The Origin of Cosmic Rays - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080135267, 9781483181318

The Origin of Cosmic Rays

1st Edition

Authors: V. L. Ginzburg S. I. Syrovatskii
eBook ISBN: 9781483181318
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 444
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Description

The Origin of Cosmic Rays examines the astrophysical phenomena that cause cosmic rays. The title details the concerns in the study of tracing the sources of cosmic rays. The text presents the primary cosmic rays on earth, and then proceeds to tackling ling the cosmic magnetic bremsstrahlung radio emission and cosmic rays in the universe. Next, the selection deals with the motion of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium and the origin of cosmic rays. The text also talks about the quantitative galactic theory of the origin of cosmic rays. The book will be of great use to astronomers, astrophysicists, and scientists who studies phenomena that involves celestial bodies.

Table of Contents


Preface to English Edition

Foreword

Symbols

Introduction

Chapter I. Primary Cosmic Rays on the Earth

1. Composition of the Nuclear Components of Cosmic Rays

Proton and Nucleus Intensity

Protons

Helium Nuclei

The M-group of Nuclei

The L-group of Nuclei

The H and VH-groups of Nuclei

Distribution of Elements in Cosmic Rays and in the Universe

The Content of Individual Nuclei in Groups L, M and H

Anti-protons and Anti-nuclei

2. Electrons, Gamma Rays and Neutrinos

Intensity of the Electron-positron Component on Earth

Gamma Rays in the Primary Radiation

Absorption of Gamma Rays

The Formation and Absorption of Neutrinos

The Cosmic Neutrino Flux

3. The Energy Spectrum and Degree of Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays

The Spectrum in the 2 x 109 ≤ E ≤ 1015 eV/nucleon Energy Range

The Spectrum in the Low-energy Range. High-latitude Spectrum "Cut-off"

The Spectrum in the Very High Energy Range

Directional Distribution of Cosmic Rays (Degree of Anisotropy)

Chapter II. Cosmic Magnetic Bremsstrahlung (Synchrotron) Radio Emission and Cosmic Rays in the Universe

4. Magnetic Bremsstrahlung (Synchrotron Emission)

Emission of an Individual Electron

Stokes Parameters

Emission of a System of Particles

Intensity and Polarization of Emission in the Case of a Mono-energetic and a Power Electron Spectrum

Influence of the Medium

5. Some Radio Astronomy Data

Non-thermal Radio Emission of the Galaxy

Magnetic Fields in the Galaxy

Discrete Galactic Sources—Supernova Shells

Extra-galactic Sources. Radio Galaxies

6. Cosmic Rays in the Universe

Electron Component of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy

Radio Emission of Galactic Disk and Halo

Cosmic Rays and Magnetic Fields in Discrete Sources

Values of Wer and H for Individual Sources

Chapter III. Motion of Cosmic Rays in the Interstellar Medium

7. Energy Losses and Fragmentation of the Nuclear Component

Distribution of Matter in the Galaxy and Metagalaxy

Absorption of Cosmic Rays by Stars and Interstellar Dust

Ionization Losses

Braking of Slow Ions

Magnetic Bremsstrahlung Losses for Protons and Nuclei

Photonuclear Reactions

Nuclear Interactions

Fragmentation Probabilities

Secondary Electrons Appearing in Nuclear Interactions

8. Energy Losses for Electrons

Ionization and Radiation Losses

"Compton" Energy Losses

Magnetic Bremsstrahlung Losses

The Part Played by Different Types of Losses for Electrons Moving in the Galaxy and Metagalaxy

9. Acceleration Mechanisms and Cosmic Ray Injection

Basic Types of Acceleration Mechanisms

Regular Electromagnetic Acceleration

Statistical Acceleration Mechanisms

The Injection Problem

10. The Nature of the Motion of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy

Motion of an Individual Particle in a Given Magnetic Field

Diffusion in a Given Magnetic Field (Magnetic Cloud Model)

