The Neurology of Consciousness

The Neurology of Consciousness

Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropathology

2nd Edition - August 12, 2015

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  • Editors: Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries, Giulio Tononi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128011751
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128009482

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The second edition of The Neurology of Consciousness is a comprehensive update of this ground-breaking work on human consciousness, the first book in this area to summarize the neuroanatomical and functional underpinnings of consciousness by emphasizing a lesional approach offered by the study of neurological patients. Since the publication of the first edition in 2009, new methodologies have made consciousness much more accessible scientifically, and, in particular, the study of disorders, disruptions, and disturbances of consciousness has added tremendously to our understanding of the biological basis of human consciousness. The publication of a new edition is both critical and timely for continued understanding of the field of consciousness. In this critical and timely update, revised and new contributions by internationally renowned researchers—edited by the leaders in the field of consciousness research—provide a unique and comprehensive focus on human consciousness. The new edition of The Neurobiology of Consciousness will continue to be an indispensable resource for researchers and students working on the cognitive neuroscience of consciousness and related disorders, as well as for neuroscientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists contemplating consciousness as one of the philosophical, ethical, sociological, political, and religious questions of our time.  

Key Features

  • New chapters on the neuroanatomical basis of consciousness and short-term memory, and expanded coverage of comas and neuroethics, including the ethics of brain death
  • The first comprehensive, authoritative collection to describe disorders of consciousness and how they are used to study and understand the neural correlates of conscious perception in humans.
  • Includes both revised and new chapters from the top international researchers in the field, including Christof Koch, Marcus Raichle, Nicholas Schiff, Joseph Fins, and Michael Gazzaniga


Researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in cognitive neuroscience, cognitive neurology, neuroscience, translational neuroscience, neurology, and neuropsychology, as well as cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and psychiatry

