The Orthopoxviruses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122530456, 9780323150224

The Orthopoxviruses

1st Edition

Authors: Frank Fenner
eBook ISBN: 9780323150224
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st October 1988
Page Count: 442
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The Orthopoxviruses presents knowledge and comprehensive and integrated picture of orthopoxviruses. The book looks into the molecular biology of this genusof viruses, particularly, the structure and chemical composition of the virion, replication, morphogenesis, pathogenesis, pathology, and immunology of this virus’ infections. It also elucidates the global spread, control, and eradication of smallpox. Additionally, the book describes a potentially important use of vaccinia virus, namely, its use as a vector for genes from other viruses, bacteria, or protozoa that specify antigens important in stimulating the production of a protective immune response. Such comprehensive account of all aspects of the biology of all known species of orthopoxviruses will be valuable to molecular biologists, virologists, immunologists, pathologists, and researchers in the veterinary sciences.

Table of Contents


1. Historical Introduction and Overview

Variolation and Vaccination

Classification of the Orthopoxviruses

Species within the Genus Orthopoxvirus

Species of Orthopoxvirus: An Overview

Physical Properties of the Orthopoxvirus Virion

Chemical Composition of the Orthopoxvirus Virion

The Use of Laboratory Animals for Poxvirus Research

Growth of Orthopoxviruses in Cultured Cells

Assay of Viral Infectivity

The Replication Cycle of Vaccinia Virus

Genetic Studies of Orthopoxviruses

Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Immunology

Experimental Epidemiology

The Global Eradication of Smallpox

Vaccinia Virus as a Vector for Vaccine Antigens

Summary of Historical Events in Orthopoxvirus Research

2. Structure and Chemical Composition of the Virion

Structure of the Virion

Chemical Composition of Virions of Vaccinia Virus

Structure of the Genome

Polypeptides of Orthopoxviruses

Lipids of Virions of Vaccinia Virus

3. Replication and Morphogenesis of Vaccinia Virus

The Replication Cycle

Initiation of Infection

Early Transcription

Late Transcription

Regulation of Early and Late Gene Expression

Replication of the Genome

Role of the Host Cell Nucleus in the Replication of Poxviruses


4. The Pathogenesis, Pathology, and Immunology of Orthopoxvirus Infections

Portals of Entry in Orthopoxvirus Infections

The Spread of Infection through the Body

The Consequences of Systemic Infection

Pathological Changes in Orthopoxvirus Infections

Viral Persistence and Reactivation

The Immune Response in Orthopoxvirus Infections

Methods of Immunization against Orthopoxvirus Infections

Nonspecific Mechanisms Involved in Host Defense

5. Vaccinia Virus: The Tool for Smallpox Eradication

Vaccinia Virus as a Separate Species

History of Smallpox Vaccine

Variants of Vaccinia Virus

Sources of Vaccinia Virus Strains Used for Smallpox Vaccine

The Origin of Vaccinia Virus

Vaccinia Virus as a Vector for Other Antigens

6. Cowpox Virus

Properties of Cowpox Virus

Naturally Occurring Infections with Cowpox Virus

7. Variola Virus

Variola Virus in Its Human Host

The Properties of Variola Virus

Comparison of Variola Virus with Other Orthopoxviruses

Differences between Strains of Variola Virus

Unusual Strains of Variola Virus

Use of Individual Markers as Epidemiological Tracers

Variola-like Viruses from Animals—the "Whitepox" Viruses

Laboratory Aids to the Diagnosis of Smallpox

8. Monkey pox Virus

Monkeypox in Captive Primates

The Properties of Monkeypox Virus

Human Monkeypox

The Ecology of Monkeypox Virus


9. Ectromelia Virus

Properties of Ectromelia Virus

Mousepox in Laboratory Mice

Laboratory Diagnosis

Prophylaxis and Control

10. Other Orthopoxviruses

Camelpox Virus

Raccoon Poxvirus

Tatera Poxvirus

Uasin Gishu Disease Virus

Vole Poxvirus

11. The Global Spread, Control, and Eradication of Smallpox

Clinical Features of Smallpox

Epidemiology of Smallpox

Smallpox in the Ancient World up to 1000 AD

The Spread of Smallpox by European Colonists

Methods of Control

The Spread of Variola Minor

Control and Eradication of Smallpox

12. Vaccinia Virus as a Vector for Vaccine Antigens

Insertion of Foreign Genes into Vaccinia Virus DNA

Analysis of Viral Gene Function

Vaccination of Experimental Animals

Potential for Human Vaccines

Potential for Veterinary Vaccines




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© Academic Press 1989
Academic Press
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About the Author

Frank Fenner

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