Nature of the Motion of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy. The Diffusion Approximation

Cosmic Rays Leaving the Galaxy

Chapter IV. The Origin of Cosmic Rays

11. Cosmic Ray Sources in the Galaxy and the Galactic Theory of the Origin of Cosmic Rays

Cosmic Ray Distribution in the Galaxy (Selection of a Model)

Energy Balance and Requirements for Sources

Various Non-exploding Stars as Cosmic Ray Sources

Supernovae—The Basic Sources of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy

The Possible Role of Novae

Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Interstellar Space

The Possible Part Played by Explosions of the Galactic Core

The Part Played by Cosmic Rays Formed at an Early Stage in the Evolution of the Galaxy

Cosmic Rays of Solar Origin

The Origin of the Electron Component of Cosmic Rays

General Remarks on the Galactic Theory

12. "Expanded" Galactic Theory of the Origin of Cosmic Rays

Local Group of Galaxies

The "Expanded" Galactic Model

General Requirements for the "Expanded" Model

Conclusions

13. Cosmic Rays of Meta-galactic Origin

Some Data from the Field of Extragalactic Astronomy

Radio Galaxies

Cosmological Models

Meta-galactic Cosmic Rays

Diffusion, Energy Losses and Cosmic Ray Acceleration in the Intergalactic Medium

Estimates of the Cosmic Ray Energy Density in the Meta-galaxy

The Electron Component

The Nature of Radio Galaxies

General Discussion and Conclusions

Chapter V. Quantitative Galactic Theory of the Origin of Cosmic Rays

14. Equations Describing the Behavior of Cosmic Rays in the Interstellar Medium

General Transfer Equations for Cosmic Rays

Transfer (Fragmentation) Equations for Nuclei

Regular Motion

General Solution of the Fragmentation Equations for Nuclei

General Solution of the Transfer Equation for Particles of One Kind

15. Chemical Composition of Cosmic Rays and its Transformation in the Interstellar Medium

Models of Cosmic Ray Propagation in the Galaxy

Cosmic Ray Composition in the Sources

Discussion and Conclusions

16. Energy Spectrum and Spatial Distribution (Anisotropy) of Cosmic Rays

Energy Spectrum Formation in the Process of Particle Acceleration

The Part Played by Fluctuating Accelerations

The Cosmic Ray Spectrum When the Energies Wer, WH and Wturb in the Sources are Equal

Cosmic Ray Anisotropy

Energy Spectrum, Chemical Composition and Anisotropy in the Very High Energy Region

17. The Secondary Electron Component of Cosmic Rays and the General Galactic Radio Emission Spectrum

Secondary Electron Generation Spectrum

Secondary Electron Distribution in the Galaxy and the Magnetic Bremsstrahlung Intensity

Result of Calculations and Discussion of Problem of Origin of Relativistic Electrons in the Galaxy

18. Gamma Rays and Magnetic Bremsstrahlung X-radiation Due to Pion Decay

Gamma Ray Intensity

Intensity of Secondary Electron Magnetic Bremsstrahlung X-radiation

Calculation of the Function N(L) for a Model of the Galaxy

Kinematics of π → µ → e Decay

19. Gamma and X-radiation Connected with Galactic and Meta-galactic Cosmic Rays

Initial Data

Galactic Gamma Radiation

Meta-galactic Emission

High-energy Electrons and Magnetic Bremsstrahlung X-radiation

Effective Cross Section for "Inverse" Compton Scattering

Conclusion

Appendix 1. Some Constants and Units of Measurement

Appendix 2. Astrophysical Quantities

Appendix 3. Values of the Functions f(x) = x⌠x∞K5/3(η)dη and Fp(x)=xK2/3(x)

References

Subject Index

Index of Celestial Objects


Details

No. of pages:
444
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483181318

About the Author

V. L. Ginzburg

S. I. Syrovatskii