Table of Contents

    • Dedication
    • Foreword
    • Preface
    • List of Contributors
    • Part I: Basics
      • Chapter 1. Neuroanatomical Basis of Consciousness
        • Introduction
        • The Consciousness System
        • Subcortical Networks and Consciousness
        • Cortical Networks and Consciousness
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 2. Functional Neuroimaging Techniques
        • Positron Emission Tomography
        • Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
        • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
        • Electroencephalography
        • Evoked Potentials
        • Electrocorticography, Intracerebral Local Field Potentials, and Single-Unit Recordings
        • Magnetoencephalography
        • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
        • Multimodal Imaging Assessment
        • Functional Neuroimaging Study Design
        • Analyzing Brain-Imaging Data
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 3. Neuronal Oscillations, Coherence, and Consciousness
        • Relevance of Oscillatory Signals
        • Dynamic Coupling by Neural Coherence
        • Relation of Oscillations and Coherence to Levels of Consciousness
        • Relation of Oscillations and Coherence to Contents of Consciousness
        • Conclusions: Coherence and Consciousness
        • References
      • Chapter 4. Neural Correlates of Visual Consciousness
        • Brain Activity Associated with Visual Stimuli that Do Not Reach Awareness
        • Unprompted (Involuntary) Changes in the Contents of Visual Awareness
        • Deliberate Changes to the Contents of Visual Awareness
        • Necessary and Sufficient Correlates of Consciousness
        • Overall Summary and Future Directions
        • Acknowledgment
        • References
      • Chapter 5. The Relationship Between Consciousness and Top-Down Attention
        • Introduction
        • Functional Considerations
        • The Fourfold Way of Processing Visual Events
        • Attention Without Consciousness
        • Consciousness in the Absence of Attention
        • Opposing Effects of Consciousness and Attention
        • Neuronal Measures of Dissociations Between Attention and Consciousness
        • Relationship to Other Conceptual Frameworks for Top-Down Attention and Consciousness
        • Optogenetic Studies to Achieve Consciousness with No Attention in Animals
        • Concluding Remarks: Do These Conclusions Hold for Real Life?
        • Questions for Further Research
        • Acknowledgments
        • Note
        • References
    • Part II: Waking, Sleep, and Anaesthesia
      • Chapter 6. Intrinsic Brain Activity and Consciousness
        • The Brain at Rest
        • The Resting State Paradigm
        • Intrinsic Brain Activity Reflects Reportable Awareness
        • Intrinsic Brain Activity Reflects Levels of Consciousness
        • What to Expect for the Future
        • References
      • Chapter 7. Sleep and Dreaming
        • Sleep Stages and Cycles
        • Brain Centers Regulating Wakefulness and Sleep
        • Neural Correlates of Wakefulness and Sleep
        • Consciousness in Sleep
        • Dissociated States
        • References
      • Chapter 8. Sleepwalking: Dissociation Between “Body Sleep” and “Mind Sleep”
        • Definition
        • Historical Remarks
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Neurophysiological Features
        • Etiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Forensic Aspects
        • Conclusion
        • Note
        • References
      • Chapter 9. Consciousness and Anesthesia
        • Introduction
        • Systems-Based Approach to Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness
        • Anesthetic Effects on Subcortical Nuclei Regulating Wakefulness
        • Role of the Thalamus and Thalamocortical System in Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness
        • Disrupting Corticocortical Connectivity and Communication as a Mechanism of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness
        • Network-Level Organization during Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness
        • Using General Anesthetics to Test Theories of Consciousness
        • Conclusion
        • References
    • Part III: Severe Brain Injury and Related Conditions
      • Chapter 10. The Assessment of Conscious Awareness in the Vegetative State
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Description
        • Resting Brain Function
        • Passive Neuroimaging Studies
        • Active Neuroimaging Studies
        • Communication
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 11. Minimally Conscious State
        • Definition and Diagnostic Criteria
        • Bedside Assessment Methods
        • Bedside Assessment and Diagnostic Accuracy
        • Pain Assessment and the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised
        • Incidence and Prevalence
        • Prognosis and Outcome
        • Neurodiagnostic Technologies and Potential Clinical Applications
        • Functional Brain Imaging for Differentiating MCS from VS
        • Patients with Covert Cognition
        • Structural Brain Imaging in MCS
        • The Use of Brain-Computer Interfaces in Clinical Settings: Ethical Issues and Future Perspectives
        • Therapeutic Interventions
        • Directions for Future Research
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 12. Consciousness in the Locked-In Syndrome
        • Definition
        • Etiology
        • Misdiagnosis
        • Survival and Mortality
        • Prognosis and Outcome
        • Communication
        • Residual Brain Function
        • Daily Activities
        • Quality of Life
        • The Right to Die or the Right to Live?
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 13. Consciousness and Dementia: How the Brain Loses Its Self
        • Cognitive Impairment and Disruption of Brain Functional Integrity in Alzheimer’s Disease
        • How the Brain Gets Lost in Degenerative Dementia
        • Loss of Insight versus Loss of Sight
        • Hallucinations in Dementia: Where Do They Come from?
        • Delusional Misidentification Syndromes
        • In Dementia Losing the Mind May Be Loosening the Brain
        • Conclusions
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 14. Brain–Computer Interface Based Solutions for End-Users with Severe Communication Disorders
        • Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCI)—What, Why, and Whereto
        • BCI for Communication and Control—Targeted Patients
        • Brain–Computer Interfacing in Patients with SCD
        • Non-Visual BCI for Restoring Lost Function
        • BCI to Improve Impaired Function
        • Practical BCI for SCD—Problems and Solutions
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 15. Neuroethics and Disorders of Consciousness: A Pragmatic Approach to Neuropalliative Care
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Pragmatism
        • Clinical Pragmatism and Disorders of Consciousness
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
    • Part IV: Seizures, Splits, Neglects, and Assorted Disorders
      • Chapter 16. Epilepsy and Consciousness
        • Introduction
        • Absence Seizures
        • Generalized Tonic–Clonic Seizures
        • Focal Impaired Consciousness Seizures
        • Summary and Practical Implications
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 17. Split-Brain, Split-Mind
        • Two Conscious Hemispheres
        • Two Conscious Hemispheres with Different Conscious Experiences
        • A Split-Brain Conundrum and the Left Hemisphere Interpreter
        • What Split-Brain Patients Tell Us about Consciousness
        • Summary
        • References
      • Chapter 18. Visual Consciousness: A “Re-Updated” Neurological Tour
        • Introduction
        • Conscious Reportability
        • Blindsight: Highlighting the Role of Visual Cortex
        • Visual Form Agnosia, Optic Ataxia, and Visual Hallucinations: The Key Role of the Ventral Pathway
        • Unilateral Spatial Neglect: The Necessity of Attentional Allocation
        • Source and Effects of Top-Down Attentional Effects: Attention Is Not Consciousness
        • Are There Limits to Non-Conscious Cognitive Control?
        • Consciousness Is a World of (Neuro)Science-Fictions
        • A Theoretical Sketch of Consciousness
        • Conclusion
        • Notes
        • References
      • Chapter 19. Self-Awareness Disorders in Conversion Hysteria
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
        • Conversion Hysteria and Brain Diseases
        • Neurobiological Hypotheses
        • Brain Imaging Studies of Conversion
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Chapter 20. Leaving Body and Life Behind: Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experience
        • Out-of-Body Experiences
        • Near-Death Experiences
        • Cognitive Neuroscience of NDE Phenomena
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 21. The Hippocampus, Memory, and Consciousness
        • Prologue: Road Trip
        • Background
        • The Neurological Exam and Its Implications for Consciousness
        • The Implications of MTL Damage for Neuroanatomical and Neurophysiological Correlates of Consciousness
        • The Effects of MTL Damage on Various Mental Functions and Their Implications for Consciousness
        • What It Is Like to Be Amnesic?
        • Conclusions
        • Epilogue: A Final Word
        • Acknowledgments
        • Notes
        • References
      • Chapter 22. Syndromes of Transient Amnesia
        • Transient Global Amnesia
        • Transient Epileptic Amnesia
        • Psychogenic Amnesia
        • Head Injury
        • Drugs
        • Transient Amnesia and Consciousness
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Chapter 23. Consciousness and Aphasia
        • Introduction
        • Consciousness and Working Memory
        • What is Inner Speech?
        • Inner Speech and Anarthria
        • Inner Speech and Aphasia
        • Inner Speech in Conduction Aphasia
        • Inner Speech and Dynamic Aphasia
        • ToM in Agrammatism
        • Error Monitoring and Anosognosia in Aphasic Patients
        • The Assessment of Aphasia in Patients with Impaired Consciousness
        • Conclusions
        • Notes
        • References
      • Chapter 24. Blindness and Consciousness: New Light from the Dark
        • What Can We Learn About Consciousness from the Blind Brain?
        • Studies in Animals
        • Studies in Sighted and Blind Human Subjects
        • Understanding Without Seeing
        • Subjective Experience Associated with Activation of the Visual Cortex
        • How Blindness Shapes the Brain
        • A Darwinian Struggle for Survival?
        • Final Considerations
        • Acknowledgments
        • References
      • Chapter 25. The Neurology of Consciousness: An Overview
        • Consciousness and Other Brain Functions
        • Global Alterations of Consciousness
        • The Neuroanatomy of Consciousness
        • The Neurophysiology of Consciousness
        • A Theoretical Perspective
        • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 488
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: August 12, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128011751
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128009482

