The Molecular Biology of Plastids

The Molecular Biology of Plastids

Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants

1st Edition - June 28, 1991

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  • Editor: Indra Vasil
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154024

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The Molecular Biology of Plastids: Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, Volume 7A deals with various aspects of plastid nucleic acid and protein metabolism. This book is organized into 10 chapters. Chapter 1 provides the introduction to the molecular biology of plastids, followed by a discussion of the maps of restriction endonuclease sites on chloroplast chromosomes in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 focuses on chloroplast gene transmission, while Chapters 4 to 7 describe the apparatus for nucleic acid and protein metabolism and how some transcripts of chloroplast genes are processed. The ribosomal proteins, ribosomes, and translation in plastids are covered in Chapter 8. The last two chapters consider the organization, operation, and transport of polypeptides through the outer plastid membranes. This volume is a good reference for plant molecular biologist, genetic engineers, and researchers conducting work on the molecular biology of chloroplasts.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    General Preface


    Contents of Previous Volumes

    1 Introduction



    2 Plastid Chromosomes: Structure and Evolution

    I. Introduction

    II. Genome Size Evolution

    III. Genome Organization

    IV. Gene Sequences

    V. Concluding Remarks


    3 Transmission of Plastid Genes

    I. Introduction

    II. Chloroplast Genome Organization and Transmission in Somatic Cells

    III. Transmission of Chloroplasts and Their Genomes in Crosses

    IV Genetic Control of Plastid Transmission

    V Chloroplast Transmission following Somatic Cell Fusion

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    4 Replication and Transcription of Plastid DNA

    I. Introduction

    II. DNA Replication

    III. The Transcriptional Apparatus of Plastids

    IV. Future Research Directions


    5 Transcript Processing in Plastids: Trimming, Cutting, Splicing

    I. Introduction

    II. 3'-Trimming of mRNA Precursors

    III. Cutting of mRNA Precursors

    IV. Splicing of mRNA Precursors

    V. Conclusions


    6 rRNAs and rRNA Genes of Plastids

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Chloroplast rRNA Genes

    III. Expression of Chloroplast rRNA Genes

    IV. Antibiotic Resistances Residing in Plastid rRNAs


    7 tRNAs and tRNA Genes of Plastids

    I. Organization and Number of Chloroplast tRNA Genes

    II. tRNA Pseudogenes

    III. Intervening Sequences in cp tRNA Genes

    IV. In Vitro Transcription of cp tRNA Genes

    V. Chloroplast tRNA Gene Promoters

    VI. Processing of cp tRNAs

    VII. Concentrations of Isoaccepting tRNAs and Codon Usage in cps

    VIII. Regulation of Plastid tRNA Levels

    IX. Codon Recognition in cps

    X. General Features of cp tRNAs

    XI. Peculiar Features of cp tRNAIle1

    XII. A cp tRNAG1u is Involved in Chlorophyll Biosynthesis

    XIII. Protein Synthesis in Organelles Requires Misaminoacylation of tRNAGln


    8 Ribosomal Proteins, Ribosomes, and Translation in Plastids

    I. Introduction

    II. Plastid Translation System

    III. Plastid r-Proteins

    IV Genes for Plastid r-Proteins

    V Organization of Plastid r-Protein Genes

    VI. Ribosome-Free Plastids in Higher Plants

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    9 Structure, Organization, and Properties of Plastid Envelope Membranes

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of the Plastid Envelope

    III. Chemical Composition of Plastid Envelope Membranes

    IV Envelope Membranes as a Site of Membrane Biogenesis

    V Envelope Membranes and the Transport of Metabolites

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    10 Chloroplast Protein Transport

    I. Introduction

    II. Transit Peptides

    III. Structural Considerations

    IV Transit Peptidases

    V Stromal Transit Peptidases

    VI. Insertion of Thylakoid Proteins

    VII. Receptors

    VIII. Energy Requirements

    IX. Prospects


    11 Origin and Evolution of Plastid Genomes and Genes

    I. Introduction

    II. Endosymbiotic Origin of Plastids and Mitochondria: Serial or Simultaneous?

    III. Phylogenetic Distribution and Diversity of Plastids

    VIII Contents

    IV. Single or Multiple Origin(s) of Plastids?

    V. Plastids from Eukaryote Rather Than Prokaryote Endosymbionts

    VI. From Endosymbiont Genome to Host Nuclear DNA: Transfer of Genetic Information

    VII. Molecular Data Bearing on the Origin of Plastids

    VIII. Plastid and Nuclear Phylogenies Based on Ribosomal RNA Sequence Comparisons

    IX. Evolutionary Divergence of Plastid Genomes

    X. Future Prospects



Product details

  • No. of pages: 366
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1991
  • Published: June 28, 1991
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154024

About the Editor

Indra Vasil

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