The Neuroscience of Pain, Anesthetics, and Analgesics

The Neuroscience of Pain, Anesthetics, and Analgesics

1st Edition - November 30, 2021

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  • Editors: Rajkumar Rajendram, Vinood Patel, Victor Preedy
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323903134

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Description

The Neuroscience of Pain, Anesthetics and Analgesics examines the syndromes of pain  and how they interlink with anesthesia and analgesics. The book covers assessments, screening and resources, and provides applications to related areas of medicine. It explores how the perception of pain results from a multifaceted interaction between illness beliefs, age, gender, time of onset, stress, socioeconomic status, and other factors. In addition, it scrutinizes how the neuroscience of pain in one condition may be relevant to understanding pain observed in other conditions. Sections address the onset of pain, the cause of pain, and the administration of analgesia or anesthesia. The book works to clarify all of the subjects pertinent to anesthesia and the brain.  Featuring chapters on neurotransmitters, pharmacology and brain imaging, this volume discusses the mechanisms of pain and experimental studies undertaken to better understand the pathways involved.

Key Features

  • Includes content on the features and assessments of pain, anesthesia and analgesia
  • Provides a mini-dictionary of terms and summary points that succinctly encapsulate each chapter
  • Covers a broad range of topics related to the neuroscience of analgesics and anesthetics
  • Helps readers navigate key areas for research and further clinical recommendations
  • Features chapters on molecular pathways, imaging and a deep look at behavior associated with the experience of pain

Readership

Neuroscientists, anesthesiologists, neurologists, clinicians, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows. Neurologists, anesthesiologists, pharmacologists, physiologists, psychologists, doctors, health care workers and experts in behavior. Academic libraries that covers the neuroscience of pain, anesthetics and analgesics. Undergraduates, postgraduate, lecturers, academic professors, and graduate students and trainees in the basic sciences or clinical disciplines who have an interest in pain mechanisms, diagnosis and/or management

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Front Matter for Volume 1
  • Features and Assessments of Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia
  • Copyright for Volume 1
  • Contributors for Volume 1
  • Preface for Volume 1
  • Front Matter for Volume 2
  • Treatments, Mechanisms, and Adverse Reactions of Anesthetics and Analgesics
  • Copyright for Volume 2
  • Contributors for Volume 2
  • Preface for Volume 2
  • Front Matter for Volume 3
  • The Neurobiology, Physiology, and Psychology of Pain
  • Copyright for Volume 3
  • Contributors for Volume 3
  • Preface for Volume 3
  • Volume 1: Features and Assessments of Pain, Anesthesia, and Analgesia
  • Part I: Setting the scene: General aspects of anesthesia, analgesics and pain
  • Chapter 1: The concept of multimorphic cancer pain: A new approach from diagnosis to treatment
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Assessing and reassessing cancer pain and patients
  • Key facts of cancer pain etiologies (Fallon et al., 2018; Lemaire et al., 2019)
  • Other agents of interest: Benefits of supportive care (MASCC, 2020)
  • Applications to other areas: From supportive care in cancer to supportive medicine
  • Key facts of criteria defining the multimorphic nature of cancer pain (Lemaire et al., 2019)
  • Treatment strategies in multimorphic cancer pain
  • Key facts of WHO cancer pain management guiding principles (World Health Organization, 2018)
  • Summary points: Strong opioids in cancer pain management
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Recent advances in the linkage of attachment and pain: A new review
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 3: The management of pain in older people
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pain perception in the elderly
  • Assessing pain in older people
  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes affecting older people
  • Overview of management of pain in older people
  • Opioids
  • Adjuvant analgesics
  • Summary of the pharmacological management of pain in older people
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Anesthesia and body mass: Epidural depth and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Preoperative assessment
  • Assessment of respiratory system
  • Assessment of cardiovascular system
  • Assessment of endocrine and musculoskeletal systems
  • Intraoperative management
  • Induction of anesthesia, anesthetic agents, and muscle relaxants
  • Thiopental sodium
  • Propofol
  • Opioids
  • Neuromuscular-blocking agents and antagonists
  • Volatile anesthetics
  • Regional anesthesia
  • Cessation of anesthesia and postoperative care
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of anesthesia and body mass: Epidural depth and beyond
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Anesthetics and analgesic activities of herbal medicine: Review of the possible mechanism of action
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Local anesthetics herbs
  • General anesthetics herbs
  • Potential hazards of anesthetics herbal medicine
  • Application of anesthetics herbal medicine
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Analgesia-first sedation and nonopioid multimodal analgesia in the intensive care unit
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pain and its assessment in critically ill adults
  • Assessment-driven protocols
  • Opioid choice, route of administration, and dosing
  • Analgosedation
  • Multimodal nonopioid analgesia use
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 7: The multidisciplinary Acute Pain Service_ Features and experiences
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The history of Acute Pain Services
  • Basic characteristics of an Acute Pain Service
  • Acute Pain Service and clinical outcome
  • The diffusion of Acute Pain Services
  • The main clinical experiences regarding the establishment of an Acute Pain Service
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts—Mini-dictionary
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Monitoring anesthesia: Electroencephalography and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Raw electroencephalography
  • Bispectral index
  • Evoked potential
  • Entropy
  • Narcotrend
  • Cerebral state index
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part II: The syndromes of pain
  • Chapter 9: Cluster headache and pain: Features and treatments
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Rhythmicity
  • Pathophysiology
  • Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias
  • Treatment
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts/summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Migraine and pain: Features and treatments
  • Abstract
  • Features
  • Treatments
  • Prophylactic migraine treatment
  • Nonpharmacological approach
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Complex regional pain syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Pharmacologic treatment
  • Interventional treatment
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Phantom limb pain
  • Abstract
  • Disclaimer
  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Management
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Painful diabetic neuropathy: The roles of microglia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Painful diabetic neuropathy
  • Microglia
  • Microglial activation during neuropathic pain
  • Central glia-neuronal interaction
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Maternal deprivation and nociception
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Development of nociceptive pathways
  • Maternal deprivation
  • Maternal deprivation and nociception: Preclinical perspectives
  • Maternal deprivation and nociception: Signaling pathways changes
  • Early life stress in humans including maternal deprivation
  • Environmental enrichment as a potential intervention against the effects of MD
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Giving birth and pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Modes of delivery
  • Stages of delivery
  • Pain treatment in giving birth
  • Neuraxial analgesia and anesthesia
  • Postpartum pain
  • Nonpharmacological treatment
  • Application to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Abdominal pain in gastroparesis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Types of gastroparesis
  • Symptoms of gastroparesis
  • Abdominal pain in gastroparesis
  • Symptom assessment in gastroparesis
  • Physical examination of gastroparesis patients
  • Diagnosis of gastroparesis
  • Treatment of gastroparesis
  • Treatment of abdominal pain in gastroparesis
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Appendicitis and related abdominal pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Natural history models
  • Typical presentation
  • Atypical presentation
  • Inflammatory markers
  • Clinical prediction rules and imaging tests
  • Management
  • Surgical approach and complications
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Ovarian hormones, site-specific nociception, and hypertension
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nociception mechanisms and modulation in hypertension: An overview
  • Nociception and blood pressure
  • Sex differences and ovarian hormones
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest (250–500 words)
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Linking the heart and pain: Physiological and psychophysiological mechanisms
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The history of the subject
  • Aspects related to (i, ii) a hypertension-related hypoalgesia phenomenon in chronic and acute pain conditions and (iii) a pain-killing etiology of the essential (primary) hypertension
  • Aspects related to (iv) the effectiveness of pain management prediction and monitoring by cardiovascular measures and to (v) effective pain control by cardiovascular mechanisms with pain-killing effects
  • An aspect related to (vi) the pain-o-meter technology
  • An aspect related to (vii) the baroreflex control of blood volume and pressure fluctuations in response to posture or body position changes in patients with pain
  • Summarizing the current knowledge of heart and pain relationships
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other areas of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of the issue associated with heart and pain interactions and related challenges
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Chronic pain in military veterans
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical models of chronic pain
  • Military basic training and rates of injury
  • Combat-related injuries in military personnel
  • Types of chronic pain in veterans
  • Comorbid conditions in veterans with chronic pain
  • Psychological comorbidities and social factors in veterans with chronic pain
  • Pain assessment and treatment
  • Nonpharmacologic pain modalities
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of chronic pain in military veterans
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Nociception during surgery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nociceptive pathway during surgery
  • Monitoring of nociception under general anesthesia
  • Intraoperative nociception and postoperative complications
  • Effects of intraoperative nociception on postoperative pain
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Breast cancer and nociceptione
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Treatments for breast cancer-induced pain
  • Limitations of cancer pain treatments
  • Bone pain in breast cancer
  • Treatments of bone pain in breast cancer
  • Side effects observed for the treatments of bone cancer pain
  • Animal models of breast cancer pain: Breast inoculation models
  • Animal models of breast cancer pain: A brief history of bone inoculation models
  • Animal models of breast cancer pain: Distinct bone inoculation models
  • Possible pharmacological targets for breast cancer pain relief
  • Cancer pain treatment by nonpharmacological treatments
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Postoperative pain after rhinoplasty and rhinologic surgery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Intraoperative analgesia and anesthesia
  • Postoperative pain management
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Pain response, neonates, and venipuncture
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of pain and CNS effects
