The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury-

The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury-

1st Edition - January 21, 2022

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  • Editors: Rajkumar Rajendram, Victor Preedy, Colin Martin
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323991988
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323995764

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Description

Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury will enhance readers’ understanding of the complexities of the diagnosis and management of spinal cord injuries. Featuring chapters on drug delivery, exercise, and rehabilitation, this volume discusses in detail the impact of the clinical features, diagnosis, management, and long-term prognosis of spinal cord injuries on the lives of those affected. The book has applicability for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, and anyone working to better understand spinal cord injuries. Spinal injury affects about 10 million people annually worldwide, impacting on the family unit and causing lifelong disabilities, with varied symptoms including paresthesia, spasticity, loss of motor control, and often severe pain. Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury will enhance readers’ understanding of the biological and psychological effects of spinal cord injury. Featuring chapters on gene expression, metabolic effects, and behavior, this volume discusses in detail the impact of spinal cord injury to better understand the underlying pathways and processes. The book has applicability for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, and anyone working to better understand these injuries.

Key Features

Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury:

  • Covers both the diagnosis and treatment of spinal cord injury
  • Contains chapter abstracts, key facts, dictionary, and summary points to aid in understanding
  • Features chapters on epidemiology and pain
  • Includes MRI usage, biomarkers, and stem cell and gene therapy for management of spinal cord injury
  • Discusses pain reduction, drug delivery, and rehabilitation

Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury:

  • Summarizes the neuroscience of spinal cord injury, including cellular and molecular biology
  • Contains chapter abstracts, key facts, dictionary, and summary points to aid in understanding
  • Features chapters on signaling and hormonal events
  • Includes plasticity and gene expression
  • Examines health and stress behaviors after spinal cord injury

Readership

Designed for research and teaching purposes, it is suitable for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, health scientists, public health workers, doctors, and research scientists. It is valuable as a personal reference book and also for academic libraries that covers the domains of neurology and health sciences. It is also suitable for undergraduates, postgraduate, lecturers and academic professors

