The Molecular Properties and Evolution of Excitable Cells - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080118284, 9781483150284

The Molecular Properties and Evolution of Excitable Cells

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Biology

Authors: C. J. Duncan
Editors: G.A. Kerkut
eBook ISBN: 9781483150284
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 268
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Description

The Molecular Properties and Evolution of Excitable Cells describes the theoretical aspects in which excitable cells, such as nerves, muscles, and sense organs, operate. This book develops a hypothesis regarding the evolution and characteristics of excitable cells. This monograph focuses on the properties of the bounding membrane and its complex permeability system, which starts the excitation state. Sense organs, as the input component in both vertebrates and invertebrates, are then discussed.
The text then briefly describes the ways that the ionic permeability of the excitable membrane can both be modified and controlled. The book points out that since ions pass through standard sizes of the pores in an excitable membrane, their passage is determined by the dimensions of the pore and by the existing charge found on its walls. The book then explains the application of a mechanical stimulus to a mechanoreceptor that will cause deformations in the membrane. This deformation leads to enzyme activity and produces alteration in the rate at which ATP is supplied to the lateral borders of the cell. The text discusses a hypothesis that invokes enzyme activity by propagating action potential along the axon, and other input systems, such as adrenaline, amino acids, and y-amino-butyric acid (GABA). The book also explains the hypothesis that living organisms are composed of an ordered system of protein-enzymes forming on phospholipid-protein membranes.
This monograph will benefit microbiologists, biotechnologists, and academicians connected with the biological sciences.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

1. The Organization of Excitable Cells

Chapter 2. A Model for Excitable Cells

Summary

Chapter 3. The Input Component: Sense Organs

1. Mechanoreceptors

2. Evidence for the Enzymatic Transducer Mechanism of Sense Organs

3. Enzyme Systems Involved at Sense Organs

Summary

Chapter 4. The Control of Cation-Permeability at Input Components

1. Properties of Membrane ATPases

2. Mechanoenzyme System of the Mitochondrial Membrane

3. Selective Permeability Systems

4. Hypothesis for the Control of Membrane Permeability

5. The Action of Thyroxine

Summary

Chapter 5. The Transducer Mechanisms of Specialized Sensory Receptors

1. Chemoreceptors

2. Thermoreceptors

3. Visual Receptors

Summary

Chapter 6. The Input Component: the Postsynaptic Membrane

1. Transmission at Cholinergic Synapses

2. Evidence for the Enzymatic Transducer Mechanism of the Post-Synaptic Membrane

3. Tetanus Toxin and the Neurotropic Agent of Snake Venom

Summary

Chapter 7. Cholinesterases

1. Acetylcholine Sensitivity

2. Properties and Distribution of Cholinesterases

3. Action of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

4. Cholinesterase and the Permeability System

5. The Transducer Mechanism at Cholinergic Membranes

Summary

Chapter 8. Other Input Systems

1. Adrenaline

2. Aminoacids

3. γ-Amino-Butyric Acid (GABA)

4. Inhibitory Synapses

Summary

Chapter 9. Comparison between the Input and Conductile Components

Summary

Chapter 10. Sodium Permeability and the Excitation of the Conductile Axon

1. Properties of the Cation-Permeability System of the Axon

2. Excitation of the Axon

3. The Erythrocyte as a Model for the Excitable Membrane

Summary

Chapter 11. The Output Component: Release of Synaptic Transmitters

1. Miniature Endplate Potentials

2. Relation between Spontaneous and Synchronized Release of Transmitter

3. The Effect of Temperature and pH

4. The Effect of Divalent Cations

5. Release of Adrenergic Transmitters

6. The Release Mechanism

Summary

Chapter 12. Feedback at Output Components

Summary

Chapter 13. Nissl Substance—and Memory

1. Nissl Substance and RNA

2. RNA and Memory

3. Hypotheses for the Incorporation of a Memory Trace within the RNA Molecule

4. Phosphoprotein Turnover and Memory

Summary

Chapter 14. Summary and Conclusions

References

Addendum

References for Addendum

Author Index

Subject Index

Other Titles in the Series

Details

No. of pages:
268
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483150284

About the Author

C. J. Duncan

About the Editor

G.A. Kerkut

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Southampton, Southampton, UK