The Natural Radiation Environment VII - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080441375, 9780080457918

The Natural Radiation Environment VII, Volume 7

1st Edition

Seventh International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment (NRE-VII) Rhodes, Greece, 20-24 May 2002

Editors: J.P. McLaughlin E.S. Simopoulos F. Steinhäusler
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080441375
eBook ISBN: 9780080457918
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 30th March 2005
Page Count: 1575
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Table of Contents

1. Invited. Historical development of the Natural Radiation Environment Symposia (A.C. George). Understanding health risks from low doses of ionizing radiation (D.G. Thomassen, A. Patrinos). The significance of the natural environment in radiation protection (F. Steinhäusler).

2. Keynote. The theory of cosmic-ray and high-energy solar-particle transport in the atmosphere (K. O'Brien). Capabilities and limitations of high-resolution gamma spectrometry in environmental research (J. Uyttenhove). Radon decay products in outdoor air (J. Porstendörfer, M. Gründel). Contribution of animal experimental data for the risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products (G. Monchaux). On the exposure circumstances and some further risk estimates regarding leukemia in ages 0-19 years and exposure to ionizing radiation in homes of uranium-containing alum shale-based concrete (G. Akerblom et al.). The implementation in national legislation of title vii of the council directive 96/29/Euratom: Some general remarks and the case of Italy (S. Risica, F. Bochicchio, C. Nuccetelli). Exposure potential of depleted uranium ammunition in the environment - a review (J.P. McLaughlin).

3. Radioactivity measurements, releases and dosimetry. Changes in terrestrial natural radiation levels over the history of life (P.A. Karam, S.A. Leslie). Gamma ray direction finder (K. Fujimoto, Y. Noda). Continuous measurement of environmental gamma radiation using a Ge semiconductor detector and 222Rn concentration in air (T. Ichiji, T. Hattori). Uranium concentrations and isotopic ratios in Austrian drinking waters (M. Gegner, K. Irlweck). Natural radionuclides in radium-rich soils in North-East Estonia (E. Realo, K. Realo). Depleted uranium determination in soil samples (I. Bikit et al.). Measurement of snow cover based on external radiation (J. Paatero et al.). Ra and U isotopes determination in phosphogypsum leachates by alpha-particle spectrometry (J.L. Aguado et al.). Efficiency calibration for 210Pb gamma-spectrometric determinations in sediment samples (E.G. San Miguel et al.).

238U and its daughter products in Greek surface soils (M.J. Anagnostakis, E.P. Hinis, S.E. Simopoulos). Data leading to the investigation of a relation between seismic activity and airborne radon decay product concentration outdoors (D.J. Karangelos et al.). Calibration of a HPGe detector for in-situ gamma spectrometry: a comparison between a Monte Carlo based code and an experimental method (F. D'Alberti, M. Forte). A new technique for accurate measurements of Ra-226 with &ggr;-spectroscopy in voluminous samples (M. Manolopoulou et al.).

