The Origin Nature and Evolution of Protoplasmic Individuals and Their Associations - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080279909, 9781483150246

The Origin Nature and Evolution of Protoplasmic Individuals and Their Associations

1st Edition

Protoplasmic Action and Experience

Authors: Faustino Cordon
eBook ISBN: 9781483150246
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 468
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The Origin, Nature and Evolution of Protoplasmic Individuals and their Associations explores living beings of all levels of complexity in relation to each other and to the various ambient sources that they use to survive: protoplasmic individuals and their associations, cells and their associations, animals, and man. The book considers the concepts of evolution and of living beings; the main stages in biological evolution; the organisms' individuality, nature, way of formation, phylogenetic, and ontogenetic origin; essential property of the organisms of living beings; and creature modeling. The text also discusses the phylogenesis, ontogenesis, and the nature of the soma; the spatial and temporal environment connecting biological and geological evolution; and concepts of feeding and nutrition. Three separate sections describe phylogenetic origin of the first protoplasmic individuals; the protoplasmic individual as defined by its action and experience; and evolution in protoplasmic level.

Table of Contents

General Preface


Biological concepts necessary to an evolutive consideration of living beings Prologue: The question of living being

Why the study of human alimentation requires integrated consideration from an evolutionist standpoint

The difficulties of formulating the problem of feeding by an integrated and evolutionist method

General lines of the composition of this evolutionist study of the living being

Chapter 1. Evolution

1.1. The concept of evolution

1.2. The concept of biological evolution

1.3. The living being understood in terms of biological evolution

1.4. The fundamental stages of biological evolution

1.5. The laws common to the basic stages of biological evolution

Notes to Chapter 1

Chapter 2. The Organism

2.1. Aspects of the organism as a unity in counter relation to the totality constituted by biological evolution

2.2. The question of the energy nature of the organism in a living being

2.3. Relation between the energy of any organism and the energy of the subordinate organisms from which that organism results

2.4. The evolutionary process to be undergone by living beings on any level, to prepare their organism to originate organisms on the next higher level

2.5. The qualitative inflexion in the process studied in the previous section, from which results the new organism

Notes to Chapter 2

Chapter 3. Experience

3.1. Objective and subjective knowledge of experience and an approach to the scientific interpretation of this knowledge

3.2. Facts of the origin and nature of the organism important in the understanding of experience

3.3. The elementary mechanism of experience explained as the interaction between an organism and its subordinated organisms

3.4. Experience, as the process of interactions between organism and soma, through the mediation of the subordinated organisms

3.5. Experience as an increase, via the soma, of the interactions between the organism and the joint process of biological evolution

Notes to Chapter 3

Chapter 4. The Medium

4.1. The overall increase in experience, during biological evolution, is an observable fact

4.2. Experience as the agent of natural selection, and natural selection as the mechanism through which experience evolves

4.3. The concepts of the medium and ambience of a living being

4.4. Basic function of food in the joint evolution of a living being and its medium

Notes to Chapter 4

Chapter 5. The Soma

5.1. Study of the soma from the starting point of the medium of the living being

5.2. The process from which a soma emerges (embryonic period)

5.3. The soma's development process, after the originating stage (foetal period)

5.4. Nature of the soma and somatic action

5.5. The soma in relation to the medium (the nature of stimuli)

Notes to Chapter 5

Chapter 6. The Biosphere

6.1. Each level of living beings initiates a new kind of relation with the ambience, which is added to the pre-existing relations

6.2. Influences on the biosphere from heterotrophous and autotrophous beings of each biological stage

6.3. Sequence in establishing the various relations of a given ambient level with biological evolution, and sequence of incorporation of various ambient

levels into biological levels

Notes to Chapter 6

Chapter 7. Feeding and Nutrition

7.1. Reasons for the special importance of feeding in biological theory

7.2. Concepts of feeding and nutrition, and general laws on these two complementary processes, applicable to all living beings

7.3. Some general remarks on the evolution of the feeding and nutrition processes

7.4. The fundamental categories of living beings established by the gradual succession of trophisms in the course of biological evolution

7.5. Main themes in the feeding and nutrition study of each fundamental category of living being

Notes to Chapter 7


Part One. The Origin, Nature and Evolution of Protoplasmic Individuals and their Associations (Protoplasmic Action and Experience)