  • Pain assessment tools
  • Problems in assessing neonatal pain
  • Pain relief measures
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 25: Carpal tunnel syndrome and pain
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Median nerve compression
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Pain and HIV
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Etiology of chronic pain in HIV
  • HIV-associated distal symmetric polyneuropathy
  • Current pain management
  • HIV, pain, and opioid use
  • Nonpharmacologic approaches to HIV-related pain
  • Future steps
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Pain mechanisms in computer and smartphone users
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Origins and mechanisms of neck-shoulder pain
  • Low-back pain mechanisms in computer and smartphone users
  • Individual risks factors
  • Physical risks factors for the development of pain
  • Psychosocial risks factors
  • Physical activity to prevent and manage musculoskeletal pain in computer and smartphone users
  • Ergonomics to prevent occupational musculoskeletal pain in computer and smartphone users
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part III: Interlinking anesthesia, analgesics and pain
  • Chapter 28: Health professionals’ and lay people’s positions regarding the use of analgesics in cancer cases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Studies of clinicians and the public
  • Mapping general practitioner’s positions regarding the use of opioids
  • Mapping lay people’s and health professionals’ positions on the use of analgesics in postoperative pain management
  • Mapping lay people’s and health professionals’ positions regarding the use of morphine to relieve intense pain
  • Mapping lay people’s and health professionals’ positions regarding temporary or terminal sedation
  • General discussion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Manual compression at myofascial trigger points ameliorates musculoskeletal pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Link between MTrPs and musculoskeletal pain
  • Diagnosis of MTrPs
  • Effects of compression at MTrPs for musculoskeletal pain
  • Possible mechanisms of MTrP compression effects
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of MTrP compression for musculoskeletal pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Multimodal analgesia and postsurgical pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Definition and classification of PSP
  • Incidence of PSP and CPSP
  • Pathophysiology of postoperative pain
  • Peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and neuroplastic changes in the brain after incision
  • Importance of PSP control
  • Risk factors for CPSP
  • Evaluation of pain intensity
  • PSP management: Enhanced recovery after surgery programs (ERAS)-preemptive, preventive, and multimodal analgesia (MA)
  • Framework of multimodal analgesia (MA)
  • Nonpharmacological interventions
  • Systemic nonopioid analgesics
  • Systemic opioid analgesics
  • Regional anesthesia, local anesthesia, and site infiltration with local anesthetics
  • Populations that need special consideration in treating PSP
  • Application of MA to other areas
  • Conclusions
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Pain, ultrasound-guided Pecs II block, and general anesthesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Acute and chronic postoperative pain in breast surgery
  • General anesthesia: A brief description
  • Technical description of ultrasound-guided Pecs II block
  • Clinical application ultrasound-guided Pecs II block
  • Pectoral nerves, intercostal nerve, and long thoracic nerve
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of ultrasound-guided Pecs II block
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Pain control during prostate biopsy and evolution of local anesthesia techniques
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications of local anesthetics to other areas
  • Mini dictionary
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Pain reduction in cosmetic injections: Fillers and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Psychological intervention
  • Vibration
  • Local anesthesia
  • Vapocoolant anesthesia
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Anesthesia and combat-related extremity injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Anesthesia and war
  • Acute pain
  • Regional anesthesia in extremity injury
  • Osseointegration and targeted muscle reinnervation
  • Damage control resuscitation
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Key facts of point of injury care
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Spinal anesthesia: Applications to cesarean section and pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of spinal anesthesia in the field of obstetrics
  • Spinal technique
  • Preparation
  • Choice of spinal medication
  • Continuous spinal anesthesia
  • Intraoperative management
  • Recovery from spinal anesthesia
  • Postoperative complications
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Postoperative pain management: Truncal blocks in thoracic surgery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pain management for thoracic surgery patients within ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery) protocols
  • Multimodal analgesia
  • Truncal blocks
  • Pectoral block type I and II
  • Serratus anterior plane block (SAPB)
  • Paravertebral block (PVB)
  • Intercostal block
  • Retrolaminar block (RLB)
  • Erector spinae plane block (ESPB)
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Postoperative pain management: Truncal blocks in general surgery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Truncal blocks
  • Transversus abdominis plane block
  • Rectus sheath block
  • Ilioinguinal nerve and iliohypogastric nerve blocks
  • Paravertebral block
  • Intercostal block
  • Quadratus lumborum block
  • Erector spinae plane block
  • Transversalis fascia plane block
  • Contraindications in truncal blocks
  • Preparation for truncal blocks
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Linking analgesia, epidural oxycodone, pain, and laparoscopy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Laparoscopy
  • Pain after laparoscopy
  • Pain treatment after laparoscopy
  • Interventions during surgery to prevent postoperative pain
  • Epidural analgesia
  • Oxycodone
  • Oxycodone central nervous penetration
  • Epidural oxycodone
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of epidural oxycodone
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Levobupivacaine features and linking in infiltrating analgesia
  • Abstract
  • Pharmacological basis for choice of local anesthetic for central and peripheral blocks
  • Local anesthetic properties
  • The mechanism of LA action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Local anesthetic toxicity
  • Pharmacology and use of levobupivacaine
  • Our local infiltration analgesia (LIA) body protocol
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of levobupivacaine
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part IV: Assessments, screening, and resources
  • Chapter 40: The pain catastrophizing scale: Features and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Features
  • Applications
  • Summary-conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • References
  • Chapter 41: Pain-related behavioral scales among a low back pain population: A narrative review
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Limitations
  • Conclusions
  • Clinical implication/Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Chapter 42: The analgesia nociception index: Features and application
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Basic principle of the ANI
  • Features of the ANI monitor
  • Interpretation of ANI values
  • Clinical applications
  • Conclusions
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of ANI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 43: Pain, anesthetics and analgesics/back pain evaluation questionnaires
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Back pain evaluation questionnaires for disease-specific measures
  • Conclusion
  • Suggestions for practical procedures
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 44: The back pain functional scale: Features and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of back pain functional scale
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 45: Cognitive impairment, pain, and analgesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Physiological and pathological aging: Cognitive impairment
  • Pain in the elderly
  • Neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer’s disease
  • Pain and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Future
  • References
  • Chapter 46: Biomarkers in endometriosis-associated pain
  • Abstract
  • Background
  • Prevalence
  • Diagnosis
  • Classification
  • Treatment
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood biomarkers
  • Urine biomarkers
  • Endometrial biomarkers
  • Discussion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of endometriosis
  • Summary points
  • Applications to other areas
  • References
  • Chapter 47: Biomarkers in bladder pain syndrome: A new narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Biomarkers
  • IC/BPS biomarkers and their potential relationship to disease pathophysiology
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 48: Biomarkers of statin-induced musculoskeletal pain: Vitamin D and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Statin associated muscle symptoms
  • Cholesterol and vitamin D
  • SAMS biomarkers
  • Conclusion
  • Other agents of interest
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 49: Performance-based and self-reported physical fitness in musculoskeletal pain
  • Abstract
  • Physical fitness
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Widespread musculoskeletal pain
  • Assessment of physical fitness in widespread musculoskeletal pain
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Volume 2: Treatments, Mechanisms, and Adverse Reactions of Anesthetics and Analgesics
  • Part I: Drugs and agents used in anesthesia and analgesia
  • Chapter 1: Anesthesia for malignant hyperthermia susceptible patients
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Diseases associated with susceptibility to MH
  • Clinical manifestation—MH crisis
  • Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
  • Treatment of MH crisis
  • Anesthesia for patients susceptible to malignant hypertermia
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of malignant hyperthermia
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Use of dextran in regional anesthesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of dextran as an LA adjuvant
  • Mechanism of dextran as LA adjuvant
  • Application of dextran as LA adjuvant for regional anesthesia
  • Summary of application of dextran as LA adjuvant
  • Future studies
  • Other agents
  • Mini-dictionary or terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Intraperitoneal local anesthetic agents in the management of postoperative pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Anatomic considerations and agents
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of intraperitoneal local anesthetic agents in the management of postoperative pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Automatic control of anesthesia via different vital signs
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Non-opioid based analgesia in otolaryngology
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Patient pain experience in otolaryngology
  • Risk factors for greater pain experience
  • Non-opioid analgesia
  • Discussion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part II: Mechanisms of action of drugs
  • Chapter 6: Buprenorphine: Mechanism and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Buprenorphine pharmacology
  • Adverse effects
  • Clinical use of buprenorphine
  • Perioperative management
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Caffeine as analgesic adjuvant
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Caffeine: Mechanism of action and effects in preclinical models of pain
  • Caffeine’s analgesic properties in humans
  • Pharmacokinetic properties in man in absence and presence of analgesics
  • Clinical efficacy data in acute pain trials
  • Caffeine and the ceiling effect of NSAIDs
  • Comparisons of caffeine-containing analgesics with active comparators
  • Caffeine and migraine
  • Caffeine and worsening of headache diseases?
  • Pain and functional impairment
  • Safety of caffeine and caffeine-containing analgesics
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts of caffeine
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Chloroprocaine: Features and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of chloroprocaine: Features and applications
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Clonidine: Features and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacological characteristics
  • Clinical applications in the perioperative period
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Conclusions
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 10: An excursion into secondary pharmacology of fentanyls with potential implications for drug design: σ1 receptor
  • Abstract
  • The role of fentanyl
  • Secondary pharmacology of fentanyls
  • σ1 receptor: A unique and intriguing protein
  • Affinity of fentanyls for σ1R
  • Fentanyls and σ1R: Insights from computations
  • Pharmacological relevance of fentanyls’ interactions with σ1R
  • Fentanyl structure as scaffold for dual μOR/σ1R ligands
  • Successful realization of the dual μOR/σ1R ligands concept
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Key facts of σ1 receptor
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Isoflurane: Mechanisms and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chemical structure and properties
  • Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics
  • Mechanism of action
  • Clinical effects
  • Adverse effects
  • Metabolism
  • Drug-drug interactions
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of isoflurane
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 12: The lidocaine patch: Features and applications: Post-thoracotomy pain and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Search strategy
  • Search results
  • Analysis of the results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Key facts of lidocaine patch for controlling acute postoperative pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Memantine: Features and application in the management of chronic pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Background: NMDA antagonists and pain
  • Memantine: Fundamental pharmacology
  • Memantine: Preclinical evidence of effect on pain
  • Memantine: Clinical evidence and literature review in chronic pain
  • Memantine: Considerations for clinical use
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Conclusions
  • Key facts
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Midazolam: Mechanism and perioperative applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mechanism of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Effects on the central nervous system
  • Effects on the respiratory system
  • Effects on the cardiovascular system
  • Clinical uses and dosage
  • Applications to other areas: Palliative care
  • Other agents of interest: Flumazenil
  • Key facts of midazolam
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Intravenous paracetamol: Features and applications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chemical structure and pharmacokinetics
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of intravenous paracetamol
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Prilocaine: Mechanisms and application
  • Abstract
  • The journey of local anesthetic
  • Structure
  • Classification of anesthetic drugs
  • Prilocaine
  • Pharmacology and mechanism action of local anesthetic agent—Prilocaine
  • Metabolism and excretion
  • Other applications of prilocaine
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Sevoflurane: Features and uses in topical application for wound care
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Systemic effects of sevoflurane and haloethers as general anesthetics
  • Analgesic effects of sevoflurane and haloethers on the central nervous system
  • Peripheral analgesic effects of sevoflurane and haloethers
  • Off-label use of topical sevoflurane on painful chronic wounds
  • Safety issues of topical sevoflurane
  • Dosages and methods of administration
  • Economic implications
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of painful chronic wounds
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Tramadol as an analgesic
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mechanism(s) of action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Therapeutic uses
  • Adverse effects and management of tramadol toxicity
  • Dependence, withdrawal, abuse, and tolerance
  • Contraindications
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part III: Adverse effects, reactions, and outcomes
  • Chapter 19: Long-term effects of anesthesia on the brain: an update on neurotoxicity
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of the United States Federal Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Key facts of anesthetic neurotoxicity
  • Key facts of postoperative cognitive dysfunction
  • Other agents of interest
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Breastfeeding and mother-baby dyad’s competence following neuraxial labor analgesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Human rotational delivery and childbirth pain
  • From prayers to neuraxial analgesia: A brief history of childbirth pain relief
  • The analgesia-breastfeeding issue: Alleged mechanism of interference
  • Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of infant’s life: Health impact
  • The analgesia-breastfeeding issue in the literature
  • The analgesia-breastfeeding issue as a new research opportunity
  • Breastfeeding as a measure of dyadic neurological competence
  • Searching for objective, nonbiased indicators of breastfeeding initiation success
  • Measuring and grading breastfeeding initiation success
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of labor analgesia state of art in guidelines and metaanalyses
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Mechanistic overview of how opioid analgesics promote constipation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The enteric nervous system: Master regulator of GI function
  • Opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands
  • Opioids inhibit GI function through actions on the ENS
  • How do opioids exert their inhibitory effects on GI motility to promote chronic constipation?
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of opioid-induced constipation
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain and opioid use disorder
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence of chronic pain and OUD
  • Clinical complexity of patients with chronic pain and OUD
  • Provider consideration
  • Necessary pharmacological platform: Medication for opioid use disorder
  • Optimal medical management
  • Overview of CBT for chronic pain and OUD
  • Seven clinical problems or challenges
  • Applications to other areas: Real-world delivery of CBT for chronic pain and OUD
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of CBT for chronic pain and OUD
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 23: Preoperative opioid and benzodiazepines: Impact on adverse outcomes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Definition of chronic opioid and BZD usage
  • Prevalence of chronic preoperative opioid and BZD usage
  • Characteristics of patient cohorts with preoperative chronic opioid and BZD usage
  • Perioperative outcomes of patients taking opioids and BZDs preoperatively
  • Increased risk of complications from analgesia
  • Other short-term outcomes
  • Long-term postoperative outcomes for patients
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Malignant hyperthermia syndrome and hydrogen sulfide signaling: Role of Kv7 channels
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “malignant hyperthermia syndrome and hydrogen sulfide signaling role of Kv7 channels”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Problems with epidural catheter
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Problems encountered while inserting an epidural catheter
  • Breakage of epidural catheters
  • Blocked epidural catheter
  • Epidural catheter removal difficulty
  • Spinal epidural hematoma
  • Spinal epidural abscess