4. Radon and thoron. Radon concentration in the tunnels of a hydroelectric power station under construction in Italy, a case study (S. Verdelocco, D. Walker, P. Turkowsky). Determination of the radon potential of a building by a controlled depressurisation technique (RACODE) (W. Ringer et al.). Population exposure to inhaled radon and thoron progeny (O. Iacob, C. Grecea, E. Botezatu). Preferential radon transport through highly permeable channels in soils (R.B. Mosley). A new approach to increasing the uptake of radon remediation in England (C. Scivyer). User-friendly computer programs that calculate radon cancer risks, progeny accumulation and gamma exposure (S. Rydell). Testing of radon-reducing measures under strictly controlled conditions in a laboratory house (P. de Jong, W. van Dijk). Looping variation of correlation between radon progeny concentration and dose rate in outdoor air (N. Fujinami, T. Watanabe, T. Tsutsui). Comparative dosimetry in homes and mines: estimation of K-factors (J.W. Marsh, A. Birchall, K. Davis). The principle of a passive, on/off, alpha track, closed, radon detector (J. Andru). Intercomparison exercise of calibration facilities for radon gas activity concentration (A. Röttger et al.). In-vivo measurement of deposition and absorption of unattached radon progeny (G. Butterweck et al.). Assessing radiation dose for tour guides in Australian show caves from radon monitor measurements (S.B. Solomon, J. Peggie, R. Langroo). Influence of variable stress on underground radon concentrations (A. Kies, F. Massen, Z. Tosheva). Measurement of the unattached radon decay products with an annular diffusion channel battery (N. Michielsen, V. Voisin, G. Tymen). Intercomparison of the radiosensitivity of different measuring devices for environmental levels of radon (A.C. George, N. Bredhoff). Integrating measurements of radon and thoron and their deposition fractions in the respiratory tract (W. Zhuo et al.). Determination of 218Po nanometer size distribution in a controlled environment by two new systems (A. Vargas et al.). Measurements and modelling of combined diffusive and advective radon transport in porous building materials (M. van der Pal et al.). Czech study on lung cancer risk from residential radon (A. Heribanová, L. Tomášek). Czech study on uranium miners - evaluation of temporal factors in a 50 year follow-up (L. Tomášek). Activity concentrations of the thoron and radon progenies Pb-212 and Pb-210 in the healing gallery of Badgastein, Austria (G. Wallner, P. Pany, S. Ayromlou). Characterization of thoron and radon flow-through sources (R. Rolle et al.). Some aspects of the radon problem in Kazakhstan (V.N. Sevostyanov). Studies on the short-lived radon decay products: The influence of the unattached fraction on the measurement of the activity size distribution (M. Gründel, A. Reineking, J. Porstendörfer). Radon exposure of the Greek population (D. Nikolopoulos et al.). Preliminary study of two high radon areas in Greece (A. Louizi et al.). Year-to-year variations in radon levels in a sample of UK houses with the same occupants (N. Hunter et al.). The charged fraction of the 218Po-ions in air under environmental conditions (P. Pagelkopf, M. Gründel, J. Porstendörfer). Activity size distribution in outdoor air: Short-lived (214Po, 214Bi/214Po) and long-lived (210Pb, 210Po) radon and thoron (212Pb, 212Po) decay products and 7Be (M. Gründel, A. Reineking, J. Porstendörfer). A comparison of the precision of (quasi-) continuous methods of measuring radon/thoron and decay product concentrations in air (R. Rolle). Correlation between radon concentration and geological structure of the Kraków area (K. Kozak et al.). Application of a portable LS counter for measurements of radon progeny in air (S. Chalupnik, A. Kies). Calibration and quality assurance of radon measurements in Sweden: Activities in 1990-2000 (N. Hagberg). The diurnal change in the vertical distribution of atmospheric 222Rn due to the growth and rise of the stable stratification height in the atmospheric boundary layer (K. Yoshioka, T. Iida). A new method for supplying low radon air by using a hollow fiber module (T. Iida, T. Kato). Dose evaluation of indoor thoron progeny in some areas in China (G. Qiuju, C. Jianping, C. Yong). EU-concerted action for a survey on radon exhalation rate measurements for building materials and soils (L. Roelofs et al.). Radon concentration survey in schools of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, North-East Italy (C. Giovani et al.).