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Front Matter for Volume 1
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Copyright for Volume 1
  • Dedication for Volume 1
  • Contributors for Volume 1
  • Preface for Volume 1
  • Front Matter for Volume 2
  • Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury: The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Copyright for Volume 2
  • Dedication for Volume 2
  • Contributors for Volume 2
  • Preface for Volume 2
  • Volume 1: Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury: The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Section A: Setting the scene: Introductory chapters
  • Chapter 1: Traumatic spinal cord injury and outcomes in low-resource settings
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Prehospital and acute management
  • Treatment strategies
  • Post-acute medical care and rehabilitation
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts of global traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology and etiology
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Biomechanics and patterns of spine injuries associated with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathogenesis of TSCI: The critical role of spine biomechanics
  • Patterns of spine injuries associated with spinal cord injuries
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Body, action, and space representations in people affected by spinal cord injuries
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The neuroplasticity following SCI and the networks involved in the body, space, and action representations
  • The body representations
  • The action representation
  • The space representation
  • The effects of rehabilitation on the body, action, and space representations
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Methods for treating pain and painful syndromes in spinal cord injury: Medications, therapies, interventions, and neuromodulation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Main narrative text
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of pain after SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section B: Clinical features of spinal injury
  • Chapter 5: Factors contributing to pressure injuries in traumatic spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of pressure injuries
  • Prevalence, impact, and cost of pressure injuries in patients with SCI
  • Structural and physiological changes following SCI
  • Risk assessment tools
  • Risk factors associated with pressure injuries in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of pressure injuries
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Venous thromboembolism in spinal cord injury—Prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Screening
  • Prophylaxis
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of venous thromboembolism in spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Osteoporosis-related fractures: What they are and how they occur following spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Physiopathology
  • Fractures
  • Risk factors
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury
  • Key facts of fragility fractures after spinal cord injury
  • Key facts of diagnosis of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury
  • Key facts of treatment for osteoporosis-related fractures after spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Understanding the effects of prolonged cervical spinal cord compression on the brain. Current knowledge and future challenges
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Cervical spine compression causes brain atrophy
  • Cervical spine compression causes neural plasticity to preserve function
  • Cervical spine compression changes the functional connectivity of the brain
  • Cervical spine compression also damages the brain WM
  • Conclusion and future perspectives
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord compression
  • Key facts of advanced MRI techniques
  • Summary points of cervical spine compression
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Spasticity in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of spasticity
  • Manifestations of spasticity in spinal injuries
  • Assessment of spasticity and its consequences
  • Treatment of spasticity
  • Modalities of treatment in spinal injury
  • Outcome measures after treatment
  • Management protocol for spasticity in spinal cord injury
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “diagnosis of spasticity in spinal cord injury”
  • Key facts of “treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Fall circumstances, consequences, assessments, and interventions to manage fall risk among individuals living with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Fall frequency
  • Fall circumstances
  • Consequences of falls
  • Assessment of fall risk
  • Intervention program to manage fall risk
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of fall frequency and fall circumstances
  • Key facts of consequences of falls
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Infections and spinal cord injury: Covid-19 and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Immunosuppression due to spinal cord injury
  • Leading infection diseases in spinal cord-injured patients
  • COVID-19 disease: A new infectious normality in spinal cord-injured patients?
  • Key facts of “infections and spinal cord injury: Covid-19 and beyond”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Sleep problems in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sleep-disordered breathing
  • Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing after tetraplegia
  • Sleep-disordered breathing is an acute and direct consequence of cervical SCI
  • Sleep-disordered breathing after tetraplegia has clinically important impacts
  • Why do people with tetraplegia have sleep-disordered breathing, predominantly obstructive sleep apnea?
  • Clinical management of sleep-disordered breathing in people with SCI
  • How does SCI alter the circadian rhythm?
  • Periodic leg movements of sleep in SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of sleep
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Section C: Diagnosis and evaluation
  • Chapter 13: Biomarkers in spinal cord injury: A highlight on prognostic insights
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of SCI
  • Biomarkers of SCI
  • microRNAs as biomarkers
  • Exosomes
  • Conclusions
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of biomarkers spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Quality of life tools for spinal cord–injured people
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Definitions: Quality of life and health-related quality of life
  • Implementation in the study of quality of life in people with spinal cord injury
  • Integrative quality of life assessment instruments