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Headache after neuraxial blocks: A focus on combined spinal-epidural anesthesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of PDPH
  • The importance of PDPH
  • The mechanism of PDPH
  • The characteristics of PDPH
  • Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia
  • Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for special patient groups
  • Effects of application techniques of CSEA on headache
  • Prophylaxis of PDPH after UDP in neuroaxial anesthesia
  • Management of PDPH
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Liposomal bupivacaine, pain relief and adverse events
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Liposomes and DepoFoam
  • Liposomal bupivacaine
  • Clinical pharmacology
  • Safety and adverse events
  • Clinical uses and efficacy
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of liposome bupivacaine
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Adverse events associated with analgesics: A focus on paracetamol use
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mechanism of toxicity
  • Clinical and laboratory manifestations of hepatotoxicity
  • Risk factors of liver injury
  • Management of acute poisoning
  • Chronic poisoning
  • Immediate hypersensitivity
  • Delayed hypersensitivity
  • Diagnosis and management of paracetamol-induced hypersensitivity reactions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of paracetamol-induced toxicity and hypersensitivity
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part IV: Novel and nonpharmacological aspects and treatments
  • Chapter 29: Acronychia pedunculata leaves and usage in pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Traditional medicinal system in Sri Lanka
  • Acronychia pedunculata as a Sri Lankan medicinal plant
  • Chemistry and biological activities of A. pedunculata
  • Anti-inflammatory activity of A. pedunculate leaves
  • Identification of anti-inflammatory fractions and active compounds of A. pedunculate leaves
  • Analgesic activity of A. pedunculate leaves
  • Other areas of applications of A. pedunculata
  • Other agents of interest
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary
  • A list of other novel plant-based agents used in analgesia or anesthesia
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Adansonia digitata and its use in neuropathic pain: Prostaglandins and beyond
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Significance of Adansonia digitata
  • Composition of Adansonia digitata plant
  • Impact of Adansonia digitata on pain
  • Potential mechanism of actions for A. digitata extract, from prostaglandins and beyond
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Andrographis paniculata standardized extract (ParActin) and pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Capsaicin: Features usage in diabetic neuropathic pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Clinical data of capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy
  • Modern-day studies
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Cola nitida and pain relief
  • Abstract
  • Introduction on Cola nitida
  • Brief review on Cola nitida
  • Socio-cultural values and uses
  • Distribution of Cola nitida
  • Composition of Cola nitida
  • Uses of Cola nitida
  • Traditional uses of Cola nitida
  • Pharmacological potentials of Cola nitida
  • Pain and nociception
  • Causes of pain
  • Classification of pain
  • Peripheral mechanisms of sensory transmission
  • Cola nitida as a therapeutic agent for pain relief
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Analgesic effects of Ephedra herb and ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra herb extract (EFE)
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Ephedra herb and ephedrine alkaloids
  • Novel active ingredients, herbacetin-glycosides, in Ephedra herb and the analgesic effect of herbacetin, an active metabolite of herbacetin-glycosides
  • Development of ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE)
  • Adverse effects of EHE and safety of EFE
  • Analgesic effects of EHE and EFE on formalin-induced pain
  • Analgesic effects of EHE, EFE, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine on formalin-induced pain
  • Analgesic effect of EFE on pain in arthritis model mouse
  • Reduction of capsaicin-induced pain via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) by EHE
  • Application to other areas
  • Conclusions and perspectives
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Euphorbia bicolor (Euphorbiaceae) latex phytochemicals and applications to analgesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Medicinal properties of the Euphorbia species
  • Medicinal properties of E. bicolor latex
  • Identification of E. bicolor latex phytochemicals
  • Evidence of pain-relieving properties of the E. bicolor latex phytochemicals
  • Development of E. bicolor phytochemicals as phytomedicines for pain management
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts about coumestans
  • Key facts about diterpenes
  • Key facts about flavonoids
  • Key facts about isoflavones
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Analgesic properties and mechanisms of action of Muntingia calabura extracts: A review
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Muntingia calabura L
  • Antinociceptive activity of Muntigia calabura leaves extracts
  • Mechanisms of action underlying the antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura leaves extracts
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of traditional and complementary medicine
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Resolving neuroinflammation and pain with maresin 1, a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • MaR1
  • Analgesic effects of MaR1
  • Clinical analgesic evidence of MaR1 and its precursors
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Therapeutic role of naringenin to alleviate inflammatory pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Naringenin actions on transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and inflammatory pain relief
  • Naringenin inhibits the production of endogenous cytokines that mediate inflammatory pain
  • Naringenin targets oxidative stress to reduce inflammatory pain
  • Analgesic pathways actively induced by naringenin
  • Naringenin modulates transcription factors and miRNA
  • Clinical applicability and safety
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of inflammatory pain
  • Summary points
  • Funding
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Analgesic properties of plants from the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae)
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Solanum genus L. (Solanaceae)
  • Antinociceptive effects of Solanum spp. extracts
  • Antiinflammatory activity of Solanum spp. extracts
  • Type of analgesia produced by Solanum spp. extracts
  • Chemical constituents of active extracts
  • Other pharmaco-toxicological activities of interest
  • Application to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of Solanum analgesia
  • Other agents of interest
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Dietary constituents act as local anesthetic agents: Neurophysiological mechanism of nociceptive pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Ascending pain pathway in trigeminal system
  • Sensory transduction and noxious transmission
  • Possible molecular targets for local anesthetic agents
  • Peripheral mechanism for potential candidates of dietary constituents as local anesthetic agents
  • Functional significance for dietary constituents as local anesthetic agents
  • Future direction
  • Concluding remarks
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 41: Pain response following prenatal stress and its modulation by antioxidants
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative stress
  • Antioxidant
  • Honey
  • Protective effects of other antioxidants in the prenatally stressed offspring
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of prenatal stress
  • Key facts of antioxidants
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Physical activity and exercise in the prevention of musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents
  • Abstract
  • Background
  • Physical activity in the prevention of musculoskeletal pain
  • Physical fitness components in the prevention of musculoskeletal pain
  • Risk factors for MSKP and the preventive role of physical activity and exercise
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 43: Linking aerobic exercise and childhood pain alleviation: A narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Aerobic activity levels in youth with chronic pain
  • Effect of aerobic exercise on pediatric chronic pain intensity
  • Current literature on effect of aerobic exercise on chronic pediatric pain intensity
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 44: Physical activity and exercise in the management of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain: A focus on fibromyalgia
  • Abstract
  • Musculoskeletal pain
  • Physical activity in musculoskeletal pain: A historical perspective
  • Levels of physical activity in musculoskeletal pain
  • Interventions to enhance physical activity in musculoskeletal pain: Current evidence and novel approaches
  • Physical exercise in musculoskeletal pain
  • General advice to design physical exercise programs for chronic musculoskeletal pain
  • Physical activity in fibromyalgia
  • Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia
  • Resistance training in fibromyalgia
  • Multicomponent exercise in fibromyalgia
  • Mind-body exercise in fibromyalgia
  • Exergames in fibromyalgia
  • General exercise recommendations
  • Effectiveness of physical exercise in fibromyalgia: A summary of the evidence
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 45: Spinal cord stimulation and limb pain
  • Abstract
  • History
  • Conventional tonic SCS
  • Dorsal root ganglion stimulation
  • High frequency 10 kHz SCS
  • Burst SCS
  • Ischemic pain
  • Patient selection
  • Outcomes
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of spinal cord stimulation and limb pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 46: Effectiveness of neural mobilization on pain and disability in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Headache and neck pain
  • Cervicobrachial pain
  • Median, cubital, and radial nerves entrapment syndromes