About the Editors

Steven Laureys

Steven Laureys
Steven Laureys, MD PhD, is director of the Coma Science Group at the Neurology Department and Cyclotron Research Centre of the University Hospital and University of Liège, Belgium. He is research director at the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research and clinical professor and board-certified in neurology and in palliative medicine. His team studies the neural basis of human consciousness (coma, anesthesia, hypnosis and sleep). He assesses the recovery of neurological disability and neuronal plasticity in acquired brain injury (e.g., comatose, “vegetative”/unresponsive, minimally conscious and locked-in syndromes) confronting clinical expertise and behavioral evaluation with multimodal neuroimaging (positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and electrophysiology studies (electroencephalography coupled to transcranial magnetic stimulation) and also deals with the ethical implications of this translational clinical research. He is chair of the World Federation of Neurology Applied Research Group on Coma and the European Academy of Neurology Subcommittee on Disorders of Consciousness. He is recipient of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Young Investigator Award, the William James Prize (Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness) and the Blaise Pascal Medal of Medicine of the European Academy of Sciences. He has written 4 books and over 300 scientific papers on the subject of disorders of consciousness (H-index 65).

Affiliations and Expertise

Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Center; Department of Neurology, Liège University Hospital, Belgium; Belgian National Funds for Scientific Research; Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences

Olivia Gosseries

Olivia Gosseries
Olivia Gosseries, PhD, is currently doing a post-doctoral research at the University of Madison at the Center for Sleep and Consciousness of Pr Tononi and Postle Laboratory of Pr Postle. She is working on consciousness and working memory using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). She received her Ph.D. in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences at the Coma Science Group, Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liège in Belgium under the menthorship of Pr Laureys. She worked on the development of markers of consciousness to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness. Her work has led to more than 50 publications in international peer-reviewed journals and she recently received the Young Investigator Award from the International Brain Injury Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Coma Science Group, University of Liège; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin–Madison

Giulio Tononi

Giulio Tononi
Giulio Tononi, MD PhD is a psychiatrist and neuroscientist in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. He is the director of the Center for Sleep and Consciousness at the University of Wisconsin, which focuses on the function of sleep and the nature of consciousness.. Together with his collaborators, he has been developing and testing a comprehensive hypothesis on the function of sleep, the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis. Research on consciousness has led to the integrated information theory, which tries to account for what consciousness is, how it can be measured, and how it is realized in the brain.He received the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award, the John W. Severinghaus Award, the Pisa Sleep Award and he holds the David P. White Chair in Sleep Medicine, as well as a Distinguished Professor in Consciousness Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

psychiatrist and neuroscientist in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. He is the director of the Center for Sleep and Consciousness at the University of Wisconsin

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