Section One: Phylogenetic Origin of the First Protoplasmic Individuals

Chapter 1. The Protoplasm as Interpreted Through its Process of Origin

1.1. The problem of alimentation and nutrition in the primeval protoplasm

1.2. The original primary matter which evolved into primeval protoplasm

1.3. Result of the first stage of biological evolution. A likely description of the protoplasm

Notes to Chapter 1

Chapter 2. The Nature of the Process in the First Stage of Biological Evolution

2.1. The period of the slow evolution of molecules, shaping them into "premetabolites" (first stage of biological evolution)

2.2. Sudden emergence of the first protoplasmic individual from the evolutionary culmination of the first stage of biological evolution

Notes to Chapter 2

Section Two: The Protoplasmic Individual as Defined by its Action and Experience

Chapter 3. Protoplasmic Action and Experience

3.1. Outline of the study of protoplasmic alimentation and nutrition in the light of the primeval protoplasm's originating process

3.2. The concept of action in relation to the concepts of experience and work

3.3. The protoplasm's characteristic mode of action

3.4. The portion of chemical energy released by protoplasmic work which is lost as heat

3.5. The protoplasm's work

3.6. How the protoplasm replaces the energy it uses in action

3.7. The protoplasm's experience and medium in relation to its action

Notes to Chapter 3

Chapter 4. Protoplasm, Which First Produces all Biological Energy

4.1. Preliminaries

4.2. Relation between protoplasmic, cell and animal modes of action

4.3. General conclusion

Notes to Chapter 4

Section Three: Evolution in Protoplasmic Level

Chapter 5. General View of The Evolutionary Process of The Protoplasm, in Particular the Heterotrophous Protoplasmic Individual

5.1. The second stage of biological evolution: an outline

5.2. The order adopted in the study of protoplasmic evolution

5.3. Evolution of protoplasmic action and experience as related to the evolution of its medium

5.4. The differentiation and association of protoplasmic individuals during the second stage of biological evolution

Notes to Chapter 5

Chapter 6. The Ontogenesis of the Protoplasmic Individual

6.1. Homology between the protoplasm's ontogenesis and phylogenesis

6.2. The role of nucleic acids in the protoplasm's ontogenesis. The concept of biological heredity: heredity in the protoplasm

Notes to Chapter 6

Chapter 7. The Evolutionary Inflexion from Heterotrophous to Autotrophous Protoplasm

7.1. The concepts of heterotrophism and autotrophism

7.2. The joint evolution of the protoplasmic individuals and their media, in an ambience where they speed up the change culminating in conquering the use

of the atmosphere's chemical energy

7.3. The significance of the conquest of chemical energy accumulated in atmospheric methane. An evolutionist interpretation of autotrophous protoplasm

7.4. The influence of autotrophic protoplasm on the composition of the atmosphere

Notes to Chapter 7

Chapter 8. Preliminary Study of the Cell as a Guide to Evolution in Associations of Protoplasmic Individuals

8.1. A critique of certain cytological concepts; a critical view of the history of cytology

8.2. The cell is the visible result of the culmination of the second stage in biological evolution (the evolution of protoplasm)

Notes to Chapter 8

Chapter 9. The Association of Autotrophous

9.1 The origin of the first associations of protoplasmic individuals, which are necessarily autotrophes

9.2. First stage in the evolution of protoplasmic associations: evolution of associations of autotrophous protoplasmic individuals

Notes to Chapter 9

Chapter 10. The Association of Neoheterotrophous Proto Plasmic Individuals

10.1. How several associations of autotrophes adapted to living on aminoacids resulting from the spontaneous decomposition of associations of auto trophes

10.2. Transformations in the associated protoplasmic individuals on adapting tc the new trophism

10.3. Transformations in the association as a whole caused by the adaptation to neoheterotrophism. The general metabolic flow

10.4. Similarities and differences in trophism between autotrophous association: and neoheterotrophous associations, which lived on α-amino acids

10.5. The evolution of the first type of associations of neoheterotrophous proto plasmic individuals

Notes to Chapter 10

Chapter 11. The Heterotrophous Association of Proto Plasmic Individuals

11.1. Conditions giving rise to the first heterotrophous association

11.2. The digestive function as the associative activity that defines the hetero trophous association

11.3. The ontogenesis of the heterotrophous association

Notes to Chapter 11

Chapter 12. An Interpolation on Biological Heredity in the Protoplasmic Level

12.1. General observations on biological heredity

12.2. The evolution of ontogenesis in single protoplasmic individuals

12.3. Evolution of the ontogenesis of the associations of protoplasmic individuals

Notes to Chapter 12

Chapter 13. Observations on the Evolution of the Hetero Trophous Association

13.1. General outline of the question

13.2. Some principal milestones in the evolution of the heterotrophous association

Notes to Chapter 13



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Faustino Cordon

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