210Po implanted in glass surfaces: Calibration and improved performance for retrospective radon reconstruction (D.J. Steck, J.A. Berglund, R.W. Field). Development of a method for estimating the airborne concentration of radon progeny, using an imaging plate (T. Iimoto et al.). Concentration, distribution and transportation of 222Rn and its decay products in the environment of coastal Karnataka and Kaiga in southwest India (H.M. Mahesh, D.N. Avadhani, K. Siddappa). Natural radiation levels in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India (S. Tokonami et al.). Natural radiation exposures for cave residents in China (S. Tokonami et al.). A study of the atmospheric radon transport as a tracer of pollutants over the Japan Sea (H. Aoshima et al.). Non-destructive evaluation of concrete condition using radon exhalation monitoring: a feasibility study (E.R van der Graaf, R.J. de Meijer). Study of Radon-222 exhalation of phosphogypsum blocks used as building materials: Comparison with modelling (F. Fournier et al.). 15 Years repeated investigations of the radon levels in 105 remediated Swedish dwellings, mostly single-family buildings (B. Clavensjö). Comparison between long-term and short-term measurements for indoor radon risk mapping (F. Tondeur, I. Gerardy). Cancer risks from radon in indoor air and drinking water in Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority's risk assessment (L. Mjönes, R. Falk). Review of seasonal variation in residential indoor radon concentrations (H. Arvela). Developments in radon-safe building in Finland (H. Arvela et al.). Stochastic radon lung dosimetry - Modelling variability of bronchial cellular doses (R. Winkler-Heil, W. Hofmann). Stochastic state-vector model of radiation carcinogenesis applied to radon-induced lung cancer risk (D.J. Crawford-Brown, W. Hofmann). Biophysical mechanisms and radiation doses in radon therapy (H. Tempfer et al.). Bioaerosols as carriers of radon progeny (S. Kagerer et al.). Radon in Finnish mines - regular monitoring since 1972 (M. Annanmäki et al.). Technical guidance on safe installation of a GAC filter used for removing radon from water (M. Markkanen). Outdoor radon and thoron in the U.S., Canada, Finland and Thailand (N.H. Harley et al.). Early thoron concentration levels in Guarapari: Dosimetric implications (A.S. Paschoa, J. Pohl-Rülling). Indoor occupancy and radon exposure in Finland (I. Mäkeläinen et al.). Indoor Radon: Controlling factors, definition of the radon potential and its geographical distribution over Austria (P. Bossew, H. Lettner). Simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron exhalation rate from soil and building materials (C. Cosma et al.). Exposure to radon in the northern part of the Republic of Kyrgizstan (M. Zhukovsky, R. Termechikova). Stratospheric radon measurements in three North American locations (I.M. Fisenne, L. Machta, N.H. Harley). Determination of soil-gas radon concentration in low permeability soils (M. Neznal, M. Neznal). Indoor radon long-term variation assessment (I.V. Yarmoshenko et al.). Quality assurance of individual radon measurements (T.R. Beck, J. Schwedt, P. Hamel). Sensitivity analysis of an improved method for measuring the radon diffusion coefficient of porous materials (W.H. van der Spoel, M. van der Pal). Dose to the fetus from 222Rn in maternal drinking water (E.S. Robbins, N.H. Harley). Prenatal exposure due to ingestion of natural radionuclides (S. Risica, C. Nuccetelli). Meta-analysis of twenty radon and lung cancer case control studies (I.V. Yarmoshenko et al.). A new Austrian recommendation guide for radon prevention in the design and construction of new buildings in areas with highly elevated radon levels (F.J. Maringer et al.). The new radon programme in England (B.M.R. Green, L. Davey). Idea of assessment of the annual dose when non-continuous data exist (D. Kluszczynski). A passive technique to measure radon progeny surface deposition variations in rooms and chambers (J.P. McLaughlin, C. Walsh). Radon on selected underground tourist routes in Poland (J. Olszewski et al.). Indoor radon in the karst region of Lithuania (L. Pilkyte, G. Morkunas, G. Akerblom). The behaviour of Rn-222 decay products at the air-glass interface and its implication for retrospective radon exposure estimates (B. Roos, C. Samuelsson). Radon transfer from ground to houses and prediction of indoor radon in Germany based on geological information (J. Kemski et al.). Checking the "10 point system" for an evaluation of the soil radon potential (D. Bleile, J. Wiegand). Radon-in-water secondary standard preparation (D.J. Karangelos et al.).

5. Cosmic radiation. Sequential measurements of energy spectrum and intensity for cosmic ray neutrons (T. Nakamura et al.). Cosmic radiation at aircraft altitudes calculated by CARI-6 and its comparison with measurements (K.Fujitaka et al.). Factors and processes controlling the concentration of the cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be at high-altitude alpine stations (E. Gerasopoulos et al.). Aircrew exposure assessment by means of a Si-diode spectrometer (F. Spurný, T. Dachev). Practical considerations for implementation of the EU Directive in the field of cosmic radiation exposure (D. Irvine, D.J.C. Flower). Monitoring of the cosmic radiation on IBERIA commercial flights: One year's experience of in-flight measurements (J.C. Saez Vergaraa et al.). Health aspects of radiation exposure on a simulated mission to Mars (W. Friedberg et al.). Observation of dose-rate increases during winter thunderstorms and Monte-Carlo simulation of bremsstrahlung generation (T. Torii et al.). Measurements of cosmic radiation doses during air travel by a handy method with an electronic personal dosemeter (M. Furukawa). Twenty years of TLD measurements on board space vehicles by the Hungarian "Pille" system (S. Deme et al.). Variation of radiation exposure as a function of altitude between 8 and 30 km (B.J. Lewis et al.). Neutron dosimetry onboard aircraft using superheated emulsions (M. Hajek et al.). Measurements and calculations of the radiation exposure of aircrew personnel on different flight routes (M. Hajek et al.). New designs of optical multilayer filters for extending the detection of the highest energy cosmic rays by atmospheric fluorescence optical telescopes in the presence of crescent moonlight (E. Fokitis et al.).