  • Low back pain
  • Lower limb and neurodynamic techniques
  • Clinical applications
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of musculoskeletal disorders
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 47: Virtual reality and applications to treating neck pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Neck pain and VR-based rehabilitation
  • VR systems design in NP rehabilitation
  • Clinical efficacy of VR in neck disorders
  • Kinematic impairments
  • Disability
  • Postural control and balance impairment
  • Factors affecting the efficacy of VR-based treatment in NP
  • VR application as an assessment tool in NP
  • Disadvantages of VR application in NP
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of VR
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 48: Virtual reality induced analgesia and dental pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Distraction as an approach to relieve injection discomfort
  • Virtual reality devices in dental pain management
  • Safety considerations
  • Effectiveness of VR in reduction of injection discomfort
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of the use of VR devices in dental pain management
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 49: Vibrotactile devices, DentalVibe, and local anesthesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Non-pharmacological approach to injection discomfort
  • Melzack and Wall’s gate control theory of pain
  • Fear of dental injections
  • Reduction of discomfort during local anesthesia
  • Vibrotactile devices for dental use
  • Effectiveness in reduction of injection discomfort
  • Evaluation of the efficacy of vibrotactile devices
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of vibrotactile devices for dental use
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 50: Cooled radiofrequency ablation as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nonpharmacological and pharmacological conservative treatments
  • Minimally invasive and surgical approaches
  • Denervation treatment in knee osteoarthritis
  • Cryoablation
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Clinical trials of radiofrequency ablation
  • Other studies of radiofrequency ablation
  • Summary of radiofrequency ablation
  • Cooled radiofrequency ablation
  • Clinical trials of cooled radiofrequency ablation
  • Other studies of cooled radiofrequency ablation
  • Summary of cooled radiofrequency ablation
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other ablative procedures of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of cooled radiofrequency ablation
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 51: Nonpharmacologic analgesic therapies: A focus on photobiomodulation, acustimulation, and cryoanalgesia (ice) therapy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Photobiomodulation therapy
  • Acustimulation
  • Cryoanalgesia (ice) therapy
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of nonpharmacologic analgesic therapies
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 52: New coping strategies and self-education for chronic pain management: E-health
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of chronic pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 53: Postoperative pain management: Truncal blocks in obstetric and gynecologic surgery
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Preparation for the truncal block
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Volume 3: The Neurobiology, Physiology, and Psychology of Pain
  • Part I: Molecular and cellular aspects
  • Chapter 1: KCNQ/Kv7 channels as therapeutic target to treat neuropathic pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • KCNQ/Kv7 channel family members
  • KCNQ channels in primary sensory neurons and their contribution to neuropathic pain
  • KCNQ channels as therapeutic target to treat neuropathic pain
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of KCNQ/Kv7 channels and neuropathic pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 2: A new mutation in NTRK1 gene is associated with congenital insensitivity to pain without anhidrosis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Prdm12, a key transcriptional regulator of the nociceptive lineage
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts showing the importance of Prdm12 in nociceptors
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Genetics of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Heritability of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain
  • Candidate gene studies in chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain
  • GWAS
  • Interactions (gene-gene and gene-environment)
  • Future perspectives (mainly, research agenda)
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Fentanyl: Polymorphisms, and adverse events
  • Abstract
  • Opioid fentanyl use in pain management
  • Potential pharmacogenetics markers in fentanyl pain management
  • Barriers to implementation
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of fentanyl
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Propofol anesthesia and molecular changes in the brain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Formulation matter
  • Neural and molecular targets of propofol
  • Propofol-induced brain molecular changes during postanesthesia period
  • Molecular autograph of longer exposures to propofol at the peak of the brain growth spurt
  • Propofol and age-related brain pathology
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of propofol anesthesia and molecular changes in the brain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Protein kinase G is a molecular switch for pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pain is perceived via inputs from nociceptive circuits that are adaptive
  • LTH is induced by protein kinase G, a positive injury signal in nociceptive neurons
  • Development of a novel potent PKG inhibitor
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Adrenergic agonists and antagonists enhance opioid receptor activity
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Anatomical and cellular codistribution of opioid and adrenergic functions
  • Mechanisms of adrenergic receptor-opioid receptor cross-talk
  • A model of adrenoceptor-opioid receptor cross-talk
  • Synergistic effects of adrenergic-opioid receptor cross-talk in the treatment of pain
  • Prevention of desensitization and mutual resensitization of opioid and adrenergic receptor function by each other’s ligands
  • Applications to other areas: Local anesthetic enhancement and opioid sparing uses
  • Other agents of interest: Ascorbic acid, tramadol and tapentadol, and ketamine
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Inflammatory and neuropathic pain impact on the opioid function in the mesocorticolimbic system
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • A short introduction to the opioid receptors
  • The endogenous opioid system: A key component of analgesia, reward, and aversion
  • Chronic pain alters brain function and connectivity recruiting motivational and emotional regions
  • PET imaging confirms pain-induced alterations of ORs in the MCLS during pain
  • Preclinical studies show altered MOR density or function derived from the presence of pain
  • Animal models of pain showed altered DA-related behaviors derived from the pharmacological activation of MORs
  • Inflammatory pain promotes increased opioid self-administration
  • Dynorfin/KOR system (Dyn/KOR) of the MCLS: A new key player in pain field
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of pain-induced changes in OR function
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Clinacanthus nutans L., analgesia, and the l-arginine/nitric oxide-mediated/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate-independent pathway
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Clinacanthus nutans L.
  • Report on findings related to the antinociceptive activity of C. nutans
  • Antinociceptive profile of PEP and the possible mechanisms of antinociception
  • Phytoconstituents of MCNL and PEP
  • Conclusion based on the reported antinociceptive activity of MCNL and PEP
  • Involvement of peripheral and central antinociceptive mechanisms
  • Involvement of various mechanisms of antinociception
  • Involvement of specific opioidergic system subtypes
  • Role of nonopioidergic systems
  • Involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors, glutamatergic system, protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated pathway, and bradykininergic system
  • Involvement of α2-adrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, or muscarinic cholinergic receptor systems
  • Involvement of various types of K+ channels
  • Role of NO-mediated pathways
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 11: The orally bioavailable imidazodiazepine, KRM-II-81, is a novel potentiator of α2/3-containing GABAA receptors with analgesic efficacy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • GABA receptors
  • GABAA receptor potentiating benzodiazepines and pain
  • Alpha 2/3-containing GABAA receptors
  • KRM-II-81
  • KRM-II-81 and pain
  • Side effect burden
  • Applications to other therapeutic areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 12: Extrasynaptic α5GABAA receptors and their role in nociception and pathological pain
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • GABAA receptors
  • Expression of α5GABAA receptors at spinal cord and DRG
  • GABAergic tonic current in the spinal cord
  • GABAergic tonic current in spinal cord in mammals
  • Extrasynaptic α5GABAA receptors in the rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffmann reflex (HR)
  • Function of extrasynaptic α5GABAA receptors in primary afferent fibers
  • Extrasynaptic spinal α5GABAA receptors in pain
  • Extrasynaptic α5GABAA receptors regulation
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts on α5GABAA receptors in pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 13: ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pain and analgesia
  • Abstract
  • ATP-sensitive potassium channels (Katp)
  • Possible role for Katp channels in primary nociceptive neurons during hyperglycemia
  • Katp involvement in the mechanisms of analgesic substances
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle and pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Nociception and sweet solutions: Applications to inflammatory pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Inflammatory pain pathways