  • Health-related quality of life assessment instruments for conditions resulting from spinal cord injury
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of measuring quality of life in sci people
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 15: S100b in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • S100b characteristics
  • S100b and CNS pathology
  • Biomarkers in SCI
  • S100b and SCI
  • Limitations and perspectives
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of calcium-binding proteins
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Assessment of postural control after spinal cord injury or disease: A narrative review
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chapter objectives
  • Comprehensive assessment of postural control
  • Current state of postural control assessment in clinical settings
  • Instrumented assessments of postural control
  • Individualized and comprehensive assessment of postural control after SCI/D
  • Wheelchair users: Assessment of postural control
  • Part-time ambulators: Assessment of postural control
  • Full-time ambulators: Assessment of postural control
  • Summary
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of postural control
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section D: Treatments: Experimental and clinical
  • Chapter 17: Surgical management of acute spinal cord injury in emergency setting
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Natural history of patients with acute cervical SCI
  • Natural history of patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar SCI
  • Surgical procedures
  • How to define early versus late surgery post SCI?
  • Which is the most efficacious threshold?
  • What threshold is feasible?
  • Does ESD offers the same benefit for all acute SCI?
  • Complete versus incomplete SCI
  • Effects of ESD on different neurological level of injury
  • The special case of Central Cord Syndrome
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of surgical treatment of spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Spinal cord epidural stimulation for autonomic nervous system control: A focus on improving bladder, bowel, and cardiovascular function
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Future directions with scES and applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of autonomic dysfunction after SCI
  • Key facts of scES after SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Treating spinal cord injury with implanted spinal cord stimulators
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Spinal cord stimulation
  • Spinal cord stimulators
  • Significance of SCS
  • Current limitations of the neurostimulators
  • Advanced neurostimulators
  • Prospects of the stimulation for spinal cord injury rehabilitation
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of neurogenic bowel in spinal cord injury
  • Clinical manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Conservative treatment of the neurogenic bowel
  • Surgical treatment of the neurogenic bowel
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of neurogenic bowel dysfunction
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of storage and emptying
  • Pathophysiology of NLUTD due to SCI
  • Overview of management of patients with NLUTD due to SCI
  • Basic and optional assessments
  • Urinary management (Table 3)
  • Pharmacological treatment
  • Assessment of clinical outcomes (periodic follow-up)
  • Surgical treatment
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of catheters for clean intermittent catheterization
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Bed support surfaces for preventing pressure injuries after spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pressure injuries (PI): Definition, epidemiology and impacts
  • Pathogenesis of pressure injuries following spinal cord injury
  • Support surfaces: An approach for prevention and treatment of pressure injuries
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of pressure injuries after spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Nerve and tendon transfers in tetraplegia: A new narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Classifications
  • Indications and timing
  • Group 0
  • Group 1
  • Group 2
  • Group 3
  • Group 4
  • Group 5
  • Group 6
  • Group 7
  • Group 8
  • Group 9
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of nerve and tendon transfers in tetraplegia: A new narrative
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 24: GEMINI-supported spinal cord transplantation for the treatment of chronic spinal paralysis: Overview and initial clinical translation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol: Overview
  • GEMINI: Fusogens
  • GEMINI: Electrical stimulation
  • Clinical translation
  • Current human trial
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of the GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol for spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Chondroitinase ABC I as a novel candidate for reducing damage in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Molecular perspectives
  • Glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes: A brief description
  • Chondroitinase ABC I and spinal cord injury
  • Chondroitinase ABC I for enzyme therapy: Challenges and perspectives
  • Combinatorial therapy with chondroitinase ABC I
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of chondroitinase ABC I
  • Key facts of the therapeutic potential of chondroitinase ABC I
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Phenol neurolysis for spasticity management in people with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Phenol or alcohol neurolysis history
  • Mechanism of action
  • Phenol neurolysis technique and dose
  • Adverse effects
  • Case study
  • Conclusion/summary
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of phenol
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Anti-repulsive guidance molecule: An antibody treatment in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of RGMa
  • RGMa in spinal cord injury (SCI)
  • Clinical studies
  • RGMa in other CNS disorders
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of axonal sprouting
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Mitochondrial biogenesis for the treatment of spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Mitochondrial biogenesis
  • Cell type-specific mitochondrial dysfunction and MB
  • Mitochondrial biogenesis mediates consequences of SCI
  • Limitations of MB
  • Mini-dictionary
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Exploring the exogenous and endogenous effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Effects of exogenous melatonin on secondary injury after spinal cord injury
  • Combination treatment strategy for spinal cord injury
  • Role of endogenous melatonin in spinal cord injury
  • Clinical application of melatonin in spinal cord injury
