The Orthopoxviruses

The Orthopoxviruses

1st Edition - October 1, 1988

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  • Author: Frank Fenner
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150224

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The Orthopoxviruses presents knowledge and comprehensive and integrated picture of orthopoxviruses. The book looks into the molecular biology of this genusof viruses, particularly, the structure and chemical composition of the virion, replication, morphogenesis, pathogenesis, pathology, and immunology of this virus’ infections. It also elucidates the global spread, control, and eradication of smallpox. Additionally, the book describes a potentially important use of vaccinia virus, namely, its use as a vector for genes from other viruses, bacteria, or protozoa that specify antigens important in stimulating the production of a protective immune response. Such comprehensive account of all aspects of the biology of all known species of orthopoxviruses will be valuable to molecular biologists, virologists, immunologists, pathologists, and researchers in the veterinary sciences.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Historical Introduction and Overview

    Variolation and Vaccination

    Classification of the Orthopoxviruses

    Species within the Genus Orthopoxvirus

    Species of Orthopoxvirus: An Overview

    Physical Properties of the Orthopoxvirus Virion

    Chemical Composition of the Orthopoxvirus Virion

    The Use of Laboratory Animals for Poxvirus Research

    Growth of Orthopoxviruses in Cultured Cells

    Assay of Viral Infectivity

    The Replication Cycle of Vaccinia Virus

    Genetic Studies of Orthopoxviruses

    Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Immunology

    Experimental Epidemiology

    The Global Eradication of Smallpox

    Vaccinia Virus as a Vector for Vaccine Antigens

    Summary of Historical Events in Orthopoxvirus Research

    2. Structure and Chemical Composition of the Virion

    Structure of the Virion

    Chemical Composition of Virions of Vaccinia Virus

    Structure of the Genome

    Polypeptides of Orthopoxviruses

    Lipids of Virions of Vaccinia Virus

    3. Replication and Morphogenesis of Vaccinia Virus

    The Replication Cycle

    Initiation of Infection

    Early Transcription

    Late Transcription

    Regulation of Early and Late Gene Expression

    Replication of the Genome

    Role of the Host Cell Nucleus in the Replication of Poxviruses


    4. The Pathogenesis, Pathology, and Immunology of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Portals of Entry in Orthopoxvirus Infections

    The Spread of Infection through the Body

    The Consequences of Systemic Infection

    Pathological Changes in Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Viral Persistence and Reactivation

    The Immune Response in Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Methods of Immunization against Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Nonspecific Mechanisms Involved in Host Defense

    5. Vaccinia Virus: The Tool for Smallpox Eradication

    Vaccinia Virus as a Separate Species

    History of Smallpox Vaccine

    Variants of Vaccinia Virus

    Sources of Vaccinia Virus Strains Used for Smallpox Vaccine

    The Origin of Vaccinia Virus

    Vaccinia Virus as a Vector for Other Antigens

    6. Cowpox Virus

    Properties of Cowpox Virus

    Naturally Occurring Infections with Cowpox Virus

    7. Variola Virus

    Variola Virus in Its Human Host

    The Properties of Variola Virus

    Comparison of Variola Virus with Other Orthopoxviruses

    Differences between Strains of Variola Virus

    Unusual Strains of Variola Virus

    Use of Individual Markers as Epidemiological Tracers

    Variola-like Viruses from Animals—the "Whitepox" Viruses

    Laboratory Aids to the Diagnosis of Smallpox

    8. Monkey pox Virus

    Monkeypox in Captive Primates

    The Properties of Monkeypox Virus

    Human Monkeypox

    The Ecology of Monkeypox Virus


    9. Ectromelia Virus

    Properties of Ectromelia Virus

    Mousepox in Laboratory Mice

    Laboratory Diagnosis

    Prophylaxis and Control

    10. Other Orthopoxviruses

    Camelpox Virus

    Raccoon Poxvirus

    Tatera Poxvirus

    Uasin Gishu Disease Virus

    Vole Poxvirus

    11. The Global Spread, Control, and Eradication of Smallpox

    Clinical Features of Smallpox

    Epidemiology of Smallpox

    Smallpox in the Ancient World up to 1000 AD

    The Spread of Smallpox by European Colonists

    Methods of Control

    The Spread of Variola Minor

    Control and Eradication of Smallpox

    12. Vaccinia Virus as a Vector for Vaccine Antigens

    Insertion of Foreign Genes into Vaccinia Virus DNA

    Analysis of Viral Gene Function

    Vaccination of Experimental Animals

    Potential for Human Vaccines

    Potential for Veterinary Vaccines



Product details

  • No. of pages: 442
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1989
  • Published: October 1, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150224

About the Author

Frank Fenner

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