6. Technologically enhanced natural radiation. Radiological impact of flue gas purification in a coal fired power plant in Belgium (J. Paridaens, H. Vanmarcke). Towards the identification of work activities involving NORM in Italy (F. Trotti et al.). Impact of radium-bearing mine waters on the natural environment (S. Chalupnik). Naturally occurring radioactivity in industrial by-products from coal-fired power plants, from municipal waste incineration and from the iron- and steel-industry (K.-H. Puch, R. Bialucha, G. Keller). An assessment of the radiological consequences of using phosphorus slag in concrete foundation poles (E.R van der Graaf, R.J. de Meijer). Orphan sources of NORM/TENORM throughout the world (A.S. Paschoa, F. Steinhausler). Radioenvironmental survey of the Megalopolis power plants fly ash deposits (D.J. Karangelos et al.). The radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides in the oil and gas industry on the UK population (S. Warner Jones, K. Smith). Depleted uranium: Some remarks on radiation protection (M. Grandolfo et al.). The impact on man and the environment from the military use of depleted uranium: worst-case scenario (F. Steinhäusler, A.S. Paschoa). Experimental results on the environmental samples colleceted around sites in South Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro where DU weapons were deployed in 1999 (P. Gaca et al.). Developments in the management of exposures from radon in natural gas in the UK (D.W. Dixon, C.K. Wilson). Remediation case study of a coal fired power plant tailings pond (P. Szerbin et al.). The release of radium from scales produced in the North Sea oil fields (S. Ghose, B. Heaton). The radium concentration in groundwater at a waste disposal site in Brazil: Is it naturally occurring or a contaminant? (M.H. Magalhães, R. Zenaro, D.C. Lauria).

7. Internal and external exposure. Exposure of the population through mineral water consumption (E. Botezatu et al.). Lung cancer risk in humans and rats: single vs. multiple exposures (H. Fakir et al.). Quantification of radon-progeny deposition on the skin in underwater radon-therapy (H. Lettner et al.). A tentative method to evaluate the building material contribution to indoor gamma dose rate (C. Nuccetelli et al.).

8. High background areas. Distribution and behaviour of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Goa on the southwest coast of India (D.N. Avadhani et al.). Apparent lack of radiation susceptibility among residents of the high background radiation area in Ramsar, Iran; Can we relax our standards? (S.M.J. Mortazavi, P.A. Karam). Natural radioactivity and radiation exposure in the high background area of the Chhatrapur beach placer deposits of Orissa, India (D. Sengupta et al.).

9. Effects on biota and ecosystems. Radiocesium gamma dose rates in a Greek pine forest: measurements and Monte Carlo computations (A. Clouvas et al.). Distribution coefficients and concentration factors of 226Ra and 228Th in the Greek marine environment (G. Trabidou et al.).


The Natural Radiation Environment Symposium (NRE VII), the Seventh in the NRE series, which commenced forty years ago in 1963 at Rice University Texas, was held in Rhodes (Greece) in May 2002. During the intervening four decades the research work presented at these NRE Symposia has contributed to a deeper understanding of natural radiation and in particular of its contribution to human radiation exposures.

It is clear from the quality and diversity of the 143 papers in this volume of Radioactivity in the Environment series that the study of the natural radiation environment is an active and continually expanding field of research. The papers in this volume fall into a number of main and topical research areas namely:

  • the measurement and behaviour of natural radionuclides in the environment
  • cosmic radiation measurement and dosimetry
  • the external penetrating radiation field at ground level
  • TENR (Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation) and NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) studies
  • assessment of the health effects of radon
  • regulatory aspects of natural radiation exposures

In these papers the results of many new surveys of natural radionuclide levels in the environment and of improved methods of detection are described. While some of the natural radiation sources investigated are unmodified by human activity, many accounts are given here of exposures to natural sources which have been enhanced by technology. Such TENR and NORM exposures are shown to range from activities such as mining, oil and gas exploitation, the use of industrial by-products as building materials, to space travel to name but a few. In several cases quite high doses to some individuals are shown to occur. Accounts are given here of methods to prevent and reduce exposures to such sources.


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"This is a very well-produced, high quality, hardbound, book containing numerous articles that present valuable overviews of important aspects of the natural radioactive environment." -David M. Taylor, in APPLIED RADIATION AND ISOTOPES 64 (2006) @qu: ...This book provides a valuable resource for all those interested in environmental radioactivity and radiation. @source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2005 @qu: a superb addition to the library collection of any established scientist or engineer or graduate student studying the field on natural radiation in the environment. @source: Journal and Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2005 @from: M.I. Sheppard @qu: ...provides a useful collection of short articles on a broad range of topics for those particularly interested in radon and thoron. @source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2005

About the Editors

J.P. McLaughlin Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

University College Dublin, Ireland

E.S. Simopoulos Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

National Technical University of Athens, Greece

F. Steinhäusler Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Salzburg, Austria