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 30: High-intensity interval training in individuals with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Section 1: Background and overview
  • Section 2: Cardiometabolic comorbidities associated with SCI
  • Section 3: SCI exercise benefits, guidelines, and participation
  • Section 4: Health benefits of high-intensity interval training
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of SCI and exercise
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Stem cells and chronic spinal cord injury: Overview
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of SCI
  • Stem cells: A brief overview
  • Embryonic stem cells—An overview of pre-clinical findings
  • Toward autologous transplantation: Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Cellular reprogramming: Induced pluripotent stem cells
  • Translation to the bedside
  • The role of immunity
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts for stem cells
  • Key facts for spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Viral vector gene therapy approaches for regeneration and repair in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Viral vector approaches
  • Routes of administration
  • Viral vector approaches for therapeutic delivery
  • Other approaches
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of viral vectors and spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Curcumin usage for inflammation and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Structure, pharmacology, and biological targets
  • Anti-inflammatory effects
  • Anti-oxidant effects
  • Stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation
  • Facilitation of neurologic function recovery
  • Conclusion and future direction
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of curcumin
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Use of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • In vivo studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of EGCG
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Vitamin D and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Vitamin D recommendations: Intake, sources, and status
  • Function and physiology
  • Vitamin D status of active individuals with SCI
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience (200–750 words)
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of vitamin D and spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Corticospinal tract regeneration after spinal cord injury: Implications for treatment and recovery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • CST development
  • Spinal cord injury induced spontaneous sprouting of CST
  • Promotion of CST regenerative sprouting
  • Robust CST regeneration into caudalized NPC graft after SCI
  • Reconnect injured spinal cord through neuronal relays
  • Future prospective
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of corticospinal tract regeneration after spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Trophic factors in patients with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Role of neurotrophic factors in human neural plasticity after SCI
  • Different environments enhance trophic factors delivery
  • Therapeutic potential of trophic factors
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord injury
  • Key facts therapeutic approaches
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section E: Rehabilitation in spinal injury
  • Chapter 38: Spinal cord injury: Multiple family group (MFG) education and support
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology of spinal cord injury
  • Life impact and medical support
  • Spinal cord injury after-effects
  • Impacts of SCI on family caregivers
  • Impact of multiple family groups (MFG) on psychiatric outcomes
  • Adapting multiple family group treatment for brain and spinal cord injury
  • Comparison of MFG to educational control (EC)
  • Implementation and dissemination opportunities and barriers
  • Conclusion
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Spinal cord injury rehabilitation: Linking service delivery and community integration
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Prioritizing community integration
  • Interplay between health condition, person factors, and environmental factors
  • Models and approaches to community integration
  • Assistive technology, transport, housing
  • Leisure and social participation
  • The role of peer mentors in community integration
  • Return to work
  • Self-management, education and health literacy
  • Summary
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord injury community integration
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: Exercise and testing for cardiorespiratory endurance and musculoskeletal fitness
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Exercise and persons with a spinal cord injury
  • Exercise testing for persons with a spinal cord injury
  • Cardiorespiratory endurance testing
  • Musculoskeletal fitness testing
  • Application to other areas in neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of rehabilitation in spinal cord injury: Exercise and testing for cardiorespiratory endurance and musculoskeletal fitness
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 41: Community-based activity-based therapy for spinal cord injuries rehabilitation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Recovery after spinal cord injuries
  • Conventional rehabilitation after spinal cord injuries
  • Activity-based therapies
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini dictionary of terms:
  • Key facts of activity-based therapy in the community
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Mobile health apps and self-management for spinal cord injury rehabilitation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chronic disease management
  • Traditional SCI self-management interventions
  • eHealth technology and mHealth apps
  • mHealth app needs among individuals with SCI
  • Development and pilot implementation of mHealth apps for SCI self-management
  • Clinical interventions on mHealth apps for SCI self-management
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord injury
  • Key facts of eHealth
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 43: Biomaterials, spinal cord injury, and rehabilitation: A new narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Hydrogels and scaffolds
  • Nanomaterials
  • Case study: Agarose–carbomer-based hydrogels
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “Biomaterials, spinal cord injury, and rehabilitation: A new narrative”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 44: Support in spinal cord injury: A focus on robotics
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Upper limb robots
  • Stationary lower limb robots
  • Ambulatory exoskeletons
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of functional recovery
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section F: Resources
  • Chapter 45: Recommended resources and sites for the neuroscience of spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements (in alphabetical order)
  • Introduction
  • Resources
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Volume 2: Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury: The Neuroscience of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Section A: Setting the scene and introductory chapters
  • Chapter 1: Causes of spinal injury: Motor vehicle accidents and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Spinal injury in automobile drivers
  • Role of seatbelt and airbag in protecting spine
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal injury simulation
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in spinal cord injury during acute and chronic phases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • MRI sequences used in SCI
  • Protocols for MRI in SCI
  • MRI findings in acute SCI
  • MRI findings in subacute SCI
  • MRI findings in chronic SCI
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of SPAM
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Exercise programs and spinal cord injury (SCI): Linking the clinical, physiological, and psychological consequences of SCI
  • Abstract
  • Prevalence and consequences of spinal cord injury
  • Clinical, physiological, and psychological consequences of SCI (Fig. 1)
  • Exercise and SCI (Fig. 2)
  • Conclusion and future perspective
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts on exercises and people with SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Use of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation: Features, facets, and applications to incomplete spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics of the iSCI individuals under a-tDCS protocols
  • Parameters of the a-tDCS after iSCI
  • Short and long-term effects of the a-tDCS
  • A-tDCS safety and adverse effects (AEs)
  • Clinical practice based on the a-tDCS
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 5: Neuromodulation and restoration of motor responses after severe spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Neuromodulation exploits intrinsic information processing
  • A residual functional potential remains after SCI
  • Central nervous system reorganization after SCI
  • Mechanisms of spinal neuromodulation
  • The ideal candidate for the restoration of volitional motor responses through neuromodulation
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for the recovery of independent stepping
  • Rationale for combining NMES with other neuromodulation modalities
  • Regaining of motor function after severe spinal cord injury
  • Multimodal rehabilitation
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of neuromodulation and restoration of motor responses after severe spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 6: Rehabilitation and wheelchair users after spinal cord injury: An overview
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts of clinical classification of SCI and mobility
  • Key facts on clinical complications of SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section B: Cellular and molecular aspects of spinal injury
  • Chapter 7: Gene expression and bone loss following spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Incidence and pathophysiological mechanisms of spinal cord injury
  • Altered gene expression due to spinal cord injury
  • Bone remodeling and osteometabolic dysfunction due to SCI
  • Molecular mechanisms of SCI-induced bone loss
  • Acute and chronic stages of bone loss following SCI
  • Changes in bone quality and quantity following SCI
  • Secondary complication due to SCI-induced bone loss
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of gene expression, bone loss, and spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Sperm DNA fragmentation and its relevance to men with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • How does SDF in men with SCI compare to other causes of infertility?
  • Molecular mechanisms of SDF
  • Etiologies of SDF in men with SCI
  • Improving sperm DNA quality in men with SCI
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of sperm DNA fragmentation
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Beneficial and detrimental effects of cytokines after spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Cytokine expression after SCI
  • Cytokines promoting cell death and neurodegeneration after SCI
  • Cytokines in inflammation and glial scar formation
  • Cytokines in neuroprotection and repair
  • Epigenetic regulation of cytokine expression
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Neurovascular pathology following traumatic spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Secondary pathogenesis
  • Hemodynamic response
  • Neurovascular unit (NVU)
  • Endothelial cell (EC) response
  • Pericytic response
  • Astrocytic response
  • Therapeutic approach
  • Conclusions
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Protein degradome in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Protease-substrate repertoires
  • Degradomes in SCI
  • Cytoskeletal proteins
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Cell junction proteins
  • Ion channels
  • Clinical perspectives
  • Application to other neuroscience areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord degradomics
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Proteomics of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments and sources of funding
  • Background
  • Patient’s management
  • Clinical proteomics
  • Proteomics in pressure ulcers
  • The importance of precision medicine
  • Limitations of proteomics
  • Conclusions
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts of proteomics in PUs of spinal cord patients
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Innate immune responses of glia and inflammatory cells in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Overview of PRRs
  • Role of TLRs in SCI
  • Non-immune functions of TLRs in neurons: Relevance to SCI
  • Modulation of ECM proteins by TLRs: Relevance to SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Conclusions
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of innate immunity in central nervous system injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 14: The role of oxidative stress in spinal cord injury animal models: A focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative stress characteristics and mechanisms
  • The implications of oxidative damage in SCI pathophysiology
  • Protection mechanisms by endogenous antioxidants via Nrf2-ARE system
  • Involvement of Nrf2 in blockage of oxidative stress post-SCI induced by exogenous stimuli
  • Concluding remarks
  • Application to others areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of oxidative stress
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Novel agent ONO-2506 suppresses astrocytic activation and attenuates post-spinal cord injury pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Secondary injury of the spinal cord and astrocytic activation
  • Astrocytic activation and post-SCI neuropathic pain
  • Attenuation of post-SCI neuropathic pain by ONO-2506
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of ONO-2506
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Neural tissue loss after spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Dysfunction of vascular system
  • Spinal cord edema
  • The inflammatory response and elimination of necrotic debris
  • Development of cysts/cavities and syrinx
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of post-traumatic loss of spinal cord tissue
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Remodeling mitochondrial transport and cellular energetics in axonal regeneration and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Complex motility patterns of axonal mitochondria
  • Molecular motors driving mitochondrial bi-directional transport in axons
  • Mitochondrial motor adaptors and receptors
  • Declined axonal mitochondrial transport in mature neurons
  • SNPH immobilizes axonal mitochondria in mature neurons and adult brains
  • Deleting SNPH anchoring boosts axon regeneration in vitro and in vivo
  • Enhanced mitochondrial transport facilitates axon regeneration
  • Remodeling mitochondrial transport promotes regeneration after SCI
  • Boosting energetic metabolism promotes regeneration after SCI
  • Conclusions and new challenges
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of SNPH-mediated decline of axonal mitochondrial transport in mature neurons
  • Key facts of the energy crisis that accounts for regeneration failure
  • Key facts of boosting local energy supply in injured axons
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Neurotrophins and their role in axonal outgrowth following spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Structure and function of the neurotrophins
  • Neurotrophic gradients for guiding regenerating axons
  • Preclinical models of neurotrophin delivery to promote axonal outgrowth and regeneration following SCI
  • Challenges and considerations for neurotrophin delivery and clinical translation
  • Concluding remarks
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of neurotrophins in spinal cord injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 19: The neuroscience of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • TRPV4 role in non-injured conditions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts about SCI
  • Key facts about TRPV4
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Autoantibodies in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Targets and possible origin of autoantibodies increased after SCI in humans
  • The levels of autoantibodies after SCI are independent of lesion level and severity
  • Autoantibodies increased after SCI target both CNS and peripheral antigens
  • Local versus systemic production of autoantibodies
  • Association of autoantibodies with neuropathic pain development
  • Roles of the autoantibodies increased after SCI in other pathologies
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of autoantibodies
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Calpain role in the pathophysiology of spasticity after spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Spasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI)
  • Calpains and their role in spasticity after SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “spinal hyperexcitability”
  • Key facts of “spinal disinhibition”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Targeting mTOR signaling to promote autophagy for functional recovery after spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Natural compounds for inhibition of mTOR signaling and promotion of autophagy flux and functional recovery after SCI
  • Pharmacological inhibition of mTOR signaling for enhancing autophagy flux and functional recovery following SCI
  • Genetic and non-genetic inhibitors of mTOR signaling to regulate autophagy in SCI
  • Future directions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of targeting mTOR signaling in promotion of autophagy for functional recovery after SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Tertiary damage: Hippocampal and brain changes after spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sensorimotor cortex and corticospinal tract alterations after SCI in humans
  • Cognitive and emotional impairment after SCI
  • The effect of SCI on the hippocampus
  • SCI and other brain regions
  • Possible mechanisms underlying the tertiary damage
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of tertiary damage
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section C: Physiological and metabolic effects
  • Chapter 24: Hormonal events and spinal cord injury: A focus on vasopressin and natriuretic peptide
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of vasopressin and natriuretic peptide changes after SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Linking sensorimotor plasticity, the motor cortex, and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Sensorimotor plasticity after spinal cord injury
  • Functional evaluation of motor cortex
  • Discussion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Bone loss at the knee after spinal cord injury: Radiographic imaging, fracture risk, and treatment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Bone loss at the knee after SCI
  • Relationship between bone loss and fracture risk after SCI
  • Interventions for bone loss after SCI
  • Summary and conclusions
  • Mini-dictionary terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Functional and morphological reorganization of the brain following spinal cord injury: Insights from MRI
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Brain morphometry
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
  • Functional MRI (fMRI)
  • MR spectroscopy
  • Structural reorganization—Insights from MRI
  • Functional reorganization—Insights from MRI
  • Structural and functional reorganization—Insights from MRI
  • Mechanisms underlying reorganization
  • Challenges related to MRI evaluation of SCI data
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Cardiometabolic changes and upper exercise as an augmentative strategy in spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Main narrative text
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts: Cardiometabolic changes and exercise in SCI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Electrophysiological outcome measures in spinal cord injury: A new narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Discussion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts of electrophysiological measures
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Features and physiology of spinal stretch reflexes in people with chronic spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Funding acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Spinal stretch reflexes
  • Function of the soleus stretch reflex pathways in intact human locomotion
  • Features of spinal stretch reflexes in people with SCI
  • Soleus stretch reflexes during locomotion in people with chronic incomplete SCI
  • Stretch reflexes in spastic gait after SCI
  • Consideration of CNS plasticity in addressing the reflex hyperexcitability in chronic SCI
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal reflexes
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Metabolic syndrome in spinal cord injury: Impact on health
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Changes in body composition after spinal cord injury
  • Insulin resistance in spinal cord injury: Pathophysiology and clinical features
  • Diagnostic challenges of metabolic syndrome in people with spinal cord injury
  • Cardiovascular reflections of metabolic syndrome in spinal cord injury
  • Pathophysiology of androgen deficiency in men with chronic spinal cord injury
  • Correlates of androgen deficiency in chronic spinal cord injury
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of metabolic syndrome in spinal cord injury: Impact on health
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Body composition and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Body composition
  • Body composition changes following traumatic spinal cord injury
  • Sarcopenia and SCI
  • Body composition assessment
  • Imaging techniques
  • Novel technique
  • Summary of body composition assessment methods
  • Choosing a body composition method for use in SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Energy requirements and spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Energy expenditure
  • Energy expenditure following SCI
  • Methods for determining energy requirements
  • Doubly labeled water
  • Indirect calorimetry
  • Predictive equations
  • Predictive equations validated in SCI
  • Choosing an energy requirement method for use in SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of energy metabolism
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Virtual walking and spinal cord injury neuropathic pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • SCI-related neuropathic pain as a deafferentation pain
  • Mirror therapy: A precursor to virtual walking
  • What is VR?
  • Non- or partially-immersive virtual walking in SCI
  • Immersion, embodiment, and interactivity
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of virtual walking and spinal cord injury neuropathic pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Cervical spinal cord injury and thermoregulatory processes: A new narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Homeostasis
  • Thermoregulatory process in able-bodied individuals
  • Differences between healthy individuals and cSCI patients
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord injury
  • Key facts of American Spinal Injury Association
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Spinal cord injury and the gut microbiota
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Spinal cord injury-induced dysautonomia
  • Gut dysbiosis after SCI: Pre-clinical studies
  • Gut dysbiosis after SCI: Clinical studies
  • Demographic factors (injury level, injury completeness, age, sex)
  • Gut dysbiosis and health/disease after SCI
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of the gut microbiome
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section D: Behavioral and psychological effects
  • Chapter 37: Risk factors and predictors of depression after spinal cord injury: Emphasis on the inflammatory process
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiological overview: From local inflammation to systemic inflammation after SCI
  • Depression and spinal cord injury
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of depression
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Spirituality, hope, and resilience in the recovery and adaptation process following spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Responses to trauma: The quest narrative and the role of spirituality, hope, and resilience
  • Spirituality after SCI
  • Hope after SCI
  • Resilience after SCI
  • The relationship between spirituality, hope, and resilience after SCI
  • Implications for SCI rehabilitation: Person-centered care that embraces spirituality, hope, and resilience
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “Spirituality, hope, and resilience in the recovery and adaptation process following spinal cord injury”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Wellness intervention for persons with spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • What is wellness?
  • Measurement of wellness in SCI
  • Health behaviors: Targets for wellness interventions
  • Behavior change theory for supporting behavior change interventions in SCI
  • Exemplar wellness interventions for persons with SCI: Examples, settings, and results
  • Design of future wellness interventions for persons with SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of wellness interventions
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Sexual life in individuals with spinal cord injury and management
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sexual life in men with SCI
  • Physiology of normal sexual function
  • Problems affecting sexual life in men with SCI
  • Management of sexual problems in men with SCI
  • Sex life in women with SCI
  • Problems affecting sexual life in women with SCI and their management
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of sexual life in individuals with SCI and management
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 41: Depressive symptoms in rehabilitation post-spinal cord injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Screening and assessment of depression post-SCI
  • Theoretical correlates of depression post-SCI
  • Management of depression post-SCI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of screening and diagnosis
  • Key facts of management
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Self-harm behaviors in patients with spinal cord injuries: From non-adherence to suicide
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Self-harm behaviors and suicidal behaviors
  • Self-harm behaviors as presenting symptoms
  • Suicide behaviors and SCI
  • Risk mitigation
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Suicide mitigation safety planning for all populations
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of self-harm
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Index for volume 1
  • Index for volume 2

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1200
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: January 21, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323991988
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323995764

About the Editors

Rajkumar Rajendram

Dr. Rajkumar Rajendram is a clinician scientist with a focus is on internal medicine, intensive care, and infectious diseases. He is currently a Consultant in Internal Medicine at King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Heath Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Dr Rajendram has extensive expertise in the management of infection and recognizes that emerging infectious diseases such as Monkeypox are a significant threat to health worldwide. He was an affiliated member of The Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London for over twenty years and has published over 350 textbook chapters, review articles, peer-reviewed papers, and abstracts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant in Internal Medicine at King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Heath Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Victor Preedy

Professor Preedy has been elected as a Fellow to the following Royal Societies: The Royal Society of Biology, the Royal College of Pathologists, the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, the Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene, the Royal Society for Public Health, the Royal Society of Chemistry, and the Royal Society of Medicine. He was founding Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London and held the post from 2006 to 2020. He is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in disease processes, biomarkers, and tissue pathology. He has lectured nationally and internationally. Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor in the Department of Clinical Biochemistry at King’s College Hospital, London, UK Emeritus Professor in Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine at King’s College London, UK Visiting Professor at the University of Hull, UK

Colin Martin

: Dr. Martin is a Professor of Mental Health at Buckinghamshire New University. He is a Registered Nurse, Chartered Health Psychologist, and a Chartered Scientist. He has published or has in press well over 250 research papers and book chapters. He is a keen book author and editor having written and/or edited several books all of which reflect his diverse academic and clinical interests that examine in-depth, the interface between mental health and physical health. These outputs include the Handbook of Behavior; Food and Nutrition (2011), Perinatal Mental Health: A Clinical Guide (2012); Nanomedicine and the Nervous System (2012), and the major reference works Comprehensive Guide to Autism (2014), Diet and Nutrition in Dementia and Cognitive Decline (2015), Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2016) and Metabolism and Pathophysiology of Bariatric Surgery: Nutrition, Procedures, Outcomes, and Adverse Effects (2017).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Clinical Psychobiology and Applied Psychoneuroimmunology and Clinical Director: Institute for Health and Wellbeing University of Suffolk, Ipswich, UK

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