proliferation

6 The CaSR and Diabetes Mellitus

7 Conclusion


Chapter Eleven: Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein-1 and Survival of Beta Cells Undergoing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

1 Introduction

2 ER Stress in the Balance Between Cell Death and Survival

3 ER Stress and Lipotoxicity in Beta Cell Failure

4 Role of cIAP1 in Beta Cell Survival Under ER Stress


Chapter Twelve: β-Cell Responses to Nitric Oxide

1 Introduction

2 Cytokine-Induced Damage

3 Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide-Induced β-Cell Death: Apoptosis or Necrosis?

4 Recovery from Nitric Oxide-Induced Damage

5 Conclusions

Chapter Thirteen: Activated Protein C and Its Potential Applications in Prevention of Islet β-Cell Damage and Diabetes

1 Introduction

2 Protein C and Activated Protein C

3 Pancreas and Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Function

4 APC and β-Cell Preservation in Diabetes

5 Conclusions

Chapter Fourteen: Zinc and Its Transporters, Pancreatic β-Cells, and Insulin Metabolism

1 Introduction

2 Zinc and Its Transporters in Insulin Synthesis and Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells

3 Zinc Transporters and their Physiological Roles and Contributions to Insulin Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis: Studies in Mouse Knockout Models of Zinc Transporters

4 Zinc and Its Transporters in the Development of Diabetes in Humans

5 Conclusions and Future Directions


Chapter Fifteen: The NOTCH Pathway in β-Cell Growth and Differentiation

1 Introduction

2 Role of the NOTCH Pathway in Pancreas Development

3 Evidence for Reactivation of the NOTCH Pathway in Adult Pancreatic Cells

4 Effect of the NOTCH Pathway on Proliferation, Dedifferentiation, and Redifferentiation of Cultured Human β-Cell-Derived Cells


Chapter Sixteen: Roles of HNF1α and HNF4α in Pancreatic β-Cells: Lessons from a Monogenic Form of Diabetes (MODY)

1 Introduction

2 Clinical Features of HNF1α Diabetes (MODY3)

3 Functional Regulation of β-Cells by HNF1α

4 HNF1α Regulates β-Cell Growth

5 HNF4α Gene and Diabetes

6 Functional Role of HNF4α in β-Cells

7 Anks4b Is a Novel Target of HNF4α in β-Cells

8 Concluding Remarks


Chapter Seventeen: Role of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes in Pancreatic β-Cell Mass Regulation

1 Introduction

2 Pancreatic β-Cell Mass

3 Structure of mTORC1/mTORC2 Complexes

4 Insulin and mTORC2 Signaling in Pancreatic β-Cells

5 Integration of Insulin, Energy, and Stress Signals by mTORC1

6 Conclusions and Future Directions



First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press.

The Series provides up-to-date information on vitamin and hormone research spanning data from molecular biology to the clinic. A volume can focus on a single molecule or on a disease that is related to vitamins or hormones.  A hormone is interpreted broadly so that related substances, such as transmitters, cytokines, growth factors and others can be reviewed.

This volume focuses on the pancreatic beta cell.

Key Features

  • Expertise of the contributors
  • Coverage of a vast array of subjects
  • In depth current information at the molecular to the clinical levels
  • Three-dimensional structures in color
  • Elaborate signaling pathways


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2014
28th February 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Serial Editor

Gerald Litwack

Gerald Litwack

Dr. Gerald Litwack obtained M.S. and PhD degrees from the University of Wisconsin Department of Biochemistry and remained there for a brief time as a Lecturer on Enzymes. Then he entered the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne as a Fellow of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. He next moved to Rutgers University as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and later as Associate Professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. After four years he moved to the Temple University School of Medicine as Professor of Biochemistry and Deputy Director of the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, soon after, becoming the Laura H. Carnell Professor. Subsequently he was appointed chair of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at the Jefferson Medical College as well as Vice Dean for Research and Deputy Director of the Jefferson Cancer Institute and Director of the Institute for Apoptosis. Following the move of his family, he became a Visiting Scholar at the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and then became the Founding Chair of the Department of Basic Sciences at the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, becoming Professor of Molecular and Cellular Medicine and Associate Director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the Texas A&M Health Science Center as his final position. During his career he was a visiting scientist at the University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, London and the Wistar Institute. He was appointed Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. He has published more than 300 scientific papers, authored three textbooks and edited more than sixty-five books. Currently he lives with his family and continues his authorship and editorial work in Los Angeles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA