The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury

The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury

1st Edition - July 29, 2022

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  • Editors: Rajkumar Rajendram, Victor Preedy, Colin Martin
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323991988

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury will enhance readers’ understanding of the complexities of the diagnosis and management of spinal cord injuries. Featuring chapters on drug delivery, exercise, and rehabilitation, this volume discusses in detail the impact of the clinical features, diagnosis, management, and long-term prognosis of spinal cord injuries on the lives of those affected. The book has applicability for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, and anyone working to better understand spinal cord injuries. Spinal injury affects about 10 million people annually worldwide, impacting on the family unit and causing lifelong disabilities, with varied symptoms including paresthesia, spasticity, loss of motor control, and often severe pain. Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury will enhance readers’ understanding of the biological and psychological effects of spinal cord injury. Featuring chapters on gene expression, metabolic effects, and behavior, this volume discusses in detail the impact of spinal cord injury to better understand the underlying pathways and processes. The book has applicability for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, and anyone working to better understand these injuries.

Key Features

Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury:

  • Covers both the diagnosis and treatment of spinal cord injury
  • Contains chapter abstracts, key facts, dictionary, and summary points to aid in understanding
  • Features chapters on epidemiology and pain
  • Includes MRI usage, biomarkers, and stem cell and gene therapy for management of spinal cord injury
  • Discusses pain reduction, drug delivery, and rehabilitation

Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury:

  • Summarizes the neuroscience of spinal cord injury, including cellular and molecular biology
  • Contains chapter abstracts, key facts, dictionary, and summary points to aid in understanding
  • Features chapters on signaling and hormonal events
  • Includes plasticity and gene expression
  • Examines health and stress behaviors after spinal cord injury


Designed for research and teaching purposes, it is suitable for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, health scientists, public health workers, doctors, and research scientists. It is valuable as a personal reference book and also for academic libraries that covers the domains of neurology and health sciences. It is also suitable for undergraduates, postgraduate, lecturers and academic professors

Table of Contents

  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury:
    I. Setting The Scene: Introductory Chapters
    1. Outcomes of traumatic spinal cord injury in low-resource setting
    Avital Yohann, Laura Purcell and Anthony Charles
    2. Spine injuries associated with spinal cord injury
    Salomón Flórez Jiménez, Etienne Bourassa-Moreau, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong and Gilles Maurais
    3. Body, action and space representations in people affected by spinal cord injuries
    Michele Scandola
    4. Methods for treating pain and painful syndromes in spinal cord injury: medications, therapies, interventions, and neuromodulation
    James J. Bresnahan

    II. Clinical Features Of Spinal Injury
    5. Factors Contributing To Pressure Injuries In Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
    Gabrielle Gour-Provencal and Jehane Dagher
    6. Venous thromboembolismin spinal cord injury
    Rodrigo Lanna de Almeida
    7. Osteoporosis-related fractures: what they are and how they occur following spinal cord injury
    Ana Paula Champs
    8. Brain atrophy and white matter in compression injury to the spinal cord
    Angela Bernabeu-Sanz and Eduardo Fernández-Jover
    9. Spasticity in spinal cord injury
    Ramiro Palazón-García
    10. Falls among individuals living with spinal cord injury
    L. Rice
    11. Infections and spinal cord injury: Covid 19 and beyond
    E. López-Dolado
    12. Treating sleep problems in spinal cord injury
    David J. Berlowitz and Marnie Graco

    III. Diagnosis and Evaluation
    13. Biomarkers in spinal cord injury
    Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio e Spohr
    14. Quality of life tools for spinal cord injured people
    Sebastian Salvador-De La Barrera, Ibone Gimenez-Jimenez, Manuel Astray-Lopaz, Antonio Rodriguez-Sotillo, M. Elena Ferreiro-Velasco and Antonio Montoto-Marqués Sr.
    15. S100 in spinal cord injury
    George Alexiou
    16. Balance measures and assessments in spinal cord injury: a narrative
    Kristin Musselman and Jean-Francois Lemay

    IV. Treatments: Experimental and Clinical
    17. Surgical management of acute spinal cord injury in emergency departments
    Federico Fusini, Angela Coniglio, Alessandro Rava, Salvatore Risitano, Alessandro Massè and Massimo Girardo
    18. Spinal cord epidural stimulation for autonomic nervous system control
    April Herrity
    19. Treating spinal cord injury with implanted spinal cord stimulators
    Hengze You, Y.-P. Zheng and Monzurul Alam
    20. Bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury
    M. Elena Ferreiro-Velasco, Antonio Montoto-Marqués Sr., Maria Eugenia Díaz-Recarey, Renato Vilas-Boas, Sebastian Salvador-De La Barrera and Antonio Rodriguez-Sotillo
    21. Management of lower urinary tract dysfunction
    Noritoshi Sekido
    22. Bed and mattress for preventing pressure injuries after spinal cord injury
    Annie Levasseur
    23. Nerve and tendon transfers in tetraplegia: a new narrative
    Federico Fusini, Paolo Titolo, Stefano Artiaco, Bruno Battiston, Salvatore Risitano and Alessandro Massè
    24. Gemini-supported spinal cord transplantation for the treatment of chronic spinal paralysis
    Sergio Canavero
    25. Chondroitinase ABC I as a novel candidate for reducing damage in spinal cord injury
    Khosrow Khalifeh
    26. Phenol neurolysis for the management of spasticity in people with spinal cord injury
    Radha Korupolu and Lavina Jethani
    27. Anti-repulsive guidance molecule-a antibody (RGMa) treatment in spinal cord injury
    Toshihide Yamashita
    28. Mitochondrial biogenesis for the treatment of spinal cord injury
    R. G. Schnellmann, Epiphani Simmons, Natalie Scholpa and Joshua Crossman
    29. Exploring the exogenous and endogenous effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury
    Yonggeun Hong, Dewan Sumsuzzman and Kanghui Park
    30. High-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury
    Byron Lai, Jereme Wilroy, and Gordon Fisher
    31. Stem cells and chronic spinal cord injury: overview
    J. D. Ciacci
    32. Gene therapy in spinal cord injury
    Simon O'Carroll and Connor Clemett
    33. Curcumin usage inflammation and spinal cord injury
    K.-T. Kim
    34. Use of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on spinal cord injury
    ali reza Khalatbary
    35. Vitamin D supplementation for active individuals with spinal cord injury
    Kelly Pritchett, Brianna Rice and Sophia Berg
    36. Corticospinal tract regeneration after spinal cord injury: implications for treatment and recovery
    P. Lu
    37. Trophic factors in patients with spinal cord injury
    J. Quintanar

    V. Rehabilitation in Spinal Injury
    38. Spinal cord injury: Multiple Family Group (MFG) education and support
    DENNIS g. Dyck, Crystal Lederhos Smith and Bruce Becker
    39. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation: linking service delivery and community integration
    Linda Barclay and Gillean Hilton
    40. Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: Exercise and testing for cardiorespiratory endurance and musculoskeletal fitness
    Kerri A. Morgan, Kelly L. Taylor, and Susan Tucker
    41. Community based activity-based therapy for spinal cord injuries rehabilitation
    Natalia Padula and Camila Quel De Oliveira
    42. Rehabilitation and the Self-Management App: spinal cord injury
    Ben Mortenson, Gurkaran Singh, Megan MacGillivray, Ethan Simpson and Bonita Sawatzky
    43. Biomaterials and spinal cord injury and rehabilitation: a new narrative
    Filippo Rossi, Giuseppe Perale and Elisa Lacroce
    44. Support in spinal cord injury: a focus on robotics
    Angel Gil-Agudo and Guillermo Asín-Prieto

    VI. Resources
    45. Research and Resources
    Rajkumar Rajendram

    Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury:
    I. Setting The Scene and Introductory Chapters
    1. Causes of spinal injury: motor vehicle accidents and beyond
    Joji Inamasu
    2. MRI findings in spinal cord injury during acute and chronic phases
    Syed Ather Enam, Kiran Aftab, Namrah Aziz, Batool Mujtaba, Asma Akbar Ladak and Fatima Mubarak
    3. Exercise programs in spinal cord injury
    Jeongmin Lee, Dong-il Kim and J. Jeon
    4. Use of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation: features, facets and applications to incomplete spinal cord injury
    Amanda Vitória Lacerda de Araujo
    5. Neuromodulation and restoration of motor responses after severe spinal cord injury
    G. Taccola
    6. Rehabilitation and wheelchair users after spinal cord injury: an overview
    Marcelo Riberto, Ligia Jia Lin Wu and Daniel Rubio de Souza

    II. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Spinal Injury
    7. Gene expression, bone loss and spinal cord injury
    A. Zamarioli
    8. Sperm DNA fragmentation and its relevance to men with spinal cord injury
    S. Johnston
    9. Cytokines and spinal cord injury
    Jesús Amo-Aparicio and Clara Penas
    10. Interleukin-10, vascular pathology in traumatic cervical Spinal cord injury
    Michael G. Fehlings
    11. Protein Degradome in Spinal Cord Injury
    S. Bsat, Hani Chanbour, Ali Amine, Charbel Moussalem, Mohamad Nabih El Housheimy, Sarah Kawtharani, Adham Halaoui, Firas H. Kobaissy, Safwan Alomari and Ibrahim Omeis
    12. Proteomics of Pressure Ulcers in Spinal cord injury
    M. Barderas
    13. Innate immune responses of glia and inflammatory cells in spinal cord injury
    Stella Elkabes, Lun Li, Cigdem Acioglu and Robert Heary
    14. The role of oxidative stress in spinal cord injury animal models: a focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2
    Fernando da Silva Fiorin, Caroline Cunha do Espírito-Santo and L.F.F. Royes
    15. Novel agent ONO-2506 suppresses astrocytic activation and attenuates post-spinal cord injury pain
    Hiroyuki Ishiguro and Takashi Kaito
    16. Histology, neural tissue loss and compression-induced spinal cord injury
    Jaroslav Pavel
    17. Remodeling mitochondrial transport and cellular energetics in axonal regeneration and spinal cord injury
    Ning Huang and Zu-Hang Sheng
    18. Neurotrophins and their Role in Axonal Outgrowth Following Spinal Cord Injury
    Darren Svirskis, Anusha Dravid and Simon O'Carroll
    19. The neuroscience of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) and spinal cord injury
    I. Han and Hemant Kumar
    20. Autoantibodies in spinal cord injury
    Daniel Garcia-Ovejero, Lukas Grassner, Eduardo Molina-Holgado and Angel Arevalo-Martin
    21. Calpain role in the pathophysiology of spasticity after spinal cord injury
    Frédéric Brocard
    22. Targeting mTOR Signaling to Promote Autophagy for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury
    Nadia Al-Sammarraie and Swapan K. Ray
    23. Tertiary damage: Hippocampal and brain changes after spinal cord injury
    Florencia Labombarda

    III. Physiological and Metabolic Effects
    24. Hormonal events and spinal cord injury: a focus on vasopressin and natriuretic peptide
    Charles Hubscher
    25. Linking sensorimotor plasticity, the motor cortex and spinal cord injury
    R. Nardone
    26. Bone mass and spinal cord injury: risk of fracture
    Ifaz T. Haider, Narina Simonian, Thomas Schnitzer and W. Brent Edwards
    27. Functional and morphological re-organization of the brain following spinal cord injury : Insights from MRI
    Maria M. D'Souza, Jeanne D'Souza, Prabhjot Kaur and Pawan Kumar
    28. Cardiometabolic changes and upper extremity exercise as an augmentative strategy in spinal cord injury
    Benjamin Scoblionko, Patricia Orme, James Pendleton, Roger Liu and James J. Bresnahan
    29. Electrophysiological outcome measures in spinal cord injury: a new narrative
    Radha Korupolu, Argyrios Stampas, Sudha Tallavajhula and Lumy Sawaki
    30. Features and Physiology of Spinal Stretch Reflex Pathways in People with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury
    Aiko K. Thompson and Thomas Sinkjær
    31. Metabolic syndrome iin spinal cord injury: impact on health
    Arcangelo Barbonetti, Chiara Castellini, Sandro Francavilla, Felice Francavilla and Settmio D’Andrea
    32. Body composition and spinal cord injury
    Katherine Jane Desneves, Nicole Kiss, Robin Daly and Leigh Ward
    33. Energy requirements and spinal cord injury
    Katherine Jane Desneves, Nicole Kiss, Robin Daly and Leigh Ward
    34. Virtual walking and spinal cord injury neuropathic pain
    Elizabeth Richardson and Zina Trost
    35. Cervical spinal cord injury and thermoregulatory processes: a new narrative
    Ibrahim Omeis
    36. Spinal cord injury and the gut microbiota
    Phillip G. Popovich and Kristina A. Kigerl

    IV. Behavioural and Psychological Effects
    37. Risk factors and predictors of depression after spinal cord injury: emphasis on the inflammatory process
    Caroline Cunha do Espírito-Santo, Fernando da Silva Fiorin and L.F.F. Royes
    38. Spirituality, hope, and resilience in the recovery and adaptation process following spinal cord injury
    Kate Jones and Grahame Simpson
    39. Wellness intervention for spinal cord injuries
    Stephanie L. Silveira, Emma Richardson and Robert W. Motl
    40. Sexual satisfaction and spinal cord injury
    Seçil Taylan
    41. Depressive symptoms in rehabilitation, spinal cord injury
    Swati Mehta
    42. Self-Harm behaviors in Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries: From Nonadherence to Suicide
    Maggi Budd, Herb Ames and John Bradley

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1200
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: July 29, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323991988

About the Editors

Rajkumar Rajendram

Dr. Rajendram is a clinician scientist whose focus is on perioperative medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. He graduated in 2001 with a distinction from Guy’s, King’s, and St. Thomas Medical School in London, and began his postgraduate medical training in general medicine and intensive care in Oxford. Dr. Rajendram returned to Oxford as a consultant in general medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, before moving to the Royal Free London Hospitals as a consultant in intensive care, anesthesia, and perioperative medicine. He is currently a consultant in internal and perioperative medicine at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. As a visiting lecturer in the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, he has published over 100 textbook chapters, review articles, peer-reviewed papers, and abstracts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Lecturer, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, UK

Victor Preedy

Dr. Preedy is a senior member of King's College London and Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well-being. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is an extremely experienced book editor, having edited influential works including but not limited to The Handbook of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies, The Neuroscience of Cocaine, and upcoming titles The Neuroscience of Alcohol, The Neuroscience of Nicotine, and more (all Elsevier).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Biochemistry; Director of the Genomics Centre, King’s College, London, UK

Colin Martin

Dr. Martin is a Professor of Mental Health at Buckinghamshire New University. He is a Registered Nurse, Chartered Health Psychologist, and a Chartered Scientist. He has published or has in press well over 250 research papers and book chapters. He is a keen book author and editor having written and/or edited several books all of which reflect his diverse academic and clinical interests that examine in-depth, the interface between mental health and physical health. These outputs include the Handbook of Behavior; Food and Nutrition (2011), Perinatal Mental Health: A Clinical Guide (2012); Nanomedicine and the Nervous System (2012), and the major reference works Comprehensive Guide to Autism (2014), Diet and Nutrition in Dementia and Cognitive Decline (2015), Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2016) and Metabolism and Pathophysiology of Bariatric Surgery: Nutrition, Procedures, Outcomes, and Adverse Effects (2017).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Mental Health, Bickinghamshire New University, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK

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