  • Pain behaviors and assessment
  • Use of sweet solutions for inflammatory pain
  • Mechanisms of sweet solutions for inflammatory pain
  • Sweet tasting solutions used for analgesia
  • Clinical applications
  • Importance of treatment of neonatal pain
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Interlinking interleukin-33 (IL-33), neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain
  • Abstract
  • IL-33
  • Neuropathic pain and glial cells
  • IL-33 and glial cells
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of IL-33 in neuropathic pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Neurons of the parabrachial nucleus, nociceptive input, and pain pathways
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of the PBN
  • Afferent pain transmitting pathways to the LPB
  • Nociceptive neurons in the LPB and their aversive pathway to amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)
  • CGRP-positive neurons in the PBel
  • Nociceptive neurons in the LPB and their autonomic connection with the hypothalamus
  • Pain-modulating pathways from the LPB
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Anterior cingulate cortex, pain perception, and pathological neuronal plasticity during chronic pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • ACC is a critical hub linking neuronal circuits for nociception and emotion
  • ACC activation is associated with the affective component of pain
  • ACC neuronal activity mediates pain-induced negative affect
  • Nociception-related neurons in the ACC
  • Distinct cortical representation of acute and chronic pain
  • Pathological neuronal plasticity in the ACC associated to chronic pain
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Sleep deprivation, headache, and Fos immunohistochemistry
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pain, headache, and sleep deprivation
  • The pathophysiologic relationship between sleep deprivation and headache
  • Modulation of headache and sleep-wake cycles
  • Pharmacologic relationships between headache and sleep
  • Experimental research to examine headache and sleep deprivation
  • Experimental studies of sleep deprivation and headache pain
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Antinociceptive glucagon-like peptides
  • Abstract
  • Introduction to the glucagon-like peptides
  • Applications to other areas
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 and its analogs
  • Glucagon-like peptide-2
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of glucagon-like peptides
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Pain transmission and peripheral group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs)
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Glutamate metabolism in peripheral nervous system
  • Glutamate release and pain
  • Glutamate receptor signaling: iGluR and mGluR
  • Localization of peripheral group III mGluR
  • Negative modulation of pain transmission
  • Group III mGluRs in non-neuronal glial cells
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of activity-dependent inhibition
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: TRPM8 receptor and menthol in pain management
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Transient receptor potential channels
  • Menthol
  • Multimodal pain therapy
  • Posttraumatic and postoperative pain
  • Musculoskeletal pain
  • Neuropathic pain
  • Headache and migraine
  • Pregnant and lactating women
  • Children and adolescent
  • Elderly
  • Obesity
  • Other agents of interest
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of TRPM8 receptor and menthol
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Part II: Physiology, imaging and physical recordings
  • Chapter 23: Anesthetic and proconvulsant effects of ketamine on EEG
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Ketamine effects as anesthetic
  • Ketamine effects as proconvulsant
  • EEG analysis of ketamine effects
  • Scalp vs intracranial EEG effects of ketamine in nonhuman primate model of an idiopathic generalized epilepsy
  • Effects of other agents on EEG
  • Key facts of anesthetic and proconvulsant effects of ketamine on EEG
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Electroencephalography and anesthetic doses of ketamine
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Spectral EEG changes
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Linking heart function and analgesia
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Analgesic drugs
  • Application to other areas: Effects of NSAIDs on the kidney
  • Other agents of interest: Adjuvants
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Computed tomography-guided procedures for epidural injections
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • General principles and technique common to all types of CT-guided epidural injections
  • Epidural injections
  • Radiation safety
  • Complications
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 27: Chronic pain: Linking deep brain stimulation and sensory functional MRI
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of deep brain stimulation for chronic pain
  • Central pain processing
  • Modern visualization of DBS targets
  • Application to other areas
  • Other methods of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Neurocognition and placebo analgesia: Linking in functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Understanding the placebo effect: From the biological approach to the advent of neuroimaging techniques
  • Pain modulatory mechanisms relevant for the neuroimaging study of PA
  • Pain and nociceptive stimuli in neuroimaging study of PA
  • Pain evaluation and temporal phases in neuroimaging study of PA
  • Sample characteristic relevant for the neuroimaging study of PA
  • Neurocognitive predictors in neuroimaging study of PA: Attention, expectation, and reappraisal
  • The neuroimaging meta-analytic approach to the study of PA and related neurocognitive factors
  • Neuroimaging findings in the study of PA in Alzheimer’s disease
  • Future directions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Linking the cortex, functional spectroscopy, and pain: Features and applications
  • Abstract
  • Basic concepts
  • Cortical functions related to pain processing
  • Role of the motor cortex in pain processing
  • Role of the PFC in pain processing
  • Nature of brain regions recruited during pain: Insights from human imaging studies
  • The biological rationale behind near-infrared spectroscopy
  • fNIRS neuroimaging: Technical aspects, advantages, limitations, and applications
  • The sequence of steps to perform neuroscience studies using fNIRS
  • Applications of fNIRS in pain research
  • fNIRS and cortical connectivity in pain research
  • Remarks and future directions
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key factors related to fNIRS
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Muscle origins of myofascial pain syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nociception in muscle tissue
  • Referred pain and peripheral sensitization process
  • Sympathetic facilitation of muscle pain
  • Central sensitization
  • Clinical applications
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of myofascial pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part III: Psychology and behavior
  • Chapter 31: Behavioral markers of pain: Understanding the cognitive, motor, and societal interactions in the pain experience
  • Abstract
  • Psychology and cognition
  • Motor behavior
  • Social interactions and pain behavior convention
  • What is coming in the next 5–10 years?
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Adverse life events, sensitization of spinal nociception, and chronic pain risk
  • Abstract
  • Adverse life events: A definition
  • Adverse life events and health
  • Adverse life events and chronic pain
  • The impact of adversity (stress) on nociception in animals
  • Pain systems and their assessment in humans
  • Adversity and pain processing in humans
  • Adversity, latent sensitization, and pain risk
  • Implications and future directions
  • Summary
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts about adversity
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Cognitive-affective modulation of pain: The placebo and nocebo phenomena and their impact on pain treatment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Psychological mechanisms of placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia
  • Neurobiological and neurochemical mechanisms of placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia
  • The relevance of placebo and nocebo effects for pain treatment in clinical practice
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of placebo analgesia
  • Key facts of nocebo hyperalgesia
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Nociception-related behavioral phenotypes in adult zebrafish
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nociception and pain in animal models
  • Zebrafish as animal model for translational pain research
  • Zebrafish-based pain models
  • Applications to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Pain, implantable pain devices, and psychosocial aspects of pain
  • Abstract
  • Anatomy of pain pathways
  • Psychosocial aspects of neuropathic pain
  • Rationale for psychosocial evaluations
  • Effect of spinal cord stimulation on pain processing
  • Effects of modes of stimulation on psychosocial aspects of pain
  • Conclusions
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of pain, implantable devices, and psychosocial aspects of pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Influence of psychological factors on myofascial pain
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Application to other areas
  • Other agents of interest
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of myofascial pain
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Part IV: Resources
  • Chapter 37: Recommended resources, sites, and research groups for the neuroscience of anesthetics and analgesics
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Resources
  • Applications to other areas
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key points
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Index for Volume 1
  • Index for Volume 2
  • Index for Volume 3

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1740
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: November 30, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323903134

About the Editors

Rajkumar Rajendram

Dr. Rajendram is a clinician scientist whose focus is on perioperative medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. He graduated in 2001 with a distinction from Guy’s, King’s, and St. Thomas Medical School in London, and began his postgraduate medical training in general medicine and intensive care in Oxford. Dr. Rajendram returned to Oxford as a consultant in general medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, before moving to the Royal Free London Hospitals as a consultant in intensive care, anesthesia, and perioperative medicine. He is currently a consultant in internal and perioperative medicine at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. As a visiting lecturer in the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, he has published over 100 textbook chapters, review articles, peer-reviewed papers, and abstracts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Lecturer, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, UK

Vinood Patel

Vinood B. Patel, BSc, PhD, FRSC, is currently Reader in Clinical Biochemistry at the University of Westminster. He presently directs studies on metabolic pathways involved in liver disease, particularly related to mitochondrial energy regulation and cell death. Research is being undertaken to study the role of nutrients, antioxidants, phytochemicals, iron, alcohol and fatty acids in the pathophysiology of liver disease. Other areas of interest are identifying new biomarkers that can be used for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver disease and understanding mitochondrial oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s disease and gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism. Dr Patel is a nationally and internationally recognized researcher and has several edited biomedical books related to the use or investigation of active agents or components. In 2014 Dr. Patel was elected as a Fellow to The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Reader, University of Westminster, London, UK

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, at King’s College London and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry (Hon) at King’s College Hospital. He was the long-term Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London from 2006 to 2020. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof. Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in dietary and plant-based components. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, King’s College London; Professor, King’s College Hospital